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that they should conceal it from their on to Section II. containing Obsero posterity is a matter our missionary vations on the Region of the Harutsch. confesses he is at a loss to account The following short extract may for. He heard of a rich man, who, enable our readers to forın some idea on having the question put to him on of this region, which is stated to be his death bed, why he had so care seven days journey over from north fully preserved his money from his to south, and five days from east to fanily? replied, that he should have. west. - The rugged, broken, and occasion for it in the country whither altogether wild and terrific scene he was going.” p. 283.

which this desert tract affords, leads Section XX. Of Lapland courtship strongly to the supposition that its and marriages

surface at some period took its preSection XXI. Of sports and amuse. sent convulsed form and appearance ments.

from volcanic revolution. Its inequaSection XXII. Of diseases and lities of ground are no where of great remedies--Of their funerals.

altitude. The general face of the At the end of this section we no. country shews continued ranges of tice the following approvable custom: hills, running in various directions, " It is a rule with the Laplanders, on rising from eight to twelve feet only the birth of a child, to assign a female above the level of the intermediate rein deer, with all her future off- ground; and between which branches, spring, as a provision when the boy or perfect flats, and without any graor girl shall be grown up, which he dual ascent of base or fore-ground, or she becomes entitled to, however rise up lofty insulated mountains, the estate may be disposed of at the whose sides are exceeding steep from decease of the parents. By this pro- the very base. A mountain of this vision, the child sometimes becomes description, situated midway on the the owner of a considerable herd." journey over this desert, and north *. 293.

of our caravan road, is by the Arabs 6 Section XXIII. Of the gods and termed Stres; it has the appearance goddesses the Laplanders adored be of being split from the top down to fore the introduction of Christianity. the middle." p. 48, 49.

Section XXIV: Of their sacrifices. Section III. Arrival at Temissa, and · Section XXV., Of the magic art further Journey. practised by the Laplanders, which The entrance into Temissa was conappears, says the author, to be hap- ducted in the same manner we have pily abolished.

already described. Temissa is a very Section XXVI. The strong attach. inconsiderable place, which they soon ment of the Laplanders to their na leave and depart for Zuila. tive country, instanced by example. Section IV. Of Zuila.

Section XXVII. Observations re This being a place of considerable lative to the climate and natural importance, on account of its being history of Lapland.

the residence, not only of many leadThe whole concluding with an Ap- ing and wealthy men, but of relations pendix, containing, !. Specimens of to the family of the sultan, they halted Finland and Lapland Music. 2. A to prepare for entering the town with Diary of the Author's Journey from due marks of respect. Stock holm to Uleaborg; thence to “ They had scarcely formed their the North CAPE ; and back again. procession, when they perceived

twenty horsemen mounted on white horses, with a green flag carried in

their centre. It was the Shereef Hir. CXXVII. The JOURNAL OF Horne- dy, the principal man of the town,

MAN'S TRAVELS from Cairo to Mour. who with his eight sons and other zouk.

relations was come out to meet us : (Concluded from page 471.)

at some distance followed a great

number of men and boys on foot; CHAI HAP, II. Section I, Augila, to the they joined our caravan, and we Gunfines of Temissa.

passed together near the town, with This journey was accomplished in buzzas and discharge of mushets, till the space of sixteen days, and the we reached our place of encampinent, road chiefly desert. As no material and pitched our tents.” p. 56. subject occurs in this sectiop, we pass The author notices the good beha

viour of the inhabitants of this place, self wore the Tripolitan vest, and and distinguishes the family of the over it a shirt or frock embroidered Shereef for its particular compla- with silver, in the Soudan manner. cency, and politeness of manners. Close to him, on each side, were white Their dealings here were consider. Mamelukes, and Negro slaves, with able.

