« AnteriorContinuar »
was called upon to answer to a long 24th April, 1415. But alarmed by series of articles of accusation, the the violence of spirit which seemed greater part of which related to the to rage against reputed heretics, he most mysterious and subtle points of soon Aed from Constance, and went doctrine. To some of these articles to Uberlingen, whence he sent to the he pleaded not guilty. Many of the council to demand a safe conduct. propositions which were imputed to Instead of this instrument of protecs him as errors in faith, he defended tion, the members of that assembly as true ; at the same time declaring addressed to him a citation to appear his readiness to retract any doctrine, of before them, and answer to a charge the erroneousness of which he should of heresy. Justly dreading the con: be convinced. His judges having in sequences of encountering the prejuvain endeavoured to enlighten his dices of the ecclesiastical dignitaries, understanding by argument, had re whose morals and principles he had course to the terrors of authority. so often branded with infamy, he reThey declared him guilty of heresy, fused to obey this citation, and et off and attempted to overawe him to å on his return to Bohemia. He proTecantation, by the dread of a pain- ceeded without molestation as far as ful death. But the constancy of Huss Hirsaw; but there he was arrested was unshaken. He firmly refused to by the officers of the Duke of Sultze purchase life at the expence of truth bach, who sent him in chains to Con. and honour. After various unsuc- stance. Immediately after his arrival cessful efforts to persuade him to in that city, he underwent an examake his peace with the church, by mination, after which he was com: timely submission, the council pro- mitted to prison. The severity which ceeded to degrade him from his he there experienced, the importu: priestly office; and after proclaiming nity of some of his prosecutors, and the awful sentence, which condemned his solitary meditations on the dread: him as an obstinate heretic, delivered ful catastrophe of Huss, at length him over to the secular power. On shook his constancy, and on the the sixth day of July, 1415, Huss was fifteenth of September, 1415, he read led to the fatal pile, where he suffered in open council a recantation of his death with the intrepidity of a reso- errors. At this price he purchased lute mind, supported by the consci- a relaxation of the rigour of his con: ousness of rectitude, and by the firm finement; but, notwithstanding the conviction of religious faith, which, remonstrances of Zabarella, and of happily for the oppressed, are not the three other cardinals, who contended, exclusive privileges of any sect, but that by his renunciation of error he bestow their animating influence on had satisfied public justice, he was the persecuted advocates of every detained in custody. In the course varying shade of theological belief." of a few months after his recantation, p. 62, 63.
new articles of impeachment were The pontifical houshold being dis- exhibited against him. To these he persed upon the deposition of John, pleaded in a solemn assembly of the · Poggio remained at Constance, for council, held for that purpose, on the the purpose of embracing any oppor- twenty-sixth of May, 1416. Poggio, tunity which might then occur ot im- who was present at this second trial proving his own interest, or that of of Jerome, gave an interesting at his friend.”. Having much leisure, he count to his friend, which is thus inivisited the baths of Baden, of which troduced. “Soon after my return place, and the manners of the people, from Baden to Constance, the cause he gives a particular account in a of Jerome of Prague, who was as letter to a friend. “Soon after his cused of heresy, came to a public return to Constance, the council pro. hearing. The purport of my prei ceeded to the trial of Jerome of sent letter is to give you an account Prague, an intimate friend and asso of this trial, which must of neces. ciate of John Huss. When Jerome
sity be a matter of considerable was apprized of the arrest and impri- interest, both on account of the imsonment of his brother reformer, he portance of the subject, and the deemed himself bound in honour to eloquence and learning of the de. repair to Constance, to administer to 'fendant. I must confess that I ne. hiin comfort and assistance. He ac *ver saw any one who in pleading cordingly arrived in that city on the a cause, especially a cause on the
isatie of which his own life depend in order to effect his destruction. .ed, approached nearer to that stun- •As he was allowed two days for re.dard of ancient eloquence which pentance, several learned inen, and "we so much admire. It was asto- amongst the rest the cardinal of nishing to witness with what choice Florence, visited him, with a view of words, with what closeness of 'of persuading himn to change his argument, with what confidence of sentiments, and turn from the error countenance he replied to his ad- of his ways. But as he pertina. 'versaries. So impressive was his ciously persisted in his false notions, peroration, that it is a subject of "he was condemned as guilty of hegreat concern, that a man of so 'resy, and consigned to the flames.
noble and excellent a genius, should . “ No stoic ever suffered death with 'bave deviated into heresy. On this 'such constancy of miod. When latter point, however, I cannot help he arrived at the place of execution, entertaining some doubts. But far he stripped himself of his garments, 'be it from me to take upon myself and knelt down before the stake, ' to decide in so important a matter. to which he was soon after tied with 'I shall acquiesce in the opinion of wet ropes and a chain. Then great
those who are wiser than myself’,” pieces of wood, intermixed with P76-78.
straw, were piled as high as his As the whole of this address is too breast. When fire was set to the long to be inserted in our work, we pile, he began to sing a hymn, which must content ourselves with the re was scarcely interrupted by the porter's observations, with which it smoke and flame. I must not omit a closes.
