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perceive that these affected refine- opposite to the aperture, a piece of ments are mere cavil. Every simple cloth of the same colour, it will be colour (in order to distinguish from perfectly illuminated, and its red cocompound colours) depends on a cer- lour appear very brilliant, but if you tain number of vibrations, which are substitute in its place a piece of green performed in a certain time ; so that cloth, it will remain obscure, and you this number of vibrations, made in a will hardly see any thing of its coa second, determines the red colour, lour. If you place on the outside, another the yellow, another the green, before the aperture, a piece of green another the blue, and another the cloth, that within the chamber will violet, which are the simple colours be perfectly iHumined by the rays of represented to us in the rainbow. the first, and its green colour appear
“ Ifthen, the particles of the surface very lively. The same holds good as of certain bodies are disposed in such to all other colours; and I do not a manner, that being agitated, they imagine that a more convincing demake in a second as many vibrations, monstration of the truth of my system as are necessary to produce, for ex- can be demanded. anple, the red colour, I call such “ We learn from it, that, in order a body red, just as the clown does; to illuminate a body of a certain coand I see nothing like a reason for lour, it is necessary that the rays deviating from the common mode of which fall upon it should have the expression. And rays which make same colour; those of a different cosuch a number of vibrations in a lour not being capable of agitating second, may, with equal propriety the particles of that body. This is be denominated red rays; and final- farther confirmed by a well-known ly, when the optic nerve is affected experiment. When the spirit of wine by these same rays, and receives is set on fire in a room, you know from themi a number of impulsions, that the flame of spirit of wine is blue, sensibly equal in a second, we receive that it produces only blue rays, and the sensation of the red colour. Here that every person in the room appears every thing is clear; and I see no ne- very pale, their faces, though painted cessity for introducing dark and mys- ever so deep, have the aspect of terious phrases, which really mean death. The reason is evident; the nothing.
blue rays not being capable of excit“ The parallel between sound and ing or putting in motion the red co. light is so perfect, that it hits even in lour of the face, you see on it only a the minutest circumstances. When feeble and bluish colour; but if one I produced the phenomenon of a of the company is dressed in blue, musical chord, which may be excited such dress will ́appear uncommonly into vibration by the resonance of brilliant. Now the rays of the sun, certain sounds, you will please to re- those of a wax taper, or of a common collect, that the one which gives the candle, illuminate all bodies almost unison of the chord in question, is equally; from whence it is conclud. the most proper to shake it, and that ed, that the rays of the sun contain other sounds atfect it only in propor. all colours at once, though he himself tion as they are in consonance with appears yellowish. it. It is exactly the same as to light “In truth, when you admit into a and colours; for the different colours dark room the rays of all the simple correspond to the different musical colours, red, yellow, green, blue, and sounds.
violet, in nearly equal quantities, and 6 Jn order to display this pheno- blend them, they represent a whitish menon, which completely confirms colour. The same experiment is my assertion, let a dark room be pro- made with various powders, coloured vided; inake a small aperture in one. in like manner ; on being mixed toof the shutters; before which, at gether a whitish colour is the result. some distance, place a body of a cer- Hence it is concluded, that white is tain colour, say a piece of red cloth, nothing less than a simple colour ; so that, when it is illumined, its rays but that it is a compound of all the may enter by the aperture into the sinple colours; accordingly we see darkened room. The rays thus trans that white is adapted to the reception mitted into the room will be red, all of all colours. As to black it is not other light being, excluded : and if properly a colour. Every body, is jou hold on the inside of the room black when its particles are such that
they can receive no motion of vibra can come to pass, but what God foretion, or when it cannot produce rays. saw from all eternity. Is it credible, The want of rays, therelore, produces say the objectors, that God should the sensation of that colour; and the think of altering this settled course, nore particles there are found in any in compliance with any prayers which body not susceptible of any motion men might address to him? of vibration on its surface, the more “ But I remark, first, that when blackish and obscure it appears.” God established the course of the uni“ 15th July, 1760." P. 110-114. verse, and arranged all the events
which must come to pass in it, he LETTER Xc.
paid attention to all the circum# Connection of the preceding Consi
stances which should accompany deration with Religion. Reply to the each event; and particularly to the Objections of the philosophic Systems dispositions, to the desires, and against Prayer.