drawn sabres; bebind these were six The place has been of considerable banners, and black and half-naked importance formerly, and its circum- slaves, holding lances and balberds ference thrice the extent of what it of a fashion as old, perhaps, as the is now. Some ruins in this place time of Saladin. We entered the witness its ancient magnificence. "The circle by an opening left facing the environs of Zuila are level, supplied sultan, and about the middle of the with water, and fertile. The groves area : according to the ceremonial of of date trees are of great extent, and his court, we pulled off our slippers, its inhabitants appear to pay more and approached barefoot to kiss his attention to agriculture than those of imperial hand. Each having paid his adjoining places.

compliment, alternately passed to “ In the evening they had further right or left, and seated himself beproof of the Arab hospitality of yore. hind the sultan : the merchants being å slave of the shereef's brought to thus ranged in two equal groups on each tent a dish of meat and broth, either side the throne, lastly entered and ten small loaves; this most an the sheik of the pilgrims, with his sacient custom the sheik of the sultan bre drawn, and kettle drum, and keeps up, and strictly adheres to, on green flag of Mecca borne before arrival of each caravan; soon after him. The pilgrims followed, chaunt. he sent to each of them three small ing praises to God, who had so far loaves, for the morrow's breakfast." conducted them in safety, and conp. 57, 58.

tinued their hymns until the sultan Section V. Further Journey--and ar was pleased to dismiss their leader, rival at Mourzouk.

with a gracious proinise of sending In this journey Mr. Horneman was his royal present of dates and meat " first regaled with the great Fezzan to every tent. This ceremony of audainty of locusts or grasshoppers, and dience being over, the sultan rea drink called lugibi.He says, “the mounted his horse, and rode back to latter is composed of the juice of date the city of Mourzouk, preceded by trees, and when fresh is sweet and kettle drums and banners, and amidst agreeable enough to the taste, but is apthis lance-men and halberdiers, whilst to produce flatulencies and diarrhæa. his courtiers, joined by the Arabs of At first I did not relish the dried lo. our caravan, pranced and curvetted custs, but when accustomed, grew their horses on each flank of the profond of them : when eaten, the legs cession.” p. 60, 61. and wings are broken off, and the inner part is scooped out, and what Chap. III. Some Account of Fezzan. remains has a flavour similar to that The extent of the cultivated part of of red herrings, but more delicious.” the kingdom is stated to be about 300

miles from north to south, and the This section concludes with the width 200 miles from east to west, ceremony observed on their coming and contains a hundred and one towns to Mourzouk.

and villages, of which Mourzouk is “The sultan had posted himself the capital. on a rising ground, attended by a nu “ The climate is at no season temmerous court, and a multitude of his perate or agreeable. During the sumsubjects.

mer the heat is intense, and when the “Our caravan halted, and every wind blows from the south is scarcely person of the caravan, of any impor- supportable, even by the natives. tance, dismounted to salute him. The winter might be inoderate, were With others l approached, and found it not for the prevalence of a bleak the sultan seated on an old-fashioned and penetrating north wind during elbow chair, covered with a cloth, that season of the year, and which striped red and green, and placed at chilled and drove to the fire not only the extremity of an oval area, round the people of the place, but even mywhich soldiers were drawn up, of but sell, the native of a northern coun. mean appearance. The sultan him- try.

1

P. 59.

* Of the productions of this place ture, and the administration of jusdates may be termed the most consi- tice, are also noticed, and the popederable. In the western parts some lation estimated at 70, or 75,000 soak, senna is grown of a superior quality, all, without distinction of the Mabo. and pot herbs and vegetables of the metan religion. As for arts and magarden are plentiful. Wheat and nufactures, the author says, “througt. barley are suited to the soil and cli- out Mourzouk I could not find on: mate, but from inexpertness, or diffi- single artificer in any trade or work ; culties attending the mode of tillage, indeed there are no other tradesinen and generally from indolence of the but shoemakers and smiths. The la!. people and oppressions of the govern- ter work every metal without disment, corn is not raised sufficient for tinction ; and the same man who the inhabitants.'