• striking circumstance, which shews * He was never terrified by the the firmness of his mind. When murmurs of his adversaries, but uni- 'the executioner was going to apply formly maintained the firmness and the fire behind him, in order that intrepidity of his mind. It is a he might not see it, he said, coine wonderful instance of the strength this way, and kindle it in my sight, of his memory, that though he had 'for if I had been afraid of it, I should been confined three hundred and never have come to this place. Thus
forty days in a dark dungeon, where perished a man in every respect exit was impossible for him to read, emplary, except in the erroneousand where he must have daily suf: 'ness of his faith. I was a witness of . fered from the utmost anxiety of his end, and observed every partimind, yet he quoted so many learned 'cular of its process. He may have writers in defence of his opinions been heretical in his notions, and * and supported his sentiments by the obstinate in persevering in them, * authority of so many doctors of the "but he certainly died like a philo. "church, that any one would have sopher. I have rehearsed a long
been led to believe, that he had 'story, as I wished to employ my lei• devoted all the time of his impri sure in relating a transaction which sonment to the peaceful and undis- surpasses the events of ancient histurbed study of philosophy: His tory:
For neither did Mutius suffer voice was sweet, clear, and sono • his land to be burnt so patiently rous, his action dignified, and well 'as Jeroine endured the burning of
adapted either to express indigna. his whole body; nor did Socrates * tion or to excite compassion, which, • drink the bemlock so cheerfully as . however, he neither asked nor wish • Jeroine submitted to the fire'."
ed for. He stood undaunted and p. 86–88. intrepid, not merely contemning, From this account of Jerome, the
but like another Cato, longing for author takes an opportunity to ex. death. He was a man worthy to be hibit the character of Poggio ; and had in everlasting remembrance. I among other things observes, “ The do not commend him for entertain- feeling manner in which he describes ing sentiments hostile to the con- the trial and execution of Jerome, stitution of the church; but I ad. evinces a beart, which daily intermire his learning, his extensive know- course with bigotted believers, and
ledge, the suavity of his eloquence, licentious hypocrites could not dead' and his ability in reply. But I am en to the inpulses of humanity.” * afraid that all these endowments p. 89. were bestowed on him by nature, (To be concluded in our next.)
Magi were a sect of ancient philoso. LXXXIV. LECTURES on the Gospel phers, living in the eastern part of the of St. Matthew; delivered in the Pa- world, collected together in colleges, rish Church of St. James, Westminster, addicted to the study of astronomy, in the Years 1798, 1799, 1800, and and other parts of natural philosophy, 1801. By the Right Rev. Beilly and highly esteemed throughout the PORTEUS, D. D. Bishop of London. east, having juster sentiments of God In Two Volumes, 8vo.
and his worship than any of the an.
cient heathens; for they abhorred THESE lectures are twenty-four the adoration of images made in the seven and eight hundred pages; the they did represent the Deity under subjects of which we shall give in the symbol of fire (the purest and their order. The first contains a most active of all material substances) compendious view of the sacred writ- yet they worshipped one only God; ings, in which, after instructions for and so blameless did their studies and using the scriptures profitably, the their religion appear to be, that the learned author proceeds to state the prophet Daniel, scrupulous as he design of his work.
was to the hazard of his life, with " To assist you in this most impor: respect to the Jewish religion, did tant and necessary work is the design not refuse to accept the office which of these lectures, and in the execu. Nebuchadnezzar gave him, of being tion of this design I shall have these master of the magi, and chief gofour objects principally in view.”' vernor over all the wise men of Ba
“ Ist. To explain and illustrate those bylon*. They were therefore evi. passages of holy writ, which are in dently the fitiest of all the ancient any degree difficult and obscure. heathens to have the first knowledge
2diy. To point out, as they occur of the Son of God, and of salvation in the sacred writings, the chief lead. by him imparted to them. ing fundamental principles and doc “ The country from whence they trines of the Christian religion. came is only described in St. Mat.