prayers, of every intelligent being;
and that the arrangement of all “ Before I proceed farther in my events was disposed in perfect harlessons on philosophy and physics, I mony with all these circumstances. think it my duty to point out to you When, therefore, a man addresses to their connection with religion.* God a prayer worthy of being heard,
“ I begin with considering an ob it must not be imagined, that such a jection, which almost all the philoso prayer came not to the knowledge of phic systems have started against God till the moment it was formed. prayer. Religion prescribes this as That prayer was already heard from our duty, with an assurance that God all eternity; and if the Father of will hear and answer our vows and mercies deemned it worthy of being prayers, provided they are conform- answered, he arranged the world exable to the precepts which he has pressly in favour of that prayer, so given us. Philosophy, on the other ihat the accomplishment should be a hand, instructs us, that all events take consequence of the natural course of place in strict conformity to the events. It is thus that God answers course of nature, established from the the prayers of, men, without working beginning, and that our prayers can a miracle. effect no change whatever, unless we “ The establishment of the course pretend to expect, that God should of the universe, fixed once for all, far be continually working miracles, in from rendering prayer- unnecessary, compliance with our prayers. This rather increases our confidence, by objection has the greater weight; conveying to us this consolatory that religion itself teaches the doc- truth, that all our prayers have been trine of God's having established the already, fronu the beginning, present. course of all events, and that nothing ed at the feet of the throne of the
Almighty, and that they have been * I take the liberty, likewise, to re admitted into the plan of the unistore the following passage, which M. de Condorcet, in his philosophical squeamish- which events were to be regulated, in
verse, as motives conformably to ness, has thought unworthy of a his edition of the work.
ace in subserviency to the infinite wisdom * However extravagant and absurd the
of the Creator. sentiments of certain philosophers may
“Can any one believe, that our be, they are so obstinately prepossessed in condition would be better, if God favour of them, that they reject every re- had no knowledge of our prayers beligious opinion and doctrine which is not fore we presented them, and that he conformable to their system of philoso- should then be disposed to change pby. From this source are derived most in our favour, the order of the course of the sects and heresies in religion. Se- of nature? This might well be irreveral philosophic systems are really con concileable to his wisdom, and incontradictory to religion; but in that case, sistent with his adorable perfections. divine truth ought surely to be preferred Would there not, then, be reason to to the reveries of men, if the pride of phi- say, that the world was a very imlosophers knew what it was to pield perfect work? That God was entire in opposition to religion, that opposition is ly disposed to be favourable to the more apparent than real; and we must wishes of men; but, not having foreDot suffer ourselves to be dazzled with the seen them, was reduced to the necesspeciousness of objection, "E. E. sity of, every instant, interrupting the
course of nature, unless he were de- now, by the appointment of the Mis. termined totally to disregard the sionary Society, their tutor, to inwants of intelligent beings, which, struct those who, under their patronevertheless, constitute the principal nage, shall be engaged as missionpart of the universe ? For to what aries to the heathen. purpose create this material world, In the dedication to this volume, replenished with so many wonders, if which is addressed to the directors of there were no intelligent beings, ca the Missionary Society, we are iv. pable of admiring it, and of being formed of the origin of this essay in elevated by it to the adoration of the following extract, page 2, “When God, and to the most intimate union among other plans for the advancewith their Creator, in which, un ment of religion, it was resolved at doubtedly, their highest felicity con our sixth annual meeting, in May, sists? Hence it must absolutely be 1800, to print 10,000 copies of the concluded, that intelligent beings, New Testament in the French lanand their salvation, must have been guage, and distribute tbem in France, the principal object in subordination you thought it would be of much adto which God regulated the arrange- vantage, if an introduction were ment of this world, and we have every drawn up, containing the evidence of reason to rest assured, that all the its divine authority, and prefixed to events which take place in it, are in the volume. The Society requested the most delightful harmony with the me to undertake the office, and unwants of all intelligent beings, to con- wittingly I consented.". duct them to their true liappiness; As this work is designed for the but without constraint, because of use of the people of France, the their liberty, which is as essential to Author assigns the following reasons spirits as extension is to body. There for printing it in English. The recomis, therefore, no ground for surprise, mendation of friends, who thought that there should be intelligent it might be useful in this country :beings, which shall never reach teli- The opportunity it afforded of subcity.
