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ed with cushions and mattresses, bed middle was the fire, and around the clothes and coverings, and provided fire sat the Laplander's wife, a boy, with white wine, claret, brandy, fresh who was his son, and some inhospisalmon, roasted fowls, veal, hains, table and surly dogs, which never coffee, tea, and the necessary utensils. *ceased barking at us all the time we It was, says Mr. Ascerbi, nothing but remained near them. Fast by the & party of pleasure on the icy ocean. tent was erected a shed, consisting of The gulf indenting the mountains, five or six sticks or posts, that were offered every where the most magni- fastened to one another near the top, ficent and interesting prospect. in the same manner as the tent, and

In the course of this voyage they covered with skins and pieces of cloth. made some excursions on shore, and Under this canopy the Laplanders Avere greatly delighted with the plea- kept their provisions, which were, santness of the country. They visited cheese of the rein-deer, a small quanthe Laplanders settled on the coast, tity of milk of the same, and dried who generally lived at the distance fish. A little further was a rude inof a Norwegian mile or inile and a half closure, or paling, made in haste, from one another. Each Laplander is which served as a fold or yard for the the proprietor of the territory around rein-deer, when they were brought his little mansion, to the extent of a together to be milked-those animals Norwegian mile, or eight English, in were not near the tents at the time every direction.

we made our visit, they were in the On the state of these people it is mountains, from whence they would observed, “ bere the necessity of go- not descend till towards night. As vernment, for the distribution of jus- our travellers wished to see their deer, tice, and the equal protection of the for the reward of some brandy, the people, exists not. A small number Laplanders took their dogs, and they of inhabitants, dispersed over im were soon gratified in seeing a troop mnense tracts of land, have little in- of not less than three hundred de Jucement to make aggressions on scending from the mountains towards each other; and the general equality the tent.”. p. 107, 108. This is acof condition that prevails, and, above companied with an engraving. all, the constitutional feebleness of Arriving now very near the object passion, and equanimity of temper, of their journey, the author says, prevent not only infliction of injuries went on shore to the house of a mer. but resentment. Though the Lap- chant, situated on au island near landers are defenceless, yet the ri- Havesund : this was, perhaps, the gour of their climate and their po- most dismal situation on the face of verty secure them from invasion; and the earth. The whole land around thus they exist without combination it did not produce one tree or shrub: and protection, and without bending no, nor so much as a blade of grass : with submission to superiors. Here there was nothing to be seen but naked the melancholy examples, which ex- rocks. The inhabitant of that house ist in all histories, of the great tyran- had not any thing but what he brought nizing over the meaner sort, are not from a distance, not even fuel. The to be found, nor the falsehood and sun, for three months of the


is perjury which generally prevailamong not visible; and it, during that space rude and barbarous nations.” p. 104. of time, the atmosphere were not illus

lo one of their excursions on shore, minated by the aurora borealis, he after walking seven or eight English would be buried in profound darkmiles, says the author, " we came to a ness--Dreadful place to live at! The mountain Laplander's tent, and our only attraction in these abodes is tishcuriosity was satisfied: this tent was of ing, and the love of gain. The nearer a conical form, not shaped as tents one approaches the North Cape, the are in general. They put together more nature seems to frown; vegetaseveral posts or beams of wood, fresh tion dies, and leaves behind it noihing cut down, sticking them with one but naked rocks. end in the ground, and making thern Proceeding on our voyage, we meet at the top. These beans they left on our right the strait formed by cover all round with pieces of Magerön, or Bare Island, and the woollen cloth, which they fasten to continent. The vast expanse of the one another. The diameter of the Frozen Ocean opened to our lett, tent was eight English feet. In the and we arrived at last at the extremest


point of Europe, known by the name bination of the author's own expe. of the NORTH CAPE, exactly at rience, with what has been written midnight.

by historians of veracity, particularly

Canute Leems, wbo was a missionary “ Sistimus hic tandem, nobis ubi defuit or. bis *.

the Laplanders for ten years, among

and the communication received from « The North Cape is an enormous other gentlemen, whose names are rock, which, projecting far into the mentioned, and who had made obserocean, and being exposed to all the vations on the productions of the fury of the waves, and the outrage of country. tempests, crumbles every year more

