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P. W. Tomkins, historical engraver in the Dutch fashion. The trade to her Majesty, from a painting by and manners of the inhabitants are P. Violet.

noticed, and the chapter concludes Chap. I. delineates the mode of with a respectful mention of the apotravelling in Sweden, compared with thecaries of Gothenburg, who, having other countries, informing is there the advantage of a liberal education, is no regular conveyance even be- are considered as superior to the tween the country and the capital; saine class of men in many other pone, for example, between Gothen- places. burg and Stockholm; Stockholm and Chap. II. contains the journey Geffe ; Getie and Upsala ; or the from Gothenburg to Stockbolm, and other principal towns of the pro- first notices Trolhätta, a place where vinces. A comparison is made be. the admirers of natural beauties, if tween the conveniences of travelling they could be tolerably accommoin Sweden and Italy. The author ob dated, would be tempted to stop serves, that between Helsingberg and for several days, as it is scarcely Stockholm, a distance of rear four possible in less time to have any sahundred miles, nothing that can be bisfactory view of the famous cataconsidered as an inn is to be met racts, and the canal, which is one of with. The horses are so little, lean, the boldest and most amazing works and feeble, as to render it necessary of the kind in the world. The catato employ seren to draw a carriage, racts are a series of cascades, formed for which in Germany they only use by the river Götha, which issues from three: they are put to the carriage the lake of Wennerp; and being four a breast in the first line, and three united after many breaks, falls in its in the second; and the anthor says, whole and individled stream from a we were attended by five or six pea- height of upwards of sixty feet, into sants, who had each a horse in our an unfathomable abyss of water. The caravan; and deeming it good po- canal of Trolhätta has been wrought licy to whip up their neighbour's through the midst of rocks by the horses while they spared their own, means of gunpowder, and may justly they fell often a quarrelling, and be considered as in some respects sometimes dealt about blows among characteristical of the Swedish nathemselves as well as among each tion ; for it represents them as they other's horses. Such a Babylonish are, prone to the conception of grand confusion is not, I believe, to be met enterprizes, and distinguished by mewith in any other part of the world. chanical invention. As a work of At every post-house a register is put art, and of bold and persevering deinto your hands, under the denomi. sign, it is not too much to say, that nation of a day-book, in which tra. it is the first in the world, even the vellers set down their names, their Duke of Bridgewater's canal in Engstate or condition in life, whence land, and that of Languedoc in France, they came, and whither they are not excepted. going, and if they have been satis- At Trolhätta a book is presented fied, or otherwise, with the postillion, to strangers when they are about to or rather tha peasant. Warberg is leave the place, and they are renoticed in passing through it, and of quested to inscribe their names in it, Gothenburg the author observes, that with some motto relative to the it is the second city of the kingdom. impression made on their minds by Its environs are almost every where the falls, or other local circumstances. naked, barren and dreary. They From this book the author has represent an uniform scene of small corded some extracts. eminences of black rock, where na- The treatment of horses in Sweden ture cannot by any power of art be is next noticed. These animals forced to produce vegetation. The stand or lie on perforated boards, harbour exhibits a similar confusion like soldiers in barracks. This pracof rocks, not more pleasing to the eye, tice has been approved by the Veteand some little craggy isles of a rug- rinary Colleges of both Stockholm ged and forbidden aspect. As to the and Copenhagen, and universally interior of the town, it resembles in adopted by the royal and other great some respects the towns of Fiolland, families, on account of its salutary having canals, with rows of trees along effect on the foot of the horse. In their margin, regularly cut or clipped countries where the horses stand in a

hot-bed produced by their own lit- the space of six months, and renders ter, their feet become tender, and them more pleasant and convenient subject to divers disorders ; but you than they are in summer or autumn, very seldom see a lame or foundered at which seasons, partly on account horse in Sweden or Denmark, which, of the pavement, and partly on acif it is not to be ascribed to the skill count of the dirt, they are often alof the licensed farriers, who are, at most impassable. One layer of snow least in the Danish dominions, all on another, hardened by the frost, brought up in the Veterinary College, forms a surface more equal and agree. may, to a certain degree, be owing able to walk on, which is sometimes to ihe manner of keeping the horse raised more than a yard above the on boards instead of straw.

stones of the street. You are no The cultivation of the country is longer stunned by the irksome noise next described, and the arrival at of carriage wheels, but this is exStockholm, on which occasion the changed for the tinkling of little bells, author and his friend experience much with which they deck the horses bekindness from Mr. Malmgrein, of fore the sledges. The only wheels whom the most respectful mention is now to be seen in Stockholm are those made and his general character gi- of small carts employed by men serven.