forges shoes for the sultan's hors, The commerce, government, and makes rings for his princesses. The suceession to the crown of Fezzan, women, indeed, fabricate coarse vool. are noticed in order, followed by the en cloths, called abbes; but for the donrestic regulations of the palace, and goodness or value of their manufacthe ceremony of giving audience. ture, the reader may forin his orn “ There is," says Mr. Horneman, “a estimate, when told that the weaver's place set apart, within the precincts shuttle is unknown, and the wool in of the castle, for those who attend inserted into the warp thread by on public business, from which a long thread, and the whole worked solely narrow vestibule leads to a door, which by the hand." p. 70. opens into the principal apartment of In describing the dress of these the sultan. I he opening of that door people, the ornaments worn by the is announced by the beating of kettle- women are particularly noticed. The drums, as a signal of audience. The lady of a chief, or wealthy man of door of audience is opened three Fezzan, divides her hair into seren times in each day. Those who, on long curls or tresses; one of those is account of respect or business, attend interbraided with long slips of gilt for introduetion, are conducted by leather, terminating in a bow; the the long narrow passage hetween other six tresses are bound round by a slaves, wlio incessantly repeat, may leather strop, and at the end of each" God prolong the life of the sultan! is a peculiar trinket, of which our On coming to the door, the sultan traveller gives a sketch, without which appears opposite, seated on an old it cannot well be understood. fashioned elbow chair, raised some “ In addition to these ornaments, steps, and forming his throne. The the Fezzan woman fastens to the top of person introduced approaches, kisses her head silken cords, on which are the hand of the sultan, raises it so as strung a number of silver rings, and to touch his forehead, then quits it, which hang on each side peu dant to and kneels before him. He is per- her shoulder. The ears of ladies of mitted to state his case, and address rank are bored in two places, and in the sultan in ordinary and plain lan- each hole is fixed a thick silver ring. guage ; but particular attention must In ordinary dress they wear wine or be given, that the expressions, ' God ten rings of horn or glass on each prolong thy life;' God protect thy arm, four or five of which are taken

country, &c.' be frequently inter- off on all great occasions, to make mingled; and at each presentation, room' for a silver armiliary of four it is customary to oiter a small pre inches in breadth. They wear at the sent. It is only on Fridays, or on same time strong rings of brass or silsome solemn festival, that the sultan ver just above the ankle bones. The appears without the castle walls, and necklace consists of a silk ribband, then he is attended by his whole to which are fixed ten or twelve court. He goes on Fridays to the pieces of agate, and in front a round great mosque, on horseback; on other silver plate. The meaner women wear days of solemnity, or public occasion, merely a string of glass beads, and he rides on a plain, without the town, curl the hair above the forehead into where his courtiers prance and run large ringlets, into which severally is their horses round him, and exhibit stuted a paste made of lavender, car. their skill in equestrian exercises, and raway seeds, cloves, pepper, mastich, in the art of shooting.” p. 66, 67. and laurel leaves, mixed up with oil."

The public revenues and expendi- p. 75.