Section II. Of the origin of the and more into ruins. 'Here every Laplanders. thing is solitary, every thing is The first opinion stated, that the steril, every thing sad and despon- Laplanders descended from the Jews, dent. The shadowy forest no longer is considered as having no weight, adorns the brow of the mountain, and much is said in support of their the singing of the birds, which en- being descended from the Scythians. Jivened even the woods of Lapland, After noticing their name, the arguis no longer heard in this scene of ments are closed in the following exdesolation ; the ruggedness of the dark tract: gray rock is not covered by a single “ The Finlanders, or Finnish Lapshrub; the only music is the hoarse landers, are offended, bishop Gunner murmuring of the waves, ever and tells us, at being called Laplanders. anon renewing their assaults on the This he accounts for with Scheffer, huge masses that oppose them. The by supposing lap to be a term of re. northern sun, creeping at midnight, proach +. at the distance of five diameters along “ The Bishop of Drontheim supthe horizon, and the immeasurable poses that the Laplanders were most ocean in apparent contact with the probably the earliest inhabitants of skies, form the grand outlines in the Sweden and Norway, and the first sublime picture presented to the asto. adventurers from Scythia, being drinished spectator. The incessant cares ven from the southern parts of Scanand pursuits of anxious mortals are dinavia into those dreary deserts, by recollected as a dream ; the various subsequent hordes, who overran the forms and energies of animated na- districts of the West and South, seekture are forgotten ; the earth is con- ing for room and subsistence. Not templated only in its elements, and only their manners and customs at as constituting a part of the solar sys- this day discover pretty manifest tem.' p. 109-111.

traces of their Scythian origin, but Chap. XI. In surveying the rocks, those dismal regions lying towards they find the North Cape is composed the Frozen Ocean, from the Rassian of granite. They take a different province of Kamschatka, are still inroute to Alten, and make Enontekis habited by a race of men similar to in their way to Tornea. Arriving at the Laplanders, and who, like them, Uleaborg, they displayed the curi. may have been forced back into the osities they had obtained as a proof rude retreats of freedom, long before of their visit to the North Cape. This chapter concludes with general re + The Laplanders seem to have been fections upon the journey.

known to Herodotus, and other ancient sriiThe next part of this work contains ers, who have given them the names of Cy. general. and miscellaneous remarks nocephali, Troglodytes, and Pygmies. It's concerning Lapland,comprizing twen- them by the Swedes, who made the first

supposed that their present name was given ty seven sections. Section 1. Of some writers who is said to be derived from one of these three

and principal conquest of their country. I have given accounts of Lapland, espe- Swedish words : lapp, which signifies a woll; cially the Missionary Canute Leems or lappa, which denotes a bat; or, lastly, leto - The author's views in this part of pa, which means to run. There can be do the work explained.

absurdity in adopting, on the hypothesis of This section informs us that the the Bishops of Örontheim and Schetser, eisubsequent part of this work is a com- ther of these etymologies. The clothing of

the Laplanders justifies the first, their ill-fa* Here then we stood and touched the vouredness the second, and their wandering earth's last point.

mauner of life the last.

National records and credible his little way down the bosom.... tory." p. 145, 146.

On the left side, in front, is sewed a Section Ifl. Of the language of narrow stripe or border of cloth or the Laplanders.

fur; and on the right, especially on Section IV. Of the exterior ar- the woman's tunick, sınall silver knobs pearance and bodily constitution of gilt: the cuffs of the sleeve are like. the Laplanders. Their habits and wise covered with a border of kers mode of life.—Their religious and sey, or other cloth, edged with otter's moral character.

skin : a border of the like kind with “ They are, for the most part, short that round the breast and cuffs of the in stature, but they possess a tolerable sleeve is sewed about the bottom; share of bodily strength. They are and as the woolly side of the skin is certainly a very hardy race of people, turned in wards, the wool from within and are able to undergo great labour, is seen hanging below the border. and actually support ihemselves un- This garment is worn by the Lap. der the extraordinary severity of their lander next his skin, instead of a climate with a wonderful degree of shirt." p. 162. patience and fortitude." p. 153. “Over this they wear a coat of kero

Their celerity is considered; and sey, or some such coarse cloth, or of the with respect to morals it is noticed, skin of the rein-deer, of a grey colour, " They are very attentive to keeping with a stiff collar worked with threads holy the sabbath-day; they abstain of different colours. On each shoulder from cursing and swearing, which are is a kind of hand or epaulette, cut in common vices among the inhabitants different forms, and of the same stuit. of Norway; and they lead a religious The lower extremity of this coat is and moral life. Whoredom and adul- worked in figures, with various cotery are sins rarely committed ; and loured threads. The collar, the openthe crime of theft is little or not at ing at the breast, and the shoulder all known amongst them; so that band, are all formed of slips of va. locks or bolts for the security of pro- rious coloured cloths, and worked perty in Lapland are entirely uone with threads of different hues : the cessary. Norway swarins with beg- cuffs of the sleeve are ornamented in gars, but begging is unknown amongst the same manner; the bottom of the the Laplanders. If any one, from coat has likewise a border extending age or infirmity, should chance to be round it, and of a different colour; in want, he finds his necessaries am- for example, if the coat be of red ply and instantly supplied, and cha- kersey, the border is yellow, green, rity appears unsolicited with open' or white. The Laplander has no hands." p. 158, 159.

