« AnteriorContinuar »
sardous livelihood did not last long. Great Britain, he has suffered much The frost of 1779 will be long remem- from the court of Spain; but nothing bered in the Floridas; and young appears sufficient, from the accounts Bowles, almost naked, superior to the before us, to alter the steady purpose injuries of men, found in the elements of his pursuits. The interests of the an enemy which neither strength of Indians appear to engage bis attenconstitution nor fortitude of mind tion and his assiduity, and no doubt could withstand. He wanted shelter, he will do much towards their civili. and it was not long before he received zation and happiness. it. Among the inbabitants of the town, This work contains not only the who saw his situation, there was one, history of the characters, but their a baker by profession, who had a heart political connections, and extracts to commiserate and to relieve him. from their speeches in the Houses of Under the roof of this hospitable Parliament. stranger he remained the greatest part of the winter, who finding him a strong and robust lad, thought it but reasonable that he should assist to VI. Letters of EULER on different make tbe bread which he so plenti Subjects in Physics and Philosophy, ada fully ate.
dressed to a German Princess. Transa ** Highly impressed, as no doubt lated from the French, by HENRY be was, with a sense of obligation for HUNTER, D.D. with original Notes, such unmerited goodness, an aversion and a Glossary of Foreign and Scito labour, peculiar to the habits in entific Terms. With nineteen Plates. which he had so lately indulged, Second Edition, in Two Volumes made him reject the proposal, and he 8vo. Boards. Murray and Highwould again have been exposed to all ley, Cuthell, Vernor and Hood. his former dangers but for his old friends the Creeks. * The extraordinary inclemency of The design of this interesting
thus expressed by the the season had brought them down translator, in his preface : “ Euler for presents, and Bowles once more wrote these letters for the instruction returned with them, and remained of a young and sensible female, and Dear two years. The friendly chan in the same view that they were written racter of North American savages, they are translated, nainely, for the wben not irritated by resentment, or improvement of the female mind; an made sanguinary through thirst of re- object of what importance to the Tenge, is well known. During this world! I am old enough to rememperiod, such was tbeir mutual regard, ber the time when well-born young that he strengthened the ties of friends women, even of the north, could ship by marrying a daughter of one spell their own language but very inof their chiefs. Thus he became differently, and some bardly read it doubly united to them, both from in- with common decency; when the clination and the ties of blood; and young lady's hand-writing presented bis children were living pledges of a medley of outlandish characters; their father's fidelity.
and when a column of pounds shil" Habit had now confirmed his lings and pence presented a labyrinth predilection for a state of nature; as inextricable as the extraction of and, on the commencement of hostić the cube root. While the boys of the lities between Great Britain and family were conversing with Virgil, Spain, he was thought worthy of perhaps with old Homer himself, ihe being enrolled among the fighting; poor girls were condemned to crossmen of this warlike nation. Nor did stitch on a piece of gauze canvas, and he discredit their choice. His con- to record their own age at the bottom duct throughout the war was emi. of a sampler. septly distinguished for coolness and “ They are now treated as rational vigour in action; and the most emis beings, and society is already the Atat cbiefs pointed him out as an ex. better for it. And wherefore should ample worthy of imitation,”
the terms female and philosophy seem Mr. Bowles, increasing in the fa. a ridiculous combination ? Wherefore vour and esteem of the Indians, was preclude to a woman any source of raised to be their leader. On account knowledge to which her capacity and of bis attachment to the interests of condition in life cutitle her to apply?
It is cruel and ungenerous to expose and events of his life, is prefixed to the frivolity of the sex, after reducing the letters, from which we give the
the necessity of being silly and following outline. frivolous. Cultivate a young woman's “ Leonard Euler, President of the understanding, and her person will Mathematical School in the Acabecome, even to herself, only a se demy of Petersburg, and previously condary concern; let her time be in that of Berlin, Fellow of the Royal filled up in the acquisition of attain- Society in London, and of the Acaable and useful knowlerige, and then demies of Turin, Lisbon, and Båle, she will cease to be a burden to her. Foreign Associate of that of the Sciself and to every lady about her; ences, was born at Bâle, April the make her acquainted with the world 15th, 1707, being the son of Paul of nature, and the world of art will Euler and Margaret Brucker. delude her no longer.
