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any prorince, city, or territory ap. the conciliatory disposition of the pertaining to the church, on any of Grecian monarch, they immediately his relatives, to the third generation issued a decree, whereby they eninclusive. Poggio purchases a villa gaged to pay the expences which he in 'aldarno, and on account of the should incur on his voyage to Italy, esteem in which he is held by the and during his residence in that counTepublic of Florence, he and his chil. try; and moreover undertook to maindren are exempted from the payment tain seven hundred persons of his reof taxes. He decorates his villa with ţinue, including the ecclesiastics whom ancient sculpture and monuments of he inight select to participate in their art. At the age of fifty-five he mar deliberations. But Eugenius being ries a young lady, whom he cele well aware that the Greeks would brates for her great beauty, modesty, add considerable weight to the asanal sense, in a number of letters sembly they should resolve to counwhich he writes to bis friends, ex tenance by their presence, sent a sufpressing his happiness in the married ficient number of gallies to transstale. He publishes a collection of port Palæologus and his attendants, Lis letters, and composes a funeral and transmitted to the Grecian mouration on the death of Niccolo Nic- narch a considerable sum of money coli.

to enable him to make his appearance Chap. VIII. Proceedings of the in Italy with a splendour suitable to council of Basil, which formally im- his exalted station. He decided in peach the Pontiff in many accusa favour of the Pope's oiler, and the tions

, and summon him to appear union of the Greek and Latin churches within sixty days, under pain of in was formed at Ferrara.- In this chap. curring such penalties as the council, ter are also the following contents: An in case of his refusing to comply with account and censure of an obscene l its requisitions, should think fit to publication, entitled Hermaphrodiimpose upon him. The Pontial issues tus.-The council of Basil depose Eua ball, transferring the council to genius and elect Amadeus, Duke of forence, which the fathers of Basil Savoy, Pope in his stead.Birth of bra formal act declare null and void, Poggio's eluest son.--Curious correand soon after summon Eugenius tó spondence between Poggio and the appear and plead to the charges Duke of Milan.-Continuation of the Auch had been exhibited against hiin, quarrel between Poggio and Filelfo, and on his failing to appear, either in - Poggio's dialogue on Nobility, and prison or by proxy, they pronounced his correspondence with Gregorio tim contumacious, and unanimously Corriario in defence of that dialogue. decreed that he should be proceeded -Death of Lorenzo de Medicis, and against accordingly. The Pontiif hav- Poggio's funeral eulogium on him. ing issued a second bull, summoning Chap. IX. War between the Flothe representatives of the Christian rentines and the Duke of Milan.conmunity to Ferrara, for the pur- Treachery and death of Vitelleschi.pose of effecting a union between the The Duke of Milan makes peace with Lain and the Greek churches, the the Florentines.-Death of Niccolo council prohibited all ecclesiastics, d'Este Marquis of Ferrara.--Characunder pain of excommunication, from ter of his successor Lionello, with yielding obedience to the mandate whom Poggio corresponds, and sells of their spiritual sovereign.

him a copy of Jerome's Epistles for The Grecian emperor, John Pa one hundred ducats, which occasions Izologus II. alarmed by the growing the following observation : " If the power of the Turks, which threat ducat be estimated at seven shillings ened his dominions with devastation English money, the Epistles of Je. and ruin, was induced to hope, that rome were purchased by Lionello at li he could by a personal conference, the expence of thirty-five pounds steraccommodate his religious differences ling. From the history of Filelfo it with the representatives of the Latin appears, that at this time the salary church, the European powers might of a public professor of literature be persuaded to lend him effectual rarely exceeded four hundred ducats; a-sistance against the hostile attacks so that the price of a couple of voof the common enemy of the Chris- jumes absorbed one fourth of the sum 1. all name. When the members of which was deemed an adequate antie council of Basil were apprized of nual recompense for the services of a

man of consummate learning: The Siculus-Facetiz-Historia discepta. exhibition of these facts will demon- tiva convivialis, and his letter on tistrate the difficulties which obstruct. study of law.–This chapter notice ed the paths of learning in the four- also his quarrels with George of Treteenth and fifteenth centuries. It bisond and Tommaso da Rieti.-Thwill also tend to make the modern renewal of hostilities with Filelfo, anu scholar sensible of the tribute of gra- their reconciliation. titude which he owes to the inventor Chap. XI. Death of Carlo Aretina. of the typographic art.” p. 377. -Poggio is chosen chancellor of ti