mitting it more fully to the friends of * In this connection of spirits with the institution; and, the improveevents, consists the divine providence, ment it might derive from the reof which every individual has the con marks of judicious readers. solation of being a partaker; so that This work is divided into an intro. every man may rest assured, that duction and ten chapters, containing from all eternity he entered into the the following subjects. plan of the universe. How ought Of the Evidence of the Divine AuThis consideration to increase our thority of the New Testament, arising confidence, and our joy in the pro. from the principles which it contains vidence of God, on which all religion -considerations suggested by its conis founded ? You see then, that on tents.-The testimony of the apostles. this side religion and philosophy are --Soine additional considerations, by no means at variance."
which further confirm their testi“30 January, 1761.”
mony:-Miracles.- Prophecy – The success of the gospel.-Objections against its divine authority consi
dered.—The sentiments and conduct VII. An Essay on the Divine Autho- of the Deists considered.-Miscella
rity of the New Testament. By neous abservations, and conclusion. DAVID BOGUE, 12mo. Price in Each of these chapters is subboards, fine paper, 4s. common, divided into a number of sections. 3s. 6d. Horsey, Portsea ; Seeley, The first chapter, which is designed Ave-Maria Lane, and Williams, to prove the divive authority of the Stationer's Court.
New Testament is thus introduced.
“ To speak of the evidences of HE Author is minister of a very Christianity to those who are igno.
respectable and numerous con rant of the nature of Christianity, is gregation of protestant dissenters at almost hopeless labour. They can Gosport in Hampshire, and esteemed but very imperfectly discern their a man of considerable talent and po- force. Let us suppose a man to have pularity. For some years he has been born in one of the houses of been enaged in the instruction of Herculaneum, and to have dwelt in young men for the ministry, and is his 'subterraneous mansion to the
years of malurity. You wish to con- the New Testament into their hands, vince him there is a God, and you . we have translated it into your put into his hand, 'RAY's Wisdom tongue, that you may, like us, de. of God in the Creation. I will not “rive from the perusal, wisdom, good. say that the book is in such a situa- 'ness, and felicity:' They eagerly tion entirely destitute of weight; but snatch the book : they read it: they I will propose another plan. First, too are made wise unto salvation; bring him forth; place him near the and the happiness it imports is ensummit of Vesuvius, when all is still; joyed throughout the world. Arms let him see the sun shining in majesty; are become useless ; magazines are and take a view of the surrounding opened: arsenals are emptied. Let country, and of the neighbouring not our eyes,' they say, “any more ocean. Detain him till the day behold the heart-rending sight. closes, and the stars bespangle the • Convert these rusty cannons into firmament, and the moon afterwards instruments of husbandry; these arises in her brightness, and makes destructive balls into matiocks and them all to disappear. With the morn- 'shovels ;. beat these swords into ing light carry him down to the vine- plough-shares, and these spears into yards, and let him walk through the pruning-hooks.' Mankind live in felds of corn, and feast his eyes with peace.
Extended commerce prothe varied scenes of nature. "Put the duces increasing affection. Wherebook into his hands now : will not the man meets man, he meets a arguments appear with more than brother; and love to God, and love ten-fold force In like manner pro. to men, reigning in the heart, gene. ceed respecting Christianity ; ' for rate every where righteousness, har, many weighty arguments in its favour mony, good-will, and joy." P. 52, arise out of the New Testament, as
53. those for the being of a God rise out of the works of creation." P. 14.
In the ninth section, which represents the happiness resulting from the influence of the Gospel in the cha- VIII. JUVENILSA; or, A COLLEC
Written between racters which it forms, we meet with
the Age of Twelve and Sixteen. By " But still more widely is the in
J.H. L. Hunt, late of the Grammar fluence of these divine principles felt.
School of Christ's Hospital. Printed Asia, Africa, and America, rejoice at
by J. Whiting, Finsbury-square. the change in the sons of Europe. Instead of beholding strangers grasping at every advantage, and pursuing by every means an increase in power
ACBETH; written at the age and commerce, they find men who of twelve.---Content. - Lines act as brothers, who are as forward to on the birth-day of Eliza.---Lines to conser benefits as to receive them, Miss S. H. on her marriage.- Parody and more anxious to do them good on Dr. Johnson's “ Hermit, boar. than to possess their wealth. They-Lines written January 1800, on the zte astonished at the pleasing altera. birth-day of a particular friend.tion; and they conclude, that prin- Speech of Caractacus to Claudius ciples which lead men to act thus, Cæsar.--A morning walk and view.must be froin God. While benevo- Lines to the White Rose of America. lent Europeans labour to do them –Christ's Hospital, a poem.-Regood and to make them happy, they membered friendship.- Retirement, lagerly enquire, Whence proceeds or the golden mean. -- Anacreon, Ode this remarkable change? Formerly, xix. translated.--Original.Transla'you were a curse, and we viewed you tion of the first Ode of Anacreon.with dread. Our gold, our territory, Original.- Translation of Horace's * our very persons you snatched from Ode "Septimi Gades.”-Original. 3. Now, you are a blessing: your Paraphrase of Horace's Ode, Integer highest end is to confer benefits Vitæ.-Original. -Sonnet to Sensibi. upon us. Whence did you derive lity.-Sonnet on the sickness of Eliza. these principles, which have made —The Negro-boy, a ballad.-Song 4yon new creatures • Read this to Eliza.- Sonnet.-Sonnet to Eve. book," the Europeans reply, putting Sonnet.--The mad girl's song.--Son
TION OF POEMS.