“ His father, who, in 1708, under“ The time, I trust, is at hand, took the pastoral charge in the vilwhen the Letters of Euler, or some lage of Riechen, in the vicinity of such book, will be daily on the break Båle, was his first instructor; and he fasting table, in the parlour of every enjoyed betimes the pleasure of confemale academy in the kingdom; templating the progress of his son's and when a young woman, while expanding faculties and dawning learning the useful arts of pastry and glory, a cordial so reviving to the plain-work, may likewise be ac heart of a parent, advance under his quainting herself with the phases of the own eye, and gather strength from moon, and the flux and reflux of the his own assiduities.” P.33. tides. And I am persuaded she may “ He prosecuted his studies at the thrum on the guitar, or touch the university of Båle, and such was his keys of the harpsichord, much more early proficiency, that he was deemagreeably both to herself and others, ed not unworthy the attention, and by studying a little the theory of particular instructions of John Bersound. 'I have put the means of this nouilli, who was his father's mathein her power; it will be at once her matical instructor. fault and her folly if she neglect “When he had scarcely attained the it.” Translator's Preface, p. 18, 19, degree of Master of Arts, his father, 20, 21.
who intended him for his own succesFor the character of this work we sor, enjoined him to exchange the present our readers with an extract study of the mathematics for that of from the advertisement to the French theology. Happily the effect of this edition.
act of authority was of short duration. “ The Letters of Euler to a Ger. It proved no difficult matter to pera man Princess have acquired, over all suade the father, that his son was deEurope, a celebrity, to which the re stined to supply to the learned world putation of the Author, the choice the place of John Bernouilli, and not and importance of the several sub sink'into the obscure parson of Riejects, and the clearness of elucidation, chen. justly entitle them. They have de “ An essay, composed by Euler in servedly been considered as a treasury his nineteenth year, on the masting of science, adapted to the purpose of of ships, a subject proposed by the every common seminary of learning. Academy of Sciences, procured' him, They may be studied to advantage in 1727, an addition to his academical without much previous elementary honours, so much the more respectknowledge ; they convey accurate able, that the youthful native of the ideas respecting a variety of objects, Alps could have derived no assistance highly interesting in themselves, or from practical knowledge, and that calculated to excite a laudable curio- he yielded the palm to M. Bouguer sity; they inspire a proper taste for alone, an able geometrician, then at the sciences, and for that sound phithe zenith of his reputation, and for losophy which, supported by science; ten years before Professor of Hydroand never losing sight of her cautious, graphy in a maritime city.” P.35. steady, methodical advances, runs no Daniel and Nicholas Bernouilli, risk of perplexing or misleading the sons and pupils of John Bernouilli, attentive student." P. 27.
whose friendship he secured while at The eulogium of Euler, containing the university by his application and some interesting traits of his character good dispositions, had been invited
to Russia. Euler felt the sincerest re- and in 1766, the empress having given gret at parting with the friends of his him an invitation to return to Petersyouth, and engaged them to promise burg, he complied.”. P. 55. their utmost exertions to procure him “ As long as bis sight remained, (for a similar invitation, to which request it appears, that by close application the brothers conscientiously attended. to study he had lost that faculty) he * Euler having stood an unsuccessful every evening collected to domestic candidate for a vacant chair in the devotion, his grand-children, his doa university of Bàle, soon after set out mestics, and such of bis pupils as for Russia under auspices the most lodged in the house; he read to them melancholy and discouraging. It was a portion of scripture, and sometimes not long before he received intelli- accompanied it with an exposition." gence that Nicholas Bernouilli had P. 60. fallen a victim to the severity of the "Of sixteen professors belonging to climate; and the very day he set the Academy of Petersburg, eight foot on Russian ground, Catharine I. had been formed by him; and all of paid the debt of nature. This event, them, well known from their producat first, seemed to threaten the ap- tions, and decorated with academic proaching dissolution of the Academy, bonours, value themselves on being whose establishment that princess had able to add, to all the rest, that of just completed, in compliance with disciple to Euler. the will of the deceased czar, her “ He had retained all his facility husband.
of thought, and, apparently, all his “ Euler, at a prodigious distance mental vigour: no decay seemed to from his native country, destitute of threaten the sciences with the sudden the advantage which Daniel Ber- loss of their great ornament. On the nouilli possessed, that of an illustrious 7th of September, 1783, after amusing and respected name, to prepare his himself with calculating on a slate way, formed the resolution of enter- the laws of the ascending motion of ing into the Russian marine service. air-balloons, the recent discovery of One of the admirals of Peter I, had which was then making a noise all already promised to procure himn a over Europe, he dined with Mr. situation, when, happily for geometry, Jexel and his family, talked of Herthe storm which had lowered over the schell's planet, and of the calcula. sciences spent itself. Daniel Ber- tions which determined its orbit. A noailli retired into his own country: little after he called his grand-child, Euler was declared Professor of Geo- and fell a playing with him as he metry, and successor to his illustrious drank tea, when suddenly the pipe, friend, in 1733.” P. 37.