Eugenius bad with reluctance yield- Florentine republic, and one of tom ed to Francesco Sforza the governi- priori degli arti.--War between ti ment of Marca d'Ancona, and takes Florentines and the King of Naples.the opportunity of his absence tu dis- Peace of Lodi.- Death of Nicolas 1. possess him of his government, which --Account of the quarrel between displeasing the Florentines, he quitted Poggio and Lorenzo Valla.—Poggio' Florence, and continued a short time Dialogue de Miseria humana Cor. at Sienna, where his court was de- ditionis.Murder of Angelotto, carprived of an illustrious member in dinal of St. Mark.-Poggio's translaihe death of Nicolao Albergato, car tion of Lucian's Ass, and his Histors dinal of Santa Crocé, on whom Pog- of Florence. His death, character, gio writes a funeral eulogium.-Me- and an account of his children, fire moirs of Tommaso da Sarzano, to sons and a daughter. whom Poggio dedicates his dialogue His character closes the work. on the unhappiness of princes, which “ Inspired by a zealous love of his dialogue is analized.- Death of Leo- country, he had constantly pride nardo Aretino, the friend of Poggio himself upon the honour of being in his youth, to whom great respect citizen of a free state, and he neis paid in funeral honours.-Remarks glected no opportunity which preupon Gianozzo Manetti's oration on sented itself of increasing and disthat occasion. Poggio disapproving playing the glory of the Tuscan reof the oration writes an eulogium on public. And this end he most effeehis departed friend, which is followed tually promoted by the splendour ví by his character and the character of his own accomplishments. He so his successor Carlo Marsuppini. This faithfully improved the advantages chapter closes with the death of Car which he enjoyed in the course of bis dinal Julian, who advised the King education in the Florentine univerof Hungary treacherously to attack șity, that amongst the multitudes of the Turks, who had withdrawn their learned men who adorned his age, he forces into Asia, in consequence of occupied a station of the highesi em. a truce just made by that prince with rience. His admission into the Rothem, but rushing to arms they de- man chancery, and his continuance feated the Hungarians, killed their in offices of confidence under eight King, and routed his forces ; a body successive pontiffs, atford an ampe of the fugitives overtaking Julian, proof, not only of his ability in busiwhose pernicious councils they con ness, but also of his fidelity and intt. sidered as the cause of their calami- grity. Honoured by the favour oi ties, fell upon him and dispatched the great, he did not sacrifice his inhim with many wounds.'

dependence at the shrine of power, On the Cardinal, Poggio writes an but unisormly maintained the ingen euingium.

nuous sentiments of freedom. The Chap. X. Death of Eugenius IV. whole tenour of his writings evince, -He is succeeded in the pontificate that he united to the accomplish by Tommaso de Sarzana, who as ments of literature an intimate know sumes the nameof Nicolao. --The state ledge of the world ; and many par of affairs in Italy, and his exemplary sages might be quoted from his works conduct are noticed. —Poggio ad- to prove that the eye of his miau dresses the new pope, and obtains a surveyed a wider intellectual horizo". liberal reward.— A description of the than fell to the general lot of the age following works of Poggio is given : in which he lived. He was warm On the vicissitudes of fortune, and and enthusiastic in bis friendly alon hypocrisy-Invective against the tachments, and was duteously eager anti-pope Felix-Translation of Xe- to diffuse the renowo of those who nophon's Cyropædia and of Diodorus he loved. But acute sensations are

p. 400.