the following passage.
net in imitation of Lopez de Vega. THE NEGRO BOY.-ABALLAD To Zephyr, from the Spanish.-Pas
Paupertas onus visa est grave. toral I. spring:- Pastoral II. sumıner.
- Pastoral ill. autumn. - Pastoral Cold blows the wind, and while the IV. winter.- Elegy written in Poet's
tear Coruer, Westminster Abbey.-Epi Bursts trembling from my swollen taph on J. H. Beattie, A. M.-Epi
eyes, taph on Robespierre.-Ode to the The rain's big drops quick ineet it evening star, from Ossian.- Valour,
there, an ode.-Ode to honour-Ode to And on my naked bosom flies ! truth.-Ode for 1799, written at the O pity all ye sons of joy, time of the war in Switzerland.-Ode
The little wand'ring negro-boy. to Genius, irregular.-Ode to friend. These latter'd clothes, this ice-cold ship; in imitation of Pope's ode on
breast solitude.--To friendship; in the man By winter harden'd into steel ; ner of Collins's ode to evening. These eyes, that know not soothing Friendship-The progress of Print
rest, ing -Wandle's wave.-Hymn to the But speak the half of what I feel! Omnipotent God-Hymns for the
Long, long, I never knewone joy, seasons. The palace of pleasure, an The little wand'ring negro-boy. allegorical poem.-Funeral anthem.
Cannot the sigh of early grief
Move but one charitable mind ?
Cannot one hand afford relief?
One Christian pity and be kind ? SPEECH OF CARACTACUS TO CLAU Weep, weep, for thine was never
O little wand'ring negro-boy.
Is there a good which men call plea-
O Ozmyn, would that it were thine! Mighty Cæsar, tho' to thee
Give me this early precious treasure Britain bows the bended knee,
How would it soften grief like mine Tho' her hardy warriors know,
Then Ozmyn might be call'd with Victor is the valiant foe;
joy, Tho' her king with tort'ring pain The little wand'ring negro-boy. Captive drags the galling chain
My limbs these twelve long years have Rome itself shall never boast
borne Britannia's glory all is lost !
The rage of ev'ry angry wiod: Saw thou not, Ostorius bold,
Yet still does Ozmyn weep and mourn, Where in blood my chariot roll'd ; Saw thou not in cvery eye,
Yet still no care, no rest can find !
Then death, alas! must soon deFirmn resolve and courage lie?
stroy, Saw thou not each British sword
The little wand'ring negro-boy. Carve a passage for its lord,
No sorrow e'er disturbs the rest, Where the Roman eagle spread That dwells within the lonely grave: Her purple pinions o'er thy head.
Thou best resource the wo-wrung When misfortunes hover nigh,
breast, Let the coward wish to die;
E'er ask'd of heaven, or heav'n And like Cato, robb'd of rest,
e'er gave! Plunge the dagger in his breast; Ah then, farewell, vain world, with joy But, tho' feeble, pale, and wan, I die, the happy negro-boy! Still your captive is a man ; And for me if life is rough, To live, and to be brave's enough.
ELEGY: WRITTEN IN POET'S COR
NER, WESTMINSTER ABBEY. Tho' these hands no more may wield Pond'rous spear, or massy shield: In this cold solitude, this awful shade Tho' this tongue may ne'er again Where sleeps the lyre of many a Bid the British troops be men;
tuneful breath, Hope, with ever-listed eye,
The ghastly shroud, the dust disturbHope, enchanting, still is nigh!
ing spade, Yes, they shall again be free,
lavite the shudd'ring thought to And triumph in their liberty!
gloom and death.