vants of families to fetch water froin Chap. III. Topographical descrip- the pump in a cask. This compound tion of Stockholm. “ The grand and of cart and cask always struck me as most distinguished feature in the lo- a very curious and extraordinary obcality of that city, namely, being si- ject, insomuch that I once took the tuated on islands, amidst gulfs and trouble of following it, in order to lekes, is destroyed by the ice. The have a nearer view of the whimsical same water which divides the inha- robe in which the frost had invested bitants of the different quarters in it, and particularly of the variegated summer unites them in winter. It and fantastical drapery in which the becomes a plain which is traversed wheels were covered and adorned. by every body. The islands are This vehicle, with all its appurtenances, islands no longer : horses in sledges, afforded to a native of Italy a very sinphaetons, and in vehicles of all sorts, gular spectacle. The horse was wrapplaced on scates, scour the gulf and ped up, as it seemed, in a mantle of lakes by the side of sbips fixed in the white down, which, under his breast ice, and astonished as it were to find and belly, was fringed with points and theinselves in such company on the tufts of ice. Stalactical ornaments of same element.” p. 39.

the same kind, some of them to the “There is no part of this great mass length of a foot, were also attached of water that is not arrested and sub. to his nose and mouth. The servant dued by the frost, except the current that attended the cart had on a under the north bridge, and on the frock, which was encrusted with a south near the king's stable. Here solid mass of ice. His eye-brows and the water, which during the keenest hair jingled with icicles, which were frost dashes and foams with great formed by the action of the frost on noise through the arches of the bridge, his breath and perspiration.”. p. 40, sends up majestic clouds of vapour 41. This cart, and one of the small to a considerable height in the atmo- sledges used for the conveyance of sphere, where, in the extreme rigour goods or luggage, are represented in of winter, being converted by the an engraving, which also exhibits a intenseness of the cold into solid view of the Klint. particles, they are precipitated down “ The season of summer, at which through their weight, and presenting time the nobility and gentry retire their surface to the sun, assume the to their country houses, which are appearance of a shower of silver sand fitted up with great magnificence and reflecting the solar rays, and adorned luxury: Those villas are for the most with all manner of colours. In the part pleasantly situated, and embelinterior of Stockholm, throughout all lished by works of art, which second its different quarters, every thing in and improve the efforts of nature. winter in like manner undergoes a You there find hot-houses, in which sudden change. The snow that be. theyraise peaches, pine-apples,grapes, gins to fall in the latter weeks of au- and other fruits. All kinds of wines, iumn covers and hides the streets for liquors, and other delicacies, are Javished at the table of a Swedish tend to excite in the soldiery and gentleman, or rich manufacturer, or penple an interest and attachment to merchant in the country.” p. 45. the royal family.” p. 55, 56.

In describing the diversions and Chap. IV. The months of Septemamusements of the Swedes, their pas- ber and October, when the rains set sion for cards and gaming is particu- in, and May and June, when the larly noticed. The author presents thaw commences, are extremely dis. his reader next with a view of the en- agreeable. The precautions against virons of Stockholm - Drottning, the severities of winter are stoves and holm-The Royal Palace - Annual warm clothing; of the latter article Tournament at Drottningholm-The the author writes, “I have often been Royal Park at Stockholm-and the greatly diverted at seeing a Swede, Royal Procession and Yearly Festival before he came into a room, divestin the Park, of which festival the fol- ing himself of his pelice, great coat, lowing description is given :