“ 3dly. To confirm and strengthen thew as lying east from Judea, and your faith, by calling your attention therefore might be either Persia, where to those strong internal marks of the the principal residence of the magi truth and divine authority of the was, or else Arabia, to which ancient Christian religion, which present them- authors say they did, and undoubt. selves to us in almost every page of edly they easily might extend thein. the Gospel.
selves; which it is well known abound“4thly. Tolay before you the greated in the valuable things that their moral precepts of the Gospel, to press presents consisted of; and concern. them home upon your consciences ing which the seventy-second psalm and your hearts, and render them (plainly speaking of the Messiah) efleciual to the important ends they says, “The kings of Arabia and Saba, were intended to serve; namely, the . or Sabæa,' (an adjoining region), due government of your passions, shall bring gifts; and again, unto the regulation of your conduct, and • him shall be given of ihe gold of the aitaioment of everlasting life. •Arabia.'
"Supposing this prophecy of the Lecture II. Matth.ii.-The Arrival Psalmist to point out the persons and Offerings of the Wise Men at Je- whose journey the Evangelist relates, rusalem.
it will also determine what their sta. • After noticing the arguments to tion or rank in he was, namely kings, support the testimony of the evange 'the hings of Arabia and Saba.' Of lists, and the correctness of the ge this circumstance St. Matthew says nealogy of our Lord, the principal nothing directly, but their offerings subject of this lecture is introduced, are a sufficieni evidence that ther and the following account of the wise condition could not be a mean ove: men is given.
and though there is certainly no proof, “The name of these persons, whom there is on the other hand no improour translation calls wise men, is in bability of their being torus of small the original puxyou, in the Latin lan- sovereignties, which might allosa guage, magi, from whence is derived our English word magicians. The
* Vid. Dan, y. ll.
them a claim, according to the an. in view. By inheriting the earth, he cient usage of that part of the world, meant inheriting those things which 10 the name of kings. For we read are, without question, the greatest in Scripture not only of some small * blessings upon earth, calmness and towns or tracts that had each of them composure ofspirit, tranquillity,cheertheir king, but of some also which fulness, peace, and comfort of mind. could not be very large, that had Now these, I apprehend, are the peeach of them several t.
culiar portion and recompense of the "What number of the wise men meek. "Unassuming, gentle, and humor magi came to our Lord is en ble in their deportment, they give no tirely unknown, and perhaps that of offence, they create no enemies, they three was imagined for no other rea provoke no hostilities, and thus escape sun, than because the gifts which they all that large proportion of human brought were of three sorts. The misery which arises from dissensions occasion of their coming is expressed and disputes. If differences do unby St. Matthew in their own words: expectedly start up, by, patience, Where is he which is born King of mildness, and prudence, they disarm * the Jews for we are come to wor their adversaries, they soften resentship him'." p. 35-38.
ment, they court reconciliation, and The means by which the magi re. seldom fail of restoring harmony and ceived information of the birth of peace. Having a very humble opiChrist is next noticed, and the lec- nion of themselves, they see others ture closes with pertinent inferences succeed without uneasiness, without from the subject, to prove the veracity envy; having no ambition, no spirit of the sacred scriptures.
of competition, they feel no pain from Lecture III. Matth iii.- History disappointment, no mortification from and Doctrines of John the Baptist. defeat. By bending under the storms
Lecture IV. Matthew iv. former that assail them, they greatly mitipart.-Temptation of Christ in the gate their violence, and see them pass Wilderness.
over their heads almost without feelIn this lecture the learned authoring their force. Content and satisproves, that the temptation of our tied with their lot, they pass quietly Lord in the wilderness was a real and silently through the crowds that transaction, and not a vision, as some surround them; and encounter much have insinuated.
fewer difficulties and calamities ia Lecture V. Matth. iv. latter part.- their progress through life, than more Choice of the Apostles.--Beginning active and enterprizing men. This of Miracles.
even tenor of life may indeed be Lecture VI. Matth. v.--Our Lord's called by men of the world Hat, dull, Sermon on the Mount.