in Cascin.comelecting, as his exemplar Tauthor commences this work

not productive of signal virtues alone; difficult. When compared with the they too frequently betray mankind works of his immediate predecessors, into capital errors. Poggio was as the writings of Poggio are truly astoenergetic in the expression of resent- nishing Rising to a degree of element as he was enthusiastic in the gance, to be sought for in vain in the testinonies of his esteem. The licen. rugged Latinity of Petrarca and Cotiousness which disgraced the early luccio Salutati, he prepared the way part of his life, and the indecent le for the correctness of Politiano, vity which occurs in some of his writ and of the other eminent scholars ings, are rather the vices of tbe times whose gratitude has reflected such than of the man. Those circum splendid lustre on the character of . stances did not deprive him of the Lorenzo de Medici." p. 435–487. countenance of the greatest ecclesi This work contains the history of astical dignitaries--they did not cause the popes, the affairs of the church, him to forfeit the favour of the pious and of the states connected with the Eugenius, or of the moral and accom papal authority, during the life of plished Nicolas V. He seems indeed Poggio, as well as the biography of to have recommended himself to his contemporaries. most of those with whom he maintained a personal intercourse, by the urbanity of his manners, by the strength of his judgment, and by the C. SCIENCE REVIVED ; or, The Vin sportiveness of his wit.

sion of Alfred : a Poem in Eight Books. "As a scholar, Poggio is entitled

By the Rev. JOSEPH SYMPSON, to distinguished praise. By assiduous

B. D. 410. Embellished with two study he made a considerable pro

descriptive Plates drawn by Perno. ficiency in the Greek language, and became intimately conversant with

11n, and engraved by Minasi. the works of the Roman classic all HE

with an advertisement to his in Latin composition, that most ele- readers, describing the nature of his gant of all models, the style of Cic poem, informing them that he has cero, he manifested the discernment introduced supernatural agents, a of true taste.

His spirited endea- species of embellishment to which crivours to imitate this exquisite model, ticism has given the name of machinewere far from being unsuccessful. ry;" to which he adds:"mysuperraHis diction is flowing, and his pe- tural agents are denominated Sylphs, riods are well balanced. But by the though I have represented them as occasional admission of barbarous words and unauthorized phraseology, offices different from such as have

possessing qualities, and performing he reminds his readers, that at the time when he wrote, the iron age of

been hitherto assigned to those literature was but lately terminated.

-Gay creature of the elements,

That in the colours of the rainbow live, His most striking fault is diffusenessa diffuseness which seems to arise,

And play i’th' plighted clouds. not so much from the copiousness of

This liberty I thought might be bis thoughts, as from the dificulty taken without violation of propriety, which he experienced in clearly ex

as Sylphs are beings of modern inpressing his ideas. It must, however,

vention, whose characters are not yet be observed, that he did not, like fixed, like those of pagan mythology, many modern authors who are cele

from the mention of which the reader brated for their Latinity, slavishiy would now turn away with contempt.” contine bimself to the compilation of cantos from the works of the ancients.

BOOK I. In the prosecution of his literary labours, he drew from his own stores ;

Alfred the. Great supplicates the and those frequent allusions to the Goddess of Science to descend and encustoms and transactions of his own lighten the world, of which the greattiines, which render his writings so

est part was then buried in the darkinteresting, must, at a period when est shades of ignorance -She hears the Latin language was just rescued

bis prayer, and appears, accompanied from the grossest barbarisin, have by innumerable crowds of Sylphsrendered their composition peculiarly Her speech to Alfred-He, in reply, VOL. I.

