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the rock, immediately under the pre- through small windows of stained cipice on which the ruin stands, where glass, so disposed as not to be seen a close glen opens to the eye, exhi. at a distance. Another gallery of biting one of the most beautiful and large dinensions and inore numerous solenin combinations of rock and pillars is connected with this, where. wood that can be conceived. The by a similar contrivance, a variety of grand face of the rock before-men- ditierent coloured lights are introtioned makes the chief feature of this duced, producing a prodigiously beaupicture, towards the summit of which tiful effect. To this the grosio, proa singular phenomenon is seen; a perly so called, is united, supported broad patch, highly tinged with green, by pillars, and furnished in the acand evidently appearing to be cop. customed style of these excavations, per-mineral, whose lofty situation but with great splendour and ex. ihrows some light upon, and adds pence. A door opens upon a natural much strength to the hypothesis of stone terrace, immediately under the the modern production of metals by beetling ledge that crowns the suminit descending materials. Quitting our of the august rock seen from below, seal, near which we contemplated where we stood looking down a fright.' with horror the profoundly cieep well ful precipice of seven hundred feet of the ancient castle, we were led into beneath us, with the grand hill and a hollow, a cut in the solid rock, its ruined castle before us, and a from whence all prospect being ex- stretch of country to the right. We cluded, the eye is contined to a now left the apartment, to return to gloomy cavern, at the termination of the surface of the rock, but the wonwhich is a door faced with an iron ders of this excavation were not yet grating, a stately stern figure of a exhausted. Passing through another lion appearing through the bars. As- dark subterraneous cavern, we sudcending by a path from this abyss, we denly found ourselves at the entrance are led through an undulating mea of a small chapel, where the light of dow towards the grotto hill, that vast purple hue, or rather • darkness via natural wall of rock we had been sible, will just allow the eye to discontemplating from below. The walk tinguish an altar, and other approup this declivity is extremely well priate appendages. Whilst contemmanaged, shutting out, by its depth plating these, a venerable figure, of shade, the scenery intended to clothed in the stile of a Druid, slowly burst upon the vision at once from pacing from a dark recess in the its elevated summit. Arrived here, apartinent, crossed before us to the we passed on to the grotto, one of the altar, made her obeisance, and demost novel, grand, beautiful, and ex- parted, leaving us much surprised at, tensive works of the kind in Europe. and almost ashamed of the very sinThe very happy approach to it is by gular impression which our ininds a natural rent in the rock, discovered could be made to experience, even and cleared for the purpose last win- from childish toys, if presented to ter, which conducts to a sub-rupal them under particular circumstances. passage, about one hundred yards Quitting the grotto, we threaded the jong, six feet high, and two feet wide, other mazes of this singular place, cut out of the living rock about twelve taking in the Hermitage, where a ve. years ago. From hence all light is nerable figure is seen in a sitting posexcluded; so that, directing our pro- ture, who (by means of a servant pregress by feeling the wall, we conti. viously placed behind him) rises up nued our way in outer darkness for the stranger approaches, asks some time, till a solemn golden ra: questions, returus answers, and rediance appeared before us, as if shed peats poetry. Passing over the Pont from a diferent sun than from that de Suisse, a rude bridge (tbrown which warms our globe, discovering across the gulph, which separates the a vaulted cavern supported by rude rocky mountains on which we had stone pillars. The eilect is magical, been hitherto engaged, from its suband the mind (turned out of sober lime neighbour, where the view is reality) indulges in fancies as pleas- extremely awful) we mounted the ing as they are imaginary, till reach, obelisk, erected on the highest point ing the excavated chamber, we find of the terrace, from whence is a view that this beautiful illumination is oc one hundred miles in diameter, with casioned by the solar light passing this beautiful singularity, that the eye
is in no one direction lost in space, its furniture are described, and among but every where meets with a resting- the pictures is that of Edward Wortpoint in the beautiful belt of distant ley Montague, with the following mountains that bound the horizon. biographical sketch. Leaving this modern decoration, we Edward Worley Montague, half crossed the park to a remain of antin length, by Romney, in a Turkish qnity, a noble example of Roman dress. The garb alone bespeaks some castrametation, called Bury-Walls, one peculiarity of disposition; but inof the most perfect of the kind in deed the whole of his life displays, Europe, containing about thirty acres even in the most trivial occurţences, within its mounds. Nature on three a spirit for adventure. When a boy sides had sufficiently defended the be eloped three tiines from Westspot, so that the Romans had only to minster School, and followed the occast up vallations on the remaining cupation of a chimney-sweeper, cried one ; but this was done in their best fish in Rotherhithe, and sailed as a castyle, by three high mounds, which bin-boy to Spain, where he deserted rendered the place impregnable. Con. from the vessel, and drove mules; in nected with military matters, though that capacity he was discovered by of a much later age, was the place the British Consul, who returned him we next visited--a cavern in the tower to his friends. In hopes of recoverglen, where an ancestor of the Hill ing lost time, he was then provided family, who was unsuccessful in the with a tutor, and qualified for his fuservice of Charles I. concealed him- ture situation in life. He sat in two self for a time from the pursuit of the successive parliaments, but being the · parliamentarian forces.