pocket to his upper coat, but instead Section V. Of the dress of the Lap- thereof carries a little bag hanging landers, both male and female. over his breast, in which he puts his

"The cap worn by this people is implements for lighting a fire, which of a conical shape, and generally he is never without, and other things made of red kersey cloth, and form- of constant use; and this bag he calls ed of four pieces broader at bottom his nieusah-gierdo.p. 163. than at the top, where they meet in To protect them from the severity a point: betwixt the joinings of the of the cold and rain, they wear an four pieces a stripe of yellow kersey upper coat of the skin of the rein is sewed, marking the divisions; and deer, with the hair on the outside. to the top of the cap is fixed a tassel Instead of stockings, they wear panof shreds of different coloured cloth. taloons made of kersey, or coarse The lower part of the cap has a bor. cloth. Their gloves and shoes are der of otter's skin; but the Russian made from the hide of the rein-deer. Laplander trims his, in a more expen

The articles of dress are the sole sive way, with ermine." p. 160. labour of the women, the men in

5. The tunick, or close garment is Lapland undertaking the economy called a tork, and is made of sheep's of the house, in cooking, and in other skin, with the wool on, the woolly matters, which in other countries are şide being inwards : it has a high col- performed by women; ditering in lar, made stiff with kersey, or other this from the rest of the world. Secloth, neatly worked with different veral utensils of wood are also made coloured threads, and extending a by the women, and the best sonlptures

3 U

Vom. I.

of Lapland are the workmanship of this time is mixed with cranberries, the female sex.

and put into the paunch of the reinSection VI. Of the habitations of deer, well cleansed from filth ; thus the Laplanders, and their domestic the milk soon congeals, and is cut out arrangements.

in slices, together with the paunch; Section VII. Of the manner in to effect which a hatchet is used, for which the Laplanders prepare their no smaller instrument would perform beds.- Precaution used against the the office of dividing that lomp of misqnetoes.

ice. It is then separated into small The bed which the maritimne pieces, and eaten througbout the Laplander retires to in his hut, and winter every day at noon, which is the mountain Laplander in his tent, the Laplander's dinner hour. It must iş alike made of the skins of the rein- be presumed, as it is served up withdeer spread over the branches of trees, out being brought to the fire, that with which the floor is covered. The this is ice-cream in the greatest perLaplander's outer coat serves as a fection; here are flesh and fruit pillow, and a prepared sheep's skin, blended with the richest butyraceous with the woolly side inwards, as a milk that can be drawn from any blanket, over which is laid a woollen animal." p. 182, 183. rug. For the winter, the mountain " The method of making their Laplander has a rug, which has a bag cheese is by mixing the milk with wa. within it, into which he places his ter, which is so rich that it would not feet. Be the cold ever so intense, curdle without water; this is beated the mountain Laplander goes into upon the fire; the rennet is put in, bed naked. The beds are by no which separates the whey from the other means separated than by a log curd, which is taken out and pressed, of wood on each side. The husband and theu moukled into a round shape: and wife sleep at the farther end, the this cheese is remarkably rich and children in the division next them, fat. and the servants nearest the door, “In making their butter the women but so nigh to each other, that the use their fingers ouly, stirring the husband and wife can with their hands cream about with them till the butter reach over to the children's bed, and comes, or till it acquires consistthose again to that of the servants." ency,

“ His venison, on which he daily It has been already observed, that dines or sups in winter, is cooked in smoke is an antidote to the musque- the following manner : he cats small toes, who infest the rein-deer as much pieces, which he puts in his pot, withas they do men, so that while one out paying any regard to cleansing Laplander is milking, another holds them from blood and dirt; be tben a firebrand over him, which prevents places the pot by the side of the fire, the gnats from approaching, and ac. that the fat may be drawn from the cordingly the beast remains untor- meat by gentle heat. When the meat mented and quiet.

is nearly done, he skins the fat oti, Section VIII. Of the diet of the and puts it by in a shell, throwing a Laplanders, and their cookery. Jittle salt into it; he next takes out