and upper shoes, and leaving them in " On the twenty-fourth of June, the anti-chamber. Thę vestments or Midsummer-day, the king and royal or exuvie of ten persons are suffi. family come to the park, where they cient to load a large table.” The take up their abode in tents for the amusements of the capital in winter remainder of the month, tbat is for an account of the Swedish ladies the space of nearly a week. A camp - Their beauty -- Accomplishments is formed of the garrison of Stock and manners - Women of another holm, composed of two regiments of description--Character of a Swedish foot-guards, some companies of horse. petit maître-Spirit of society-Muguards, and a corps of artillery. sic and dinner-parties, follow nextAlong the lines of the camp they of the last article we have the folraise poles or posts, adorned with lowing description : branches of cyphers, and sometimes “ 'The Swedish dinner parties are scutcheons with mottos or devices. expensive arrangements of shew and At the foot of the posts are placed formality. It will often happen, that barrels of beer on wooden frames. out of forty or fisty people, who apAbout six or seven o'clock in the af- pear in consequence of an invitation ternoon, on a particular signal, the sent with all possible ceremony, and barrels are opened, when each sol- perhaps a week or a fortnight before dier is presented with a pipe, a loat the appointed day, scarcely three or of bread, two herrings, and some four know one another sufficiently to money. All this is done at the ex- make the meeting agreeable. A fopence of the officers. In the mean reigner may still fare worse, and have time the military music plays, and the misforluve of being seated near a the soldiers begin for to drink and to person totally unacquainted with any dance. Upon each of the barrels language but his own. Before the sits a soldier, in the form of a Bac. company sit down to dinner, they chus, or of some other figure more first pay their respects to a side taor less ridiculous. Those that are ble, laden with bread, butter, cheese, dressed up in this manner first taste pickled salmon, and liquor, or brandy, the liquor and propose the toasts, and by the tasting of these, previous which are generally numerous, and to their repast, endeavour to give an constantly accompanied with the cry edge to their appetite, and to stimu. of vivat, answering to the English late the stomach to perform its office. huzza. When any of the royal fa- After this prelude, the guests arrange mily, or a general officer, chance to themselves about the dinner table, pass hy, their healths are drank, and where every one finds at his place always with the same accompani- three kinds of bread, flat and coarse ment of vivat. A kind of masque. rve bread, white bread, and brown rade ensues for a short time, during bread. The first sort is what the which the soldiers amuse the people, peasants eat; it is crisp and dry; that flock round them in the lines of the second sort is common bread; the camp with songs, and indulge but the brown, last mentioned, has a themselves in various freaks and acts sweet taste, being made with the waof merriment. On the beating of ter with which the vessels in the su. the retreat every thing is submitted to gar houses are washed, and is the nas. the reign of order. Such festivals, tiest thing possible. All the dishes without diminishing respect, certainly are at once put upon the table, but

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no one is allowed to ask for what he resort, and their expences-A club likes best, the dishes being handed called the Society. sound in regular succession; and an In noticing the intercourse between Englishman has often occasion for all the court and the people, the author his patience, to wait till the one is put observes that “ At the same time the in motion on which he has fixed his most rigid observance of particular choice. The Swedes are more knową forins is exacted by the court of Stocking in this respect, and, like the holm, within what we may call its own French, eat of every thing that comes precincts, there is no country where before them: and although the dif- the king and princes mix more fainiferent dishes do not seen to harmo- liarly with the people than in Sweden. nize together, yet such is the force This makes the contrast the more strik of labii, that the guests find no in- ing; for it is a very different thing to be convenience from the most opposite admitted to the private suppers given mixtures. Anchovies, herrings, oni- by the king, and the other branches ons, eggs, pastry, often meet together of the royal family, and to stand exhion the same plate, and are swallowed bition at court. The king gives suppromiscuously. The sweet is asso- pers in a domestic and friendly way ciated with the sour, mustard with iwice, and sometimes three times a sugar, confectionaries with salt meat, week.” At which times, and partie os salt fish; in short, eatables are cularly at the Exchange. Assembly, intermingled with a poetical licence, the king evidences much affability that sets the precepis of Horace at even to those who have never been defiance,

introduced at court; of which de.

scription are many distinguished fa. Sed non ut placidis coceantinomitia.” p.68.

inilies among the gentry, clergy, and The following anecdote niay seem

the mercantile class; for though they to illustrate the extreme passion of are not of noble birth, yet their eduthe Swedes for cards, the only amuse. cation and respectability in society ment to fill up the interval between is deemed a sufficient title to these dinner and supper. " A nobleman marks of attention. of great rank having waited longer Chap. V. Character of Gustavus III. than usual for his dinner, and seeing king of Sweden, under whose reign that no preparation was made for it, the arts and sciences are represented trent down to call his servants to an to have been disregarded. On which account, and to examine into the account the author observes from the Teason of the delay. He found his state of things at the time referred to houshold, in imitation of their supe. in Sweden, “ It would probably be riors, deeply engaged at cards. They made to appear, that neither the excused themselves to their master splendour of a throne, nor the protec. by telling him, that they were now tion of a prince are necessary, or at the most interesting point of the even favourable, to the promotion of game; and the butler, who had the science. It would be seen that the greatest stake, took the liberty of ex- most effectual patronage of learning plaining the case to his excellency, is that which is derived from the who could not in conscience but ap- public at large ; and that the sciences, prove his reasons. However, being like commerce, are always worse for unwilling to wait for his dinner till the interference of government. They the game was decided, he sent the resemble the sensitive plant, which butler to lay the cloth, while he him- shrinks from the touch of the purest self sat down with the other servants, and most delicate hand, but vege. and managed the interest of that in- tates, flourishes, and perfectly unfolds dividual in his absence.” p. 69.