child of eccentricity, he married a “ An urn is placed near the cave, washerwoman, with whom he refused whose inscription recounts the cir: to cohabit, because the match was cumstances of his concealment and made in a frolic. Involving himself of its ill success.
in debt, he quitted his native coun
try, resolving to accommodate him• Anno 1784, this was placed here by Sir self to the manners of every kinge
• RICHARD Hill, Bart. (eldest son of dom through which he passed. In • Sir ROWLAND HILL, Bart.) one of the Italy, Spain, Egypt, and Constanti. • Knights of the Shire, as a token of af- nople, he formed connections, which * section to the memory of his much-re• spected ancestor, RowLAND HILL, of his stay in each place : drank coffee
he considered no longer lasting than able for bis great wisdom, piety, and plentifully, wore a long beard, smokCharity'; who, being a zealous royalist, ed much, dressed in the Eastern style, • hid bimself in this glen in the civil war3
and sat cross legged in the Turkish in the time of King Charles the First; fashion. On hearing of the death of • but being discovered, was imprisoned in his English wife, he was desirous of
the adjacent castle, commonly called Red returning home to marry again, and • Castle, whilst his house was pillaged and prevent his estate devolving to the • ransacked by the rebels. The castle it- children of his sister, Lady Bute, and • self was soon afterwards demolished. for that purpose advertised for a de• His son, Rowland Hill, Esq. coming to
cent young woman, in a state of preg. * his assistance, also suffered inuch in the
nancy; the challenge was accepted, * same loyal cause.'
and the expectant bride only disap“ The above account, taken from pointed by ihe hand of death, which Kimber's Baronetage, as also from arrested this inatchless oddity at Pa. the traditions of the family, holds dua, 1776. Æt. 64.” p. 243, 244. forth to posterity the attachment of Letter X. contains a description of this ancient house to an unfortunate the road from Warwick to Bath. and inuch injured sovereign.” p. 175 Passing through Stratford-on-Avon, -180.
particular attention is paid to the Letter IX. describes the road taken memory of Shakspeare, and after by the author from Watling Street making a tour of 1157 miles, the au. to Warwick, in which is to be found thor finds himself in the arms of his in succession the chief articles of Bri- family at Bath. tish manufacture. The towns and their manufactures are particularly noticed. Arriving at Warwick, the castle and
of an invitation which he had reXCIX. THE LIFE OF POGGIO ceived from Beaufort, Bishop of \int
BRACCIOLINI. By the Rev. Wil chester. He observed with chagrin LIAM SHEPHERD, 410. Embellished the uncultivared state of the public with a beautiful Vignette, on Wood. mind in Britain, when coinpared with
the enthusiastic love of elegant lite(Concluded from page 325.) rature, which polished and adorned NITAP. III. contains memoirs of his native country. The period of Poggio receives a copy of his treatise nounced by one of our most accurate De Re Uxoriâ.-Poggio journeys in historians to be, in a literary point quest of ancient manuscripts, which of view, one of the darkest which oc, he was informed were scattered in va- curs in the whole series of British anrious monasteries, and succeeds in nais.”. Among the reasons assigned completing the works of many classic for the state of literature at this time authors, which till then were imper- is the following : “ Till the reign of fect.