which he held in his hand, dropped At the earnest solicitation of the from it, and he ceased to calculate king of Prussia, he went from Peters, and to breathe. burg to Berlin in 1741, and continued “ Such was the end of one of at the latter place till 1766.
the greatest and most extraordinary “ The princess D’Anhalt Dessau, men ever produced by the hand of Diece to Frederic II. king of Prussia, nature, a man whose genius was was desirous of receiving from him equally capable of the greatest efforts, some lessons in natural philosophy. and of the most unwearied applicaThese lessons have been published, tion, who multiplied his productions far under the title of Letters to a Ger- beyond what could have beenexpected man Princess, a work inestimable for from powers inerely human, and was, the singularly clear light in which he nevertheless, original in every one ; has displayed the most important whose head was incessantly employed, truths of mechanics, of physical as and his spirit always tranquil; who, tronomy, of optics, and of the theory finally, by a destiny unfortunately of sound, and for the ingenious too rare, united, and that deservediy, views, less philosophical, but more a felicity hardly ever interrupted, 10 sage, than those which have made a glory which no one ever disputed Fontcaelle's Plurality of Worlds outlive with hiin." the System of Vortices.” P. 52. • His death was considered as a
“ The government of Russia had public loss, even in the country which never treated Euler as a stranger. he inhabited. The Academy of PeNotwithstanding his absence, part of tersburg went into deep mourning for his salary was always regularly paid; him, and voted a marble bust or bim,
at their own expence, to be placed in nated become visible.-27. Clearness their assembly-hall. An honour still and colour of opaque bodies illuminmore distinguished had already been ed.-28. Nature of colours in particonferred upon himn by that learned cular.-29. Transparency of bodies body, in his lifetime. In an allego- relative to the transmission of rays. rical painting, a figure of Geometry 30. Of the transmission of rays of is represented leaning on a tablet, light.-31. Rarefaction of rays of exhibiting mathematical calculations, different colours.--32. Of the azureand the characters inscribed, by or. colour of the heavens.-33. Of rays der of the academy, are the for- issuing from a distant luminous point, mulas of his new theory of the moon. and of the visual angle.-34. Of the Thus, a country which, at the begin- supplement which judgment lends ning of the present century, we con to vision.-35. Explanation of cersidered as scarcely emerged out of tain phenomena relative to optics. barbarisın, is become the instructor of 36. Of shade.-37. Of catoptrics, and the most enlightened nations of Eu- the reflection of rays from plain mirrope, in doing honour to the life of rörs.—38. Reflection of rays from great men, and in embalming their convex and concave mirrors. 'Burning memory; it is setting these nations mirrors.-39. Of dioptrics.-40. Con. an example, which some of them inay tinuation of burning.glasses, and their blush to reflect that they have had focus.—41. Of vision, and the structure the virtue neither to propose nor to of the eye.-42. Wonders discoverable imitate." P. 65, 66, 67.
in the structure of the eye.-43. AstoThe contents of the first volume nishing difference between the eye ofan are comprised in 115 letters upon animal and the artificialeye, or camera the following subjects:
obscura.-44. Perfections discoverable Letter 1. Of magpitude, or exten, in the structure of the eye.-45. Of sion.-2. Of velocity.-3. Of sound gravity, considered as a general proand its velocity.-4. Of consonance perty of body.-46. Of specific gra. and dissonance.-5. Of unison and vity-47. Terms relative to gravity, octaves.-6. Of other consonances.- and their true import.–48. Reply to 7. Of the twelve tones of the harpsi. certain objections to the earth'ssphechord.-8. Of the pleasure derived rical figure derived from gravityfrom fine music.-9. Compression of 49. True direction and action of grathe air.- 10. Rarefaction and elas- vity relatively to the earth.-50. Birticity of the air.-11. Gravity of the ferent action of gravity with respect air.-12. Of the atmosphere, and to certain countries and distances the barometer.-13. Of wind-guns, from the centre. The earth.-51. and the compression of air in gun. Gravity of the moon -52. Discopowder.- 14.' The effect produced very of universal gravitation by Newby the beat and cold on all bodies, son.-53. Of the mutual attraction of and of the pyrometer and thermome. the heavenly bodies.--54. Different ter.--15. Changes produced in the sentiinents of philosophers respecting atmosphere by heat and cold.-16. universal gravitation. The attracThe cold felt on high mountains and tionists.—55, 56, 57. Power by which great depths accounted for.-17. Of the heavenly bodies are mutually at. light, and the systems of Descartes tracted.-58. Motion of the heaveand Newton.-18. Difficulties attend. !y bodies. Method of determining ing the system of emanation.-19. it by the laws of gravitation.-59, 60). A different system respecting the na- System of the universe.–61. Small tare of rays and of light proposed.- irregularities in the motions of the 20. Of the propagation of light.-21. planets caused by their mutual at. Digression on the distances of the traction.-69. Description of the flux heavenly bodies, and on the nature and reflux of the sea.--63. Different of the sun and his rays.-22. Eluci- opinions of philosophers respecting dations on the nature of luminous the flux and reflux of the sea.-64, bodies, and their difference from 65, 66, 67. Explanation of the flux opaque bodies illumined.--23. How and reflux, from the attractive power opaque bodies become visible. New. of the moon.-68. More particular ton's system of the reflection of rays, account of the dispute respecting uni. proposed.-24. Examination and re- versal gravitation-69. Nature and Rutation of Netoton's system.--25, 26. essence of bodies, or extension, moA different explanation of the man- bility, and impenetrability of body. ner in which opaque bodies illumi. 70. Impenetrability of bodies 71.
