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standing and veracity, says: When ledges that he cherishes a predilec. • I first saw this tree, I concluded tion for these efforts, excited as they • myself imposed upon by the de- may have been by imagination ra• scriptions of preceding travellers, ther than chastened by judgment."
and was convinced that the origi- p. i, ii. 'nal tree had been cut down, and The nature of this work may
the present group formed by new easily be understood by the following • shoots sprung out of the old root; information extracted from the pre.but upon a closer examination I face. " It embraces some of the 'changed my opinion. This won most interesting or less known in• derful production of the vegetable stitutions, founded on the national • kingdom consists of a trunk now benevolence of this distinguished • split to the surface of the earth, island, which Linnæus justly en• but, as I found by digging all round, titled the punctum vitæ in vitello or
united in one body at a very small bus. p. iii. • depth below.'
" A considerable portion of the "'We measured the circumference volumes is occupied by the rules and of this tree, and found it to be regulations of the respective estatwenty-five canne and six palmi, orblishments, which I thought it requione hundred and sixty-two French site to admit, as the means of enafeet, pied de roi, which is something bling persons in distant parts of these larger than the Rhenish foot. A can- kingdoms, as well as foreiguers, to na contains eight palms, the palm a form similar ones.” p. iii. iv. span, including the first joint of the Section 11. Hints respecting the imthumb.
mediate Effects of Poverty. “ We and our whole escort, mules After a pathetic exordium on the and all, found more than sufficient effects of poverty, the author introroom within this tree; nor were we duces a case of extreme distress, incommoded by the remains of a with the following remarks. stone house and oven, which had “ The benevolence of this nation been built there, and you will easily is great beyond comparison, and when perceive, from its circumference, real distress is known, some tender that the name Dei cento cavalli is no bosom overflows with comfort and exaggeration. Huge branches spread succour; but the chief examples of froin its principal irunks on all sides; nisery are unknown, and unrelieved. and the vigorous vegetation of its Many there are too diftident to green old age increases the admiration apply for aid, or ignorant how to do which its aspect excites, especially it ; some of these pine away in solihaving suffered, as it has done, from tary wait, till death closes their sufthe ravages of time, in despite offerings ; numbers, however, rather which its venerable ruins rather re than silently suffer their husbands, semble a grove than a tree. View it their wives, and their children, utteron which side you will, its appear- ly to perish, supplicate our aid in ance is as beautiful as it is unique." the public streets and private avep. 310-312.
nues; but unfortunately for themi, the prevalent opinion that there is somewhere abundant provision for
the poor, and that idleness, vot neCXVII. Hints designed 10 promote cessiiy, prompts their petitions, in
Beneficence, Temperance, and Medi duce many to refuse that pittance, cal Science. By John COAKLEY which would prove no loss to them. LETTSOM, M. and LL. D. in three selves, and in some instances might Volumes, 8vo.
save a life.
“ In many diseases the attack is E
ACH of these volumes has an en- violent, and the progress rapid; and
graved title page, embellished before the settlement of a poor help. with a silhouette. The first is deco. less object can be ascertained, death rated with a silhouette of Dr. Lett- decides the controversy.
"I know that many undeserving “ Several of the essays contained objects intrude upon the benevolent, in this work have been already print- to the injury of real distress; but, raed, and some of them at an early pe. ther than those should suffer all the riod of the author's life; he acknow. pangs of misery, uppitied and uu:
aided, some enquiry might be made, and a worn out blanket, which conand their case ascertained : were this stituted the only couch, except the tried, it would frequently bring us floor, whereon this aiflicted family acquainted with situations and cir- could recline their heads 10 rest: constances of misery which cannot and what a scene did they present! be described ; acquaintance with Near the centre of the bed lay the such scenes of human woe would ex. mother with half a shift, and covered cite thankfulness for ourselves, and as high as the middle with the blancompassion for our fellow creatures, ket. She was incapable of telling het who are visited with sutrerings and complaints. The spittle, for want of paugs from which we have hitherto some fluid to moisten her mouth, had been providentially, if not undeserv. dried upon her lips, which, as well edly, preserved.