3 E

THE ARGUMENT.

cree,

the ray,

declares his admiration of the Sylphs, And niuch high Heav'n allows. Be her's the and expresses a wish to be acquainted

task with their history --The goddess, in To solve whatever may solution ask; compliance with his wish, describes To puur discernment exquisitely fine them to be spirits, the shadows or

Along thy nerves of vision shall be mine;

Hence many an object by o'erruling fate representations of material things, and relates several particulars concerning Before thine eyes shall pass in clear review,

Reserv'd for periods of remotest date, them-She then exhorts him to pre. Without the aid of euphrasy or rue ; pare for his journey to the palace of Soon shalt thou lost in joy and wonder se Genius.

The grand accomplishment of heaven's deBOOK II.

When Europe's sons shall catch the gen'rous THE ARGUMENT.

flame, The flight of the Goddess and Al- A love of knowledge, liberty, and fame; fred through the immense region of And while they spread from breast to breast space-Their arrival at the palace of Genius - A description of that Up the proud steep of glory urge their way. deity -- His speech to Alfred–The Pre.eminence by different paths they reach,

As I a different impulse give to each. allegorical beings by whom he is en

Some bid Religion stand to view confessid, compassed — An account of seven

Freed from the load of Superstition's vest : personages * seated on seven thrones Soft on the eye her native beauties break, around the great hall of the palace- An holy transport glist’ning on her cheek. The Goddess and Alfred ascend to the With mimic features some the canvass warm, top of one of the towers of Specula. Of finish'd grace disclosing ev'ry charm. tion.

Some, whose impassion'd breasts the Muses

fire, The Speech of Genius 10 ALFRED. Wake the sweet spirit of th'harmonious lyre,

And the bland airs of poesy dispense “ ALFRED! thine eyes have now beheld

Balm to the soul, and fragrance to the sense. the pow'r,

With search unwearied others trace the laws Whose secret influence rul'd thy natal hour;

Of various Nature to th' eternal cause, Who fir'd thee, in the early dawn of youth, With the pure love of knowledge and of truth; And in her hand the scales replace, while all

To earth once more divine Astræa call, Who, rousing all its energies, inclin'd

Think for themselves on Reason's sacred plan, To patriot zeal the bias of thy mind; Breath'd a free spiris, bade thy soul revolve

And claim the just prerogatives of man." Heroic schemes, and stamp'd the firm re

P. 30–33. solve

BOOK III. Deep on thy breast. Nor have my cares

been vain; Thy youthful strength has crush'd the

savage A prodigious host of Sylphs, at the Dane,

command of the Goddess, assemble Full fifty times his thickest battle torn t, And Victory's standard through his legions before her---She directs them to form borne,

representations or pictures of the Th'audacious hopes of fierce invasion principal events destined to be subquell’d,

servient to the advancement of civi. And rape and rapine from the land expell’d. lization and knowledge- A view of Now wisdom's gentler lore, and counsels England invaded by Williain the Consage

queror, and the battle of HastingsShed a mild lustre o'er thy riper age; Observation of the Goddess on those To science now thy vows are all address’d, events—The influence of the popes Science, by whom alone a state is blest, Science, the object of my warmest love,

in promoting the crusades - The

book concludes with some remarks With whom I daily rapturous pleasures prove, Who of my kingdom shares an equal part,

made by the Goddess on the introducAnd still shall reign sole empress of my heart.

tion of the learning of the Saracens “ Go then beneath her guidance, and be

into Europe. hold All that high Heav'n allows us to unfold,

I MICHAEL from Adam's eye the film

removed, * Logic, Rhetoric, Geometry, History,

Which that false fruit that promis'd clearer Harmony, Astronomy, and Morality.

sight + Historians relate that Alfred engaged Had bred; then purg'd with euphrasy and rue the Danes in fifty-six pitched battles, with

The visual nerve, for he had much to see, various success, though generally victo

And from the well of life three drops instill'd. rious,

See Paradise Lost, Book XI. Notes, p. 213.

THE ARGUMENT.

THE ARGUMENT.