“The rein-deer's milk constitutes a the pieces with a wooden fork, and principal part of the Laplander's lays them on a dish, leaving the refood, and he has two methods of pre- maining liquor, or broth, in the pot. paring it, according to the season. Supper being now ready, the family, in summer he boils the milk with seat themselves round this dish of sorrel till it arrives to a consistence: neat; and as they eat, each dips the In this manner he preserves it for pieces held with the point of the use during that short season. In win- knife into the shell, which contains ter the following is his method of pre- the fat that has been skimmed off, paration : the milk which he collects and now and then sups a ladle full of in autumn, till the beginning of No- the broth remaining in the pot, which vember, is put into casks, or what is taken without any mixture of four ever vessels he has, in which it soon or other seasoning. In this manturns sour, and, as the cold weather ner they finish their repast. They comes on, freezes, and in this state have been accused of eating their it is kept.' The milk collected after venison raw, but that the missionary

p. 179.

assures us is never the case.” p. 184, expresses the nature of its song, fot 185.

this constantly varies, and is an imig They often eat their venison roast- tation of the voices of almost all the ed, of which they are particularly other birds. To the beauty of its fond. In roasting they make use of notes it joins that of its feathers, wooden spits, sticking one end in the which are of a sky blue colour, boré ground, by which means the ftesti dered about the throat with a black hangs before the fire, and remains line, and after that with one of a rusty there until sufficiently cooked.

appearance. They have also dried and roasted The sea and land birds, which are fish, and are not strangers to a dessert, common in Norway, are all to be which they obtaiu from the inner rind found in Finmark, and in great var of the fir tree, eaten fresh, or heigh, riety. Of these some are stationary, tened in its flavour by being hanged and remain all the year, whilst others, in the smoke, the herb angetica, supposed to be migratory, are seen and the berries collected when the only at particular seasons. Of the spowsare melted ; these serve to amuse first sort are those of the eagle and the time they usually pass at table. falcon kind, owls, rayens, daws, par.

“ Tobacco is considered as their tridges, the eider duck, sea crow, and chief luxury and enjoyment, of which several species of water fowl. 'Anong they are fond to a degree of ecstasy. those which appear in sunimet, and

The husband performs the office of are not seen after autumn, are the cook in all its branches, and, as the wild goose ; a fowl called in the Nora dishes are never washed, the office way tongue brunsk-oppen, from a proa of scullion is not requisite in the eco minent piece of flesh on its head; domy of a Lapland household. waterhens, snipes, woodcocks, and a

Section IX. Household furniture of great number of small birds. : , the Laplanders.

A coloured engraving is given of an Sections X and XI. concern the owl peculiar to Lapland, and called tein-deer, and the mode of harness- Strix Lapponica, and another of the ing and travelling with them. Corvus Lapponicus. Then follows 7

Section XII. of the wandering particular list of quadrupeds and Laplanders, and their migrations. birds belonging to Lapland and Fin.

Section XIII. Of the quadrupeds land, according to the system of Lin. and birds in Lapland.

The first mentioned is the rein. Section XIV. Of amphibious anideer, and the manner of hunting it; mals and fishes; and in addition to bears, a few lynxes, numerous wolves, whales, most kinds of fishes found on a variety of foxes, three kinds of marl other coasts, and an abundance of tens, the gulo or glutton, the beaver, fresh water fish in their rivers. three kinds of otters, the seal, the Section XV. Of insects and testa. squirrel, the ermine, mice, sheep, and ceous animals. goats, are inhabitants of Lapland; The descriptions in this section are and it is remarkable, that notwiths enibellished with three coloured cop. standing the rigour of the climate, per plates. animals wild as well as tame, are here Sections XVI, XVII, and XVIII. remarkably prolific. The ewes often are occupied with the botany, minebring twins twice a year, and the she- rals, and manufactures of Lapland. goats produce constantly two kids, Section XIX. Of some particular and sometines three, at a birth. The customs among the Laplanders. author says, there are many birds It is usual with them never to wait peculiar to Lapland, which have not on a superior, without a present, for yet been discovered elsewhere. The which he receives something that Lapland woodcock is described, and may be deemed acceptable įn return. it is observed, the only birds that • Those who by traffic have acstay in Lapland during the winter quired wealth have a custom of bu. are the strix and the tetrao. One rying their money in the earth, and bird is particularized as surpassing all this they do so secretly and etfectually, the rest, by the beauty of its plum- that their heirs and successors rarely age and the sweetness of its voice. find it. That they should preserve This is the motacilla suecica. The it thus whilst they live is not surpris. Laplanders call it saddan kiellinen, ing, because they have no iron chests, which signifies hundred tongues, and or other security against

thieves'; but


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