as her gums, were covered with a black These sentiments were the result crust--the concomitant symptoms of of a morning's walk in the metropo a putrid fever, the disorder under lis, which introduced the writer into which she laboured, in its most ina. some situations of real life, the rela- lignant state. At another end of the tion of which, he trusts, will not be blanket was extended a girl about unacceptable to those benevolent five years old: it had rolled from minds who think
under this covering, and was totally -To pity human woe
naked, except its back, on which a Is what the happy to the unhappy owe,
blister-plaister was tied by a piece of packthread crossed over its breast;
and, though labouring under this À MORNING WALK IN THE ME
dreadful fever, the poor creature was TROPOLIS.
asleep. On one side of its mother “ About the beginning of Decem- lay a naked boy, about two years ber, on going out of my house, I was old ; this little innocent was likewise accosted by a tall thin man, whose sleeping On the other side of the countenance exhibited such a picture mother, on the floor, or rather on of distress and poverty as tixed my an old box, lay a girl about twelve attention, and induced me to enquire years old; she was in part covered into his situation. Ile informed me with her gown and petticoat, but she he was a day-labourer, just recovered had no shitt. The feyer had not be, from sickness, and that feeble as he reaved her of her senses; she was then was, in order to procure suste. perpetually moaning out, : I shall die nance for a sick family at home, he • of thirst, pray give me some water was compelled to seek for work, and to drinki' 'Near ber stood another to exert himself much beyond his girl, about four years old, barefooted; strength; and he added, that he lived her whole covering was a loose piece in a court called Little Greenwich, of petticoat thrown over her shoulin Aldersgate Street. This poor ders; and to this infant it was that object seemed to feel distress too her sister was crying for water. deeply to be an impostor, and I “I now experienced how greatly could not avoid bestowing some the sight of real misery exceeds the means of obviating his present want, description of it. for which he retired bowing, with “ What a contrast did this scene tears in his eyes; but when he got exbibit to the plenty and elegance out of sight his image was present which reigned within the extent of a with me; I was then sorry that my few yards only! for this miserable generosity bad not been equal to my receptacle was opposite to the stately sensibility, and this induced me to edifice of an honourable alderman, attempt tinding out his family. He and still nearer were many spacious had mentioned that his name was houses and shops. I have observed Foy; and by the information he gave that the daughter, who was stretched me, I discovered his miserable habi. on the floor, was still able to speak. lation : with difficulty I found my She told me that something was the way up a dark passage and stair-case matter with her mother's side, and 10 a little chamber, furnished with asked me to look at it. I turned up one bedstead; an old box was the an edge of the blanket, and found that only article that answered the pure a very large mortification had taken pose of a chair, the furniture of the place, extending from the middle of bed consisted in a piece of old ticken, the body to the iniddle of the thiglie
and of a hand's breadth ; the length hours every day till he had counted was upwards of half a yard, and to the whole. stop its progress nothing had been “Quest. In what length of time applied. It was a painful sight to be could he do it. hold; and many not less painful ex “ Ans. 269 years 219 days and 20 ist in this metropolis. I procured hours. medical assistance immediately, and " 9. The whole of this debt being for a trifling gratuity got a neighbour 7,800 millions of shillings, and as 63 to nurse the family. The church. shillings make a pound troy, warden, to whom I made application, " Quest. The weight of the whole ? heard their history with concern, and “ Ans. 125 millions 806 thousand added his humane aid, to rescue 432 troy pounds. from death a poor and almost expir. " 3. As the breadth of a shilling is ing family. I have, however, the plea: one inch, and an acre of ground sure to conclude this relation of their contains 43,560 square feet, or unspeakable distress, by communi- 6,272,640 square inches, cating their total deliverance from " Quest. How much ground would it; which, I think, may be justly at- il require to lay the whole national tributed to the timely assistance admi- debt upon in shillings, close to one nistered.” LONDON, JAN. 1, 1780. apother's edge? p. 3-9.
“ Ans. 1,243 acres and a half. The foregoing scene of woe is re " 4. Supposing a joan could carry presented in an etching. Pathetic 100 pounds weight from Londoa to arguments to enforce the same prac
York, tice as was exemplified in the above Quest. How many could carry case conclude the section.
the whole ? Section 11. Hints respecting the “ Ans. I million 258 thousand and distresses of the poor in the years
64 men. 1794, 1795, with a silhouette of Ben " 5. Supposing all these men were to jamin Count Rumford, F. R.S, V. P. gn in a line, and keep two yards from P. R. I. Acad. R. Berol. Elec. Boicæ each other, et Palat. et Amer. Soc. &c.