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The Goddess introduces Alfred to

BOOK IV. the Sylphs, and gives him the following character:

The wretched condition of learn. “Know, ALFRED courts your grace; a ing during the fourteenth and fifteenth

chief whose name Swells in the breath of sublunary fame.

centuries The art of making gunWhile a base aye, an object of disgust,

powder discovered by ROGER BAGrovels with sordid pleasure in the dust,

Con-Observations on the persecuAnd other kings to ev'ry vice are prone,

tions to which men of science were He stands erect, and summons' round the exposed at that period–The inventhrone

tion of printing-The happy conse. The guardian virtues : Honour without stain; quences of that invention- A persoCourage, avenging insult, yet humane; nification of Discovery-Columbus Who never strikes, but when th'heroic blow arrives at the Bahamian Islands in Is aim'd by Justice at his country's foe; Ainerica-Nasco de Gama doubles The gentle beam of Mercy’: glistening eye; the Cape of Good Hope, and proseTruth that to purchase life disdains a lie; Resolve, adhesive to his purpos'd plan,

cutes his voyage to the East Indies With a'l that softens or exalts the man.

Refinement and knowledge diffused Nor fails he hourly to my shrine to bring

over the globe by commerce. Oblations worthy of a patriot king,

The invention of printing is thus Revards bestow'd on learning. At our hands

introduced : Such high desert no trivial meed demands.”

“At length thy spectres, Ignorance, shall

fly After a figurative description of Hail rare device! to favour’d mortals giv'n

Before the press, and ease the burthened sky. the rise and progress of the papal In the full bounty of indulgent heav'n! power, the poet thus proceeds, in ex

Oppression's terror, Freedum's surest guard, planation:

Guilt's sharpest scourge, and Virtue's best An eye of keen enquiry on his guide

reward! The sage astonish'd bent. She thus replied. From the redoubted engine, shake the world.

Bolts uf each shape and size, by Reason hurl'd “ Yon phantom, prince! invold in dusky The small but keenly polish'd shafts of wit,

gloom, Shadows the giant pow'rs of papal Rome;

Launch'd with just aim, the slighter foibles An baughty pow'r by Superstition nurs’d,

hit; And sulien Bigotry, of pests the worst.

The catapult, with argument's strong blow, On Tiber's banks the Titan to the clouds

Lays hoary Prejudice and Error low; Lifts his enormous tow'ring bulk, and Against the battery Impudence's shield;

The boldest Vice, without effect, shall wield shrouds

Her broken vizard Fraud shall cease to trust, His head in darkness. Grasping in his hand Bolts forg'd in hell, he shakes the prostrate

And Pride's high plumes lie scatter'd in the land.

dust."

p. 70, 71, Taught to suppose, with credence weak and blind,

Haerlem is the place named where Heaven's awful thunder to his arm consign'd, printing was first invented ; and afThe proudest kings revere him as a god,

ier describing the method of using Shrink from his power, and tremble at his the printing-press, and the advannod.

tages resulting from it in the rapid Affecting in Religion's name to bless circulation of knowledge, the Prince The bloody deed Religion would suppress, suggests the following enquiry, to His voice shall rouse a rude unletter'd age To all the madness of fanatic rege.

which we add the reply of the God.

dess : Hence burning with a frantic wish to chase From Salem's hallow'd walls an impious race,

“ But will the instrument, celestial guide ! And purchase from the bonds of sin release, Return’d the prince, he still tu good apply'd ? By warring for the Prince of love and peace, Man prone to evil oft perversely bends Torn from its basis half the western world The choicest blessings to the worst of ends. Rolls eastward, on the shores of Asia hurld, “ Again the Goddess. No, with side-long Wbere soon Orontes flows with slaughter red,

glance And Pharphar groans, surcharg'd with heaps Low covering, Slander shall by stealth of dead,

advance, While, as thou see'st, beneath the open sky, The battery seize, and thence, with hellish Whitening their banks, the bones of myriads lie."

p. 59–61. Shafts dipt in blackest gall at Merit dart.

Thence Prejudice and Bigotry shall pour
Scholastic jargon in a raitling show'r.

art,

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