Henry IV. no farmer or mechanic «« The council of Constance had was permitted to send his children to given an awful admonition to here- school; and long after that period, ties. It had alsn, by an extraordi- a licence from his lord was necessary nary exertion of authority, etfected to enable a man of this description to an union of the true believers under educate a son for the church. Whilst a legitimate head in the person of the majority of the people were thus Martin V. But a most important impeded in their approach to the and difficult matter remained unac fountains of knowledge, it was imcomplished, namely, the reformation possible for learning to raise ber of the church. The newly elected drooping head. The feudal supontiff listened with apparent compla. periors, exalted by the aecident of cence to the petitions which were their birth to the enjoyment of power from time to time preferred to him and plenty, had no motive to induce by the various subdivisions of the them to submit to the labour of study. council, beseeching him to prosecute The younger branches of noble las this good work by all the means in milies were early taught to depend his power; but he contrived by stu- pon their swords for subsistence; died delays so to protract the consia and the acquisition of learning was deration of the particular heads of an object far beyond the scope of the reform, that the members of the as. oppressed and humble vassal." p. 127. sembly, weary of their long residence During his residence in England in Constance, were eager to embrace he recejved an invitation to take the the first opportunity of returning to office of secretary to the Pope, Mar. their respective homes. This oppor- tin V. which was accepted by him, tunity was afforded, them on the being disappointed in the expectatwenty-second of April, 1418, on tions he had formed from the Bishop which day the Pope formally dis- of Winchester. missed the council *
Contents of Chapter IV.-State of “ It appears probable that Poggio Italy during Poggio's residence in held no office under the new pontitt, England.--Martin V. retires to Flo. as he visited England in consequence rence.-Retrospect of the history of
that city:-Martin is dissatisfied with * From a MS. which is preserved at Vienna. L'Enfant has given the following list arms, 65--Jugglers, or merry-andrews, 346 of the persons who attended this wonderfully ---Barbers, 300---Courtezans, whose habinumerous assembly-Knights, 2;300-Pre- tations were known to the author of the list. latex, priests, and presbyters, 18,000 - Lay- 700. It should seem, however, that this inmen, 80,000. In a more detailed catalogue, dustrious chronicler had not visited all these the laymen are thus enumerated--Gold- professional ladies, as the Vienna list esusmiths, 45-Shopkeepers, 330--Bankers, inates their number at 1,500! From a me249--Shoemakers, 70)— Farriers, 48-Apo- morandum subjoined to this list, it appears, thecaries, 44-Smiths, 92-Confectioners, that during the sitting of the council, one of 75--Bakers belonging to the pope, &c. 950 these trail fair ones carned the sum of 800 -Vintners of Italian wines, 83-Victuallers florins. for the poorer sort, 43—Florentine money
L'Enfant's History of the Council of changers, 48--Taylors, 228-Heralds at Constance, vol. ii. p. 415, 416..
dassare Cossa (the deposed Pope, against the folly and wichedness of John II.) is liberated froin confine the monastic life, the following quoment, and submits to the authority tation is taken,“ Let me ask of what of Martin V.- His death.-Martin V. utility are they to the faith, and transfers his court to Rome.-Poggio what advantage do they confer on effects a reconciliation between two the public? I cannot find that they of his friends who had been at vari, do any thing but sing like grasshopance, and writes a letter to one of pers; and I cannot help thinking thein on the event-Council of Payia, they are too liberally paid for the which is transferred to Siena, and mere exercise of their lungs. But there dissolved.-Hostility of Alfon- they extol their labours as a kind of zn of Arragou against Martin V.- Herculean task, because they rise in L'nsuccessful attempts to crush the the night to chant the praises of God, reformers in Germany. - Termination This is no doubt an extraordinary of the schism.-Poggio's Dialogue on proof of merit, that they sit up to A varice.-The Fratres Observantiæ exereise themselves in psalmody. satirized by Poggio.--Poggio excites What would they say if they rose to displeasure by curbing the zeal of go to the plough like farmers, exthe Fratres Observantiæ.-His let- posed to the wind and rain with bare ters on this subject, and his opinion feet, and with their bodies thinly clad. of the monastic life, and itinerant In such a case, no doubt, the Deity preachers.-Reflections.
could not possibly requite them for In the Dialogue on Avarice, Poggio their toil and sufferings. But it may satirizes with great severity the fri. be said there are many worthy men ars, wbo were a branch of the order amongst them. I acknowledge it. of Franciscans, who, on account of It would be a lamentable thing indeed, their extraordinary strictness, with should there be no good men in so which they professed to exercise their vast a multitude. But the majority ponventual discipline, were distin- of them are idle, hypocritical, and guished with the title of Fratres Ob- destitute of virtue. How many do servantie. Several of these friars, you think enter upon a religious lise without either good principles or good through a desire to amend their moabilities, presuming to preach, Pog- rals ? "You can recount very few who gio has drawn the following striking do not assume the habit on account picture of them: “Inflated by the of some extraneous cause. They depretended inspiration of the Holy dicate not their minds, but their boSpirit, they expound the sacred Scrip: dies, to devotional exercises. Many tures to the populace, with such gross adopt the monastie garb on account ignorance, that nothing can exceed of the imbecility of their spirits, their folly, I have often gone to which prevents them from exerting hear them for the sake of amusement, themselves to gain an honest livelifor they were in the habit of saying hood. Some, when they have spent things which would move to laughter their property in extravagance, enter the gravest and most phlegmatic man on the face of the earth. You might in his Facetiæ, a mortifying explanation which see them throwing themselves about, one of these noisy orators provoked by his as if they were ready to leap out of overweening vanity. " A monk," says he, the pulpit; now raising their voices
preaching to the populace, made a most to the highest pitch of fury-now enormous and uncouth noise, by which a good sinking into a conciliating whisper- wuman, one of his auditors, was so much sometimes they beat the desk" with affected, that shc burst into a flood of tears. their hands-sometimes they laughed, The preacher, attributing her grief to remorse and in the course of their babbling, of conscience excited within her by his elothey assumed as many forms as Pro- quence, sent for her, and asked her why she teus. Indeed they are more like
was so piteously affected by his discourse. monkeys than preachers, and have Holy father
, answered the mourner, I am a no qualification for their profession, sain myself by the labour of an ass, which
poor widow, and was accustomed iv mainexcept an unwearied pair of lungs *.'