“Quest. What length of road would In justification for publishing these they all require ? Hints, the author says, that“ although •i Ans. 1,429 miles, half a mile, and the restoration of peace, and better 210 yards. But England is not a crops of corn, may atford some me. third of that length, even from Ber. lioration of distress; yei a degree of wick to Weymouth. it, much greater than what the poor “ 6. Supposing the interest of this ever experienced prior to the war, debt to be only three and a half per will most probably be severely felt. cent. yearly, About four millions a year must be “Quest. What does the whole debt annually raised upon the public, amount to? more than was paid antecedently to “ Ans. 13 millions 650 thousand this scourge upon human kind. pounds sterling, which is paid every Taxes may primarily be laid on arti- year. cles of luxury, or on the opulent, “7. Quest. How is this interest paid but ultimately the burthen becomes annually? felt by the whole community, the “ Ans. By taxing those who lent great mass of which, forming the chief the principal, and others. consumers, pay the principal share of "'8. Quest. When will the whole every impost.
principal be paid? ? Perhaps the following queries ." Ans. When there is more money and answers may exhibit in an ob. in England's treasury by three-fold vious point of view the magnitude of than there is in all Europe. that debt, to pay the interest of “9. Quest. When will that be ? which the taxes so severely selt are “ Ans. Never." annually levied.
In the Hints the Dr. considers the * Supposing the national debt at earnings of the labouring poor topresent to be 309 millions of pounds tally inadequate to enable them to stering, and that the whole were to provide for any calamity or sickness be counted in shillings; that a man io which they are liable: and in such could count 100 shillings per minute, as censure the poor for improvidence, and go on at that rate for twelve recommends the calculation of the
money they themselves spend in ne, tricts, to visit and relieve such appli. cessary purposes: and proves that if cations as may come before them: the sickness comes upon the labouring advantages arising from such a super. wan, as bis necessities exceed his intendance of the opulent over the carnings, his misery, is inevitable indigent are then stated. In answer without immediate aid.
to an objection, that many of the poor In a note wbich is extracted from are 100 depraved to merit attentions a work, intituled a Proposal for a of this kind, it is said, few individuals perpetual Equalization of the Pay of are so hardened as to become irreof the labouring Poor, it recom claimable by kindness. mends to regulate the price of labour the plan of early relies once adopted, by the price of wheat, and fixes la- this hardened state would not be ac, bour at Is. per day, supposing wheat quired; for depravity is not habitual 6s. per bushel; but for every is. ad where oppression is not permanent. vance in the price of wheai, labour p. 34. to increase in the proportion of 2d, Here follows a number of receipts per dav.
of substitutes for bread made of The Doctor highly commends the wheaten four only, and of various practice of buying food, fuel, &c. for articles of cookery for the poor, the poor, that they may obtain these An eulogium on the character of articles good in quality and reason P. Colquhoun, LL D. accompanied able in price : and he reprobates the by bis silhouette, introduces a list of practice of those among ihe opulent, papers on the subject of the poor of who “ in rigorous seasons of the year the metropolis by that gentleman, treat the poor with a whole ox or which is followed by suggestions for oxen, and regale them with hogs. the purpose of reducing the con, heads of ale." "I doubt not,” says sumption of bread-corn, and the sub, the Doctor, “but they get well re, stitution of cheap and wholesome plenished for the day; but, alas! the food by means of soup establishinents, cay of feasting only makes them feel Every particular is specified rela, inore poignanily its reverse, the day tive to the formation and manageof fasting. It neither tends to good ment of a soup establishment, and inmorals nor to persevering industry, formation for the construction of a but, on the contrary, is destructive of soup house, with a plate and explaboth. Much more charitable would nation of the ground-plan of the it be to spend the money, which the soup house, in Orchard Street, donation of oxen and ale would cost, Westminster. The necessary, appain fuel, warm clothing, and other ratus is described, and a great numnecessaries, which would last beyond ber of receipts for making the soup the day of seasting and fulness, and tried at difierent places, and this sec. warm the indigent with comfort tion concludes wiilisome very importhrough the winter. Ye opulent and tant observations, from which we pregreat in the land, whilst I respect sent our readers with the following: your intentions, permit me to direct “ It has been said, that the day your beneficence into channels of · which makes a man a beggar takes real charity, to the permanent suc • away hall his worth :' it does more, collr of distress and pining want." it not only destroys his energy, but p. 97, 28.