Of the motion of bodies, real and ap- of some syllogisms.--106. Different parent.—72. Of uniform, accelerated, figures and modes of syllogisms.-107. and retarded motion.—73. Principal Observations and reflections on the law of motion and rest, disputes of modes of syllogisms. -108. Hypophilosophers on the subject.-74. Of thetical propositions, and syllogisms the inertia of bodies : 'of powers.- constructed of them.—109. of the 75. Changes which may take place in impression of sensations on the soul. the state of bodies.—76. System of -110. Of the origin and permission the monads of Wolff.—77. Origin and of evil; and of sin.-111. of moral nature of powers.—78. Principle of and physical evil.-112. Reply to the least possible action.—79. On complaints of the existence of physithe question, Are there any other cal evil.-113. The real destination species of powers ?-80. Of the ná- of man's usefulness, and necessity of ture of spirits.-81. Of the union be. adversity.--114. Of true happiness, tween the soul and the body.—82. Conversion of sınners. Reply to obDifferent systems relative to the sub- jections on the subject.-115. The ject.–83, 84. Examination of the true foundation of human knowledge. system of free established harmony. Sources of truth, and classes of inforTwo objections to it.-85, 86. Of mation derived from it. the liberty of spirits, and a reply Mr. Euler combats the system of 40 objections against liberty.–87. Newton, on the reflection of rays of Infuence of the liberty of spirits up- light: as his arguments occupy more on events.-88. Of events natural, room than we can devote to the subsupernatural, and moral.-89. Of the ject, the following letter, in which question respecting the best world the author defends his own system, is possible
, and of the origin of evil.- selected : 90.Connection of the preceding considerations with religion. Reply to
LETTER XXXVIII. the objections of the philosophic sys « Nature of Colours in particular. tems against prayer.-91. The liberty “ The ignorance which prevailed of intelligent beings in harmony with respecting the true nature of colours, the doctrines of the Christian reli- bas occasioned frequent and violent gion.-92. Elucidation respecting the disputes among philosophers, each nature of spirits.-93. Reflection on of whom made an attempt to shine, the state of souls after death.-94. by maintaining a peculiar opinion on Considerations on the action of the the subject. The system which made soul upon the body, and of the body colours to reside in the bodies themupon the soul.-05. Of the faculties selves, appeared to them too vulgar of the soul, and of judgment.-96. and too little worthy of a philosopher, Conviction of the existence of what who ought always to soar above the we perceive by the senses. Of the multitude. Because the clown imaidealists, egotists, and materialists.- gines that one body is red, another 97. Refutation of the idealists.--98. blue, and another green, the philosoThe faculty of perceiving, reminis- pher could not distinguish himself cence, memory, and attention. Sim- better than by maintaining the conple and compound ideas.-99. Di- trary; and he accordingly affirms, vision of ideas into clear and obscure, that there is nothing real in colours, distinct and confused. Of distrac- and that there is nothing in bodies retion-100. Of the abstraction of no- lative to them. tions. Notions general and indivi The Newtonians make colours to dual
. Of genus and species.-101. consist in rays only, which they disOf language; its nature, advantages, tinguish into red, yellow, green, blue, and necessity, in order to the com- and violet; and they tell us that a body munication of thought, and the culti- appears of such and such a colour, sation of knowledge. -102. Of the when it reflects rays of that species. perfection of a language: Judgment Others, to whom this opinion seemed and nature of propositions, affirma- absurd, pretend that colours exist tive and negative, universal or par- only in ourselves. This is an admirticular--103. Of syllogisms, and their able way to conceal ignorance; the different forms when the first propo- vulgar might otherwise believe that sition is universal.-- 104. Different the scholar was not better acquaintforms of syllogisms, whose first pro- ed with the nature of colours than position is particular.-105. Analysis themselves. But you will readily Vol. 1.