itself, when left alone.” p. 87. The formality and restraint of Swe- The character of the duke of Su. dish manners are next described - dermania, and his conduct during Costume of dress-Private suppers the regency, with the encouragement given by the king and royal family given to animal inagnetism at StockIntercourse between the court and holm. The character of the present the people, and their mutual relations king of Sweden--the state of religion of condescension and respect-Great -the liberty of the press, which is assemblies at the Royal Exchange, represented as nearly annihilated, which are honoured by the presence and the state of the arts and sciof the royal family-Places of public ences: Vol. I.

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Chap. VI. Remarks on academies, tion in the Swedish Journals of a or learned societies; and a descrip: French revolution, either good or tion of those established by Lewis XIV, bad. He wished the people not only in France. The effect of opinions to be prevented from thinking of it, and theoretical principles upon the and reasoning about it, but as much Fate of nations. Illustrating the latter as possible to be kept in the dark as proposition by instances from history, to its very existence. The effects to the author observes, “ Whoever re- be desired or dreaded in any country flects on the usual effect of literature from the prodnctions or the press, and science to awaken the genius of are, no doubt, in proportion to the liberty, by exciting a spirit of free dis- degree and extent of education which cussion on all subjects, by preserving the people at large have received. the memory of the ancient republics, It does not follow, from the circumby quickening the perception of right stance of the Swedes being all taught and wrong, aud vindicating the dig- to read, and attached to established tenity of human nature, will be apt to nets a 4 modes of worship, that they consider the introduction of the arts should be an honest and good sort of and sciences into despotic govern- people: this, however, is the case. ments as a political incongruity; un- The Swedes, I mean the peasantry, less, indeed, it be the intention of the (for as to the inhabitants of towns, prince to ameliorate the condition of they are corrupt in proportion to the people, and raise them gradually their population, their commerce, to a participation of political power, and their luxury), are a frank, open, in proportion to their advancement kind-hearted, gay, hospitable, hardy, in knowledge.” p. 100, 101. and spirited people. It would be

Having shewn how far the public difficult to point out any nation that opinion may be directed or influenced is more distinguished by a happy by learned societies, the author pro- union of genius, bravery, and natural ceeds to display the characteristics probity of disposition. They are re. of these societies, and describes the presented by their neighbours as the academy of Belles Lettres, and the gascons of Scandinavia. This chargé, Swedish Academy, naming their mem. when due allowance is made for the bers, and stating their proceedings mutual jealousy and antipathy of and prizes, concluding with an ac- neighbouring nations, amounts to no count of some Swedish poets. more than this, that they are actu

Chap. VII. contains accounts of ated by that sensibility to fame, and other learned societies, particularly love of distinction, which generally the academy of sciences at Stock- predominate in the breasts of brave, holm; the classes into which it is generous, and adventurous people. divided, with the names and charac- Chap. VIII. Institutions for the ters of the members in each class. purposes of education in Sweden ; The collection of models and ma- parish schools, public schools, gymchines which display much ingenuity nasia, and universities. Accounts of and utility. The disposition of the the universities of Lund, Upsala, Swedes for the arts and sciences is and Abo. Their professors and stunoticed, and the author, treating of li- dents; method of teaching, and things terary societies, observes, that when taught ; with general remarks on the they are more extended, when num. Swedish universities. bers of strangers are introduced, On the first article it is observed, when they are honoured with public “ There is no country in the world in celebrity, and the countenance and which greater provision has been interference of kings and princes, made, and more pains taken for the simplicity and sincerity of intention, advancement and diffusion of knowmutual goodness, and a love of truth, ledge among all classes of society, are exchanged for vanity, pomp, and than in Sweden." faction." p. 136.

Every parish bas its school, in which The character of the Swedes is thus the common rudiments of reading delineated, after noticing that all the and writing are taught. Besides this, people, without exception, are taught there is a public school maintained to read, it is stated that “ Gusta- in every large town, at the expence vus III, who kept a watchful eye on of the crown, in which boys coutique every event that might influence the till about their eleventh'or twelfth state of society, interdicted all megyear, when they are commonly sent

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