it entails upon his oil spring a dispo, A reference is made here with sition to idleness, the source of every much modesty to the conduct of the vicious action: we may hope, therepeople called Quakers, who consist fure, that as soon as the immediate of about fifty thousand members, pressure from a scanty harvest shall among whom abject poverty is the have been obviated, the wages of the condition of none. The outlines of labourer will be raised suitably to Their plan is given, and their practice answer his necessary wants." p. 176, recommended, which, it is presumed, might casily be adopted: it is to re. “ The adage, that • Peace begets lieie distress at its commencement, Plenty,' will not be realized to the and thereby prerent the increasing poor in any extensive degree; for erils of its continuance; and that so the increase in the national debt, and cieties consisting of both sexes might consequently the increase of taxes, be formed, in parishes or small dis. however they may have been origi
nally laid on the wealthy, must ulti- goals, and, we are happy to say, by mately be paid by the great bulk of his humane interference remedied the people, who live by industry; evils, and relieved misery in the prihence the expence of subsistence sons of the metropolis. The origin, must be enhanced as well as all ne- progress, and present state of this cessary comforts of life; unless there benevolent institution is fully stated. fore the price of labour be augment Section V. flints respecting seed, the labourer must continue to male character, and a repository for live on charity; and, to establish tħis feinale industry. impolitic system, a bad government These bints are offered to plead in might be led to recomiend a tax favour of female character, and to on the public to perpetuate such de. shew tiat the majority of the ansorgrading benevolences; or, in other, tunate part of the female sex are not words, give a bounty on idleness, and vicious from choice, but necessity. lay a duty on industry, and thus, The Doctor says, “ As the unsuspiunder the veil of humanity, for ever cious, in that moment wherein innodestroy that spirit of industry which cence is not upon the guard, may be begets' good morals, and preserves led into that situation from which too that independence which every man few return, more from the contempt ought to maintain, and which is the they meet with from their acquaint. pride of the British constitution, and ance than from a vicious disposition, the boast of the English character." how important is it to cultivale a spi.
rit of compassion that endeavours to In a letter from P. Colquhoun, reclaim and protect a friend thus Esq. to the author, on the subject of suddenly plunged into distress! in. this section, it is observed that, " af- stead of that usual disregard which ter taking into the account rise of drives the unhappy victim from the avages, and all the additional aid af. example of virtuous company to a : forded from parochial relief and prin course of conduct which at tirst she vate benevolence, the balance against was incapable of pursuing." p. 260. the labouring people in the metropo Respecting the repository we pre. lis, comparing this year with 1798, sent the author's hints. is no less than two millions five hun “ The plan I wish to suggest is
, dred thousand pounds, near five millions to reward industry as soon as it has in two years I Such are their priva. become productive; to pay a certain tions ! No wonder then that they are price, a little under the value, forevery without apparel and furniture." article of female inger:uity brought to
the repository, wherever that reposiSection III. Hints respecting the tory may be established; by this society for bettering the condition, means no young woman will labour and encreasing the comforts of the without an iminediate reward; inpoor; with a silhouette of T. Bernard, dustry will be encouraged, and virtue Esq.
protected. In the introduction of this section “Once or twice a rear a sale of a distinction is made between poverty the goods on hand may be made by and indigence, and the poor are di- auction, and if any loss be sustainvided into five classes. This paper ed, let it fall among the governors or contains the origin of the socieiy, its patrons of the institution ; indivirules and recommendations, and a dually it must be trivial; and if the statement of its designs.
articies sell for more than the sum al Section IV. Hints respecting the which they were estimated, let the society for the discharge and relief of profit be paid to the young artist persons imprisoned for small debts; upon her application." with a silhouette of J. Neild, Esq. The objects designed to be bene
These hints contain some of the fitted are suitably expressed, and information communicated to the so- close the section. '. Such a system ciety by J. Neild, Esq. of the mise would gain the blessing of the daugti rable condition of many of the prin ters of many clergymen : of young sons in England and Wales, stating women brought up to good especiathe causes of distress, and means of tions, whose fathers have died in relief. For this Mr. Neild was fully duced circumstances; of thousands competent, having visited many of the that class a little below the midce