was left me by my late husband. But alas! p. 176.
my poor beast is dead, and your preaching
brought his braying so strongly to iny recol* Appendix ad Fasciculum Rer. Expet. et lection, that I could not restrain my griet." Fuz. p. 578. Poggio has commemorated.
Poggii Opera, p. 479.
into religious houses, because they grown up to man's estate. This ate think that they shall there find a rich dacious ecclesiastic, being interro. pasture; others are induced to hide gated on the subject, freely and es in these abodes the infamy which openly declared, to the great amaze.lv they have contracted by their igno. ment of the Pope and the whole ponad rance, and by their dissolute and tifical court, that he had four other abandoned course of life.” p. 183. sons able to bear arms, who were all
Chap. V. Eugenius IV.raised to the at his Holiness's service.” After nopontificate, whose authority com- ticing other scandalous enormities, ienced with unhappy omens, being which brought disgrace upon the chase engaged in quarrels both in Italy and racter of some ecclesiastics of those Germany; in the latter place the times, Poggio thus concluded~" Asco pontifical army has very bad success. to your advice on the subject of my Poggio, foreseeing the disaster, writes future plans of life, I am determined freely upon the subject to the Car- not to assume the sacerdotal office dinal Julian, the Pope's legate. In for I have seen many men, whom this letter were some smart 'strokes have regarded as persons of good cha; of satiric wit, which the disappointed racter and liberal dispositions, degeand irritated mind of Julian could nerate into avarice, sloth, and dissi. not well bear. Poggio's morals were pation, in consequence of their intro. not free from blame; and the Cardinal duction into the priesthood.-Fearing in his answer reminds him of having lest this should be the case with mychildren, which, he observes “is in self, I have resolved to spend the consistent with the obligations of an remaining term of my pilgrimage as ecclesiastic; and by a mistress, which a layman ; for I have too frequently to is discreditable to the character of observed that your brethren, at the a layman.” To these reproaches time of their tonsure, not only part Poggio replied in a letter replete with with their hair, but also with their the keenest sarcasm. He pleaded conscience and their virtue." p. 199, guilty to the charge which had been 200. exbibited against bim, and candidly The meeting and proceedings of confessed that he had deviated from the council of Basil, with its violent the paths of virtue. “ I might answer dealings towards the Pope, come next to your accusation," said he, “that I in order; an insurrection in Rome have children, which is expedient for causes the Pope to flee, Poggio is the laity, and by a mistress, in con taken captive, and obliged to ransom formity to the custom of the clergy himself by a sum of money. He refrom the foundation of the world. pairs to Florence. But I will not defend my errors--you
Chap. VI. gives an account of the know that I have violated the laws of state of parties at Floreuce upon Pogo morality, and I acknowledge that I gio's return, with the character of have done amiss.” Endeavouring, Cosmo de Medicis, the friend of however, to palliate his offence—"Do Poggio, who becomes the head of the we not,” says be, “every day, and in faction of the people, and is ba. all countries, meet with priests, monks, nished : to whom Poggio writes 2 abbots, bishops, and dignitaries of a consolatory letter, which for its ex. still higher order, who have families ellence, did our limits perunit, we of children by married women, wi- 'should be happy to transcribe. This dows, and even by virgins conse- chapter closes with an account of a crated to the service of God? Those quarrel between Francesco Filelfo (an despisers of worldly things, as they avowed enemy to Cosmo de Medicis
) style themselves, who travel from and Poggio, considered as the inost place to place, clothed in coarse learned inen of the age. A part of and vile raiment, with downcast looks their severe satires is inserted. calling upon the name of Jesus, fol Chap. VII. The Romans submit low the precept of the apostle, and to the arms of the pontiff
, who con: seek after that which is not their own, cludes a peace with his enemies, and to use it as their own, and scorn to seizes a part of the Neapolitan terri
: hide their talent in a napkin. I have tories. The council of Basil denounce often laughed at the bold, or rather immoral ecclesiastics, lay down rules impudent profession of a certain lta. for the decent solemnization of divine lian abbot, who waited on Martin V. worship, and prohibit the ponti accompanied by his son, who was from bestowing the goveroment of