and insipid. But the meek are exThe blessedness of the meek is thus cluded from no rational pleasure, no
“. That the meek of all legitimate delight; and as they are others should be destined to inherit more exempt from anxiety and pain the earth, is what one should not na than other men, their sum total of turally have expected. If we may happiness is greater, and they may judge from what passes in the world, in the best sense of the word be fairly it is those of a quite opposite charac- said to inherit the earth.” p. 138– ter, the bold, the forward, the active, 140. the enterprizing, the rapacious, the Lecture VII. Matth. vi. and vii. ambitious, that are best calculated to Continuation of the Sermon on the secure to themselves that inheritance. Nount. And undoubtedly, if by inheriting the Lecture VIII. Matth. viii.-Conearth is meant acquiring the wealth, duct and Character of the Roman the grandeur, the power, the pro- Centurion. perty of the earth, these are the per Lecture IX. Matth.X.-Our Lord's sons who generally seize on a large Instructions to his Apostles. proportion of these good things, and On the 34th verse of the chapter, leave the meek and the gentle far which is the subject of this lecture, behind them in this unequal contest the author discourses at large. The for such advantages. But it was far illustration of this passage, and the other things than these our Lord had arguments to support it, are as fola
low: * Josh. s. 5. + Jerem. xxv. 20–26. “ The promulgation of my religion
will be productive of much dissen- pretend to fight in the cause of God sion, cruelty, and persecution ; not and his church, when they bad in only to you, but to all those who for reality nothing else in view than to many ages afterwards shall preach advance their power or extend their the gospel in purity and truth. The dominions. All history is full of intrue cause of this will be the wicked. stances of this kind. ness and the ferocious passions of men ; 4' 3dly. It should be remembered, but the occasion and the pretence for it that the wildest excesses of religious will be the holy religion which you persecution did not take place till are to promulge. In this sense, and the world was overrun with barbain this only it is, that I may be said rity, ignorance, bigotry, and superto bring a sword upon earth ; but stition ; till military ideas predomithey who really bring it, are the open nated in every thing, in the form of enemies, or pretended friends of the government, in the temper of the Gospel.
jaws, in the tenure of lands, in the “ Still it is said by the adversaries administration of justice itself; and of our faith, that however these words till the Scriptures were shut up in a may be interpreted, the fact is, that foreign tongue, and were therefore Christians themselves have brought unknown to the people. It was not a sword, and a most destructive sword therefore from the Gospel, but from upon earth; that they have perse. a total ignorance of the Gospel, from cuted one another with inconceivable a total perversion of its true temper, rancour and fury; and that their genius, and spirit, that these excesses dissensions have produced more and enormities arose. bloodshed, misery, and desolation “ 4thly. That this is the real truth among mankind, than all the other of the case, appears demonstrably wars of contending natious put toge- from this circumstance, that when ther.
after the reformation the Scriptures "To this I answer, in the first place, were translated into the several verthat the charge, as here stated, is not nacular languages of Europe, and the true. It is not true that wars of reli- real nature of the Christian revela. gion have been more frequent and tion became of course more genemore sanguinary than any others. rally known, the violence of perseOn the contrary, it may be proved cution began to abate ; and as the in the clearest manner, from the most sacred writings were more and more authentic facts, that by far the great- studied, and their true sense better est number of wars, as well as the understood, the baneful spirit of inJongest, most extensive, and most tolerance lost ground every day, and destructive, have been owing to the divine principle of Christian chacauses purely political, and those too rity and benevolence has been consometimes of the most trivial nature. tinually gaining fresh strength ; till And if we can allow men to harass at length, at the present moinent, and destroy one another for a mere persecution by Christians, on the score point of honour, or a few acres of of religion only, has almost entirely land, why should we think it strange vanished from the face of the earth; to see them defending, with the same and we may venture to predict, that heat and bitterness, what they con wars of religion, strictly so called, ceive to be the most essential requi- will be heard of no more." p. 239— site to happiness, both here and here- 242. after ?
Lecture X. Matthew xii.-Obser“ 2dly, I must observe, that a very vation of the Sabbath.-Demoniacs.large part of those animosities, wars, Blasphemy against the Holy Ghost. and inassacres, which have been usu - The rest of the Sabbath the author ally stiled religious, and with the en- keeps principally in view, and entire guilt of which Christianity has forces its observation : among other been very unjustly loaded, have been remarks we notice the following: altogether, or at least in a great mea " This rest is plainly infringed, sure, owing to causes of a very dif- whenever the lower classes of people ferent nature ; to the ambition, the continue their ordinary occupations resentments, the avarice, the rapa on the Sabbath, and whenever the city of princes and of conquerors, higher employ their servants and who assumed the mask of religion to their cattle on this day in needless veil their real purposes ; and who labour. This, however, we see too