Noticing their amusements, the au- usual expression is, that he eats bread thor says, “ The women of Fezzan and meat every day.p. 74. generally have a great fondness for The journal closes with a P. S. in dancing and every amusement, and which Mr. Horneman, expressing a the wanton manners and public free. design to revisit Mourzouk, gives rea. doms, which, although Mahometans, son to expect a fuller and more accuthey are permitted, astonishes the rate account. Mahometan traveller. They dance Immediately after the journal is publicly in the open places of the Observations on F. Horneman's Des town, not only in the day time, but scription of the Country and Antiquities even after sun set. Two or three of Siwah, with References 10 uncient men stand together with their tam- Accounts of the Oasis, and Temple of bourines; the women immediately Ammon. By Sir William Young, Bart. form a circle round; the men beat à Secretary. tane, and those in the circle accom A postscript is also added, containpany it with singing and clapping ing farther information of Mr. Horneof bands; a girl then advances, dance man, by which we learn his servant ing, towards the drummers; the men, died at Mourzouk, of the country as she approaches near, join in the fever. That he had proceeded to dance, and press towards her; on Tripoly, had returned to Mourzouk, which she makes some steps back- and by letter, dated April 6, 1800, wards, and then falls on her back, says, he was on the point of setting with her body and Jimbs stiff and out with the caravan for Bournou, perfeetly straight, when the women from whence he designed to go to behind catch her in the fall, a few Kashna. In this letter, he says, * not spans from the ground, and toss her long ago, the same custom was ob. in the air, whence she descends on served at Bournou, as in ancient times her feet. The men then resume their at Cairo, ' a girl, very richly dressed, station in the centre, and a second was thrown into the river Niger'." female dancer repeats the sport, p. 103. which is successively engaged in by

Another paper now presents itself, each brisk damsel of the circle."' consisting of intelligence concerning

the interior part of North Africa, di" Their musical instrument is called vided into seven sections. Thababe; it is an excavated hemis Section 1. Describes the country phere, made from a shell of the gourd of the Tibbo, which lies to the westkind, and covered with leather; to ward from Fezzan, and to the south this

a long handle is fixed, on which and south west. The persons, clothis stretched a string of horse hairsing, manner of life, and religion of longitudinally closed, and compact this people are described. It is said, as one cord, about the thickness of their religion is the Mahometan, but a quill. This is played upon with a that they hold it very cheap. bow." p. 72, 73.

Section II. gives an account of the · The houses of Fezzan are miser. Tuarick, a mighty people, who live to ably built, no tools are used in the the west and south of Fezzan ; these erection but the hands of the labourer. are not all Mahometans. When the walls are completely rais Section 11. extends the informaed, the friends of the proprietor as- tion to Tombuctoo, which lies besemble, and assist him to cover them hind the countries before named, and with a mortar made of a white cale is the most remarkable town in the careous earth. This work too is done interior of Africa. only by the hand. The houses are Sections V, VI, VII. give some all extremely low, and the light en brief information of countries lying ters by the door only.". p. 74. inore to the eastward, and this part

" As to diet,” says Mr. Horneman, of the work is thus concluded. I never knew a more abstemious peo “ If I do not perish in my underple than those of Fezzan. Meat, in- taking, I hope in five years I shall be deed, is a food they can at no time able to make the society better ac. abstain from when set before them; quainted with the people of whom ! but meat is not an article of food have given this short description." with the people in general: to indi- p. 116. cate a rich man, at Mourzouk, the Some extracts from a letter accom

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panying the abovementioned infor- sity of our readers: we shall theremation is then given, dated Tripoly, fore endeavour to give them an ide: 19 August, 1799.

of the proposed alteration in ou The next subject is geographical established systems. illustrations of Mr. Horneman's route,

“ 5. It was before observed, and additions to the general geo- (Art.3.) that in the present received graphy of Africa, by Major Ren- system of numeration, we begin wit nel, divided into four chapters. unity or one, and ascend (by units) The first chapter describes the posi- to the number called ten; when we tion of the countries in Mr. Horne. begin again, as it were, and go on man's route; the second, general re: to ien times ten, which we call å bunmarks on these countries; the third dred; and so on to ten times a huacontains improvements in the general dred, which we call a thousand; then geography of North Africa.-Remote to ten times a thousand, which se sources of the Nile, and termination call ten thousand, &c. ad infinitups. of the Niger-and Lake of Fithe, or Kauga. This chapter is accompanied

“ 6. Now according to prior obby a large map, shewing the progress servation, (Art. 3). as the number por of discovery and improvement in the called ten, is not a multiple of either geography of North Africa. Com- of the fractions , (= of 4), #, and I, piled by J. Rennel, 1798. Corrected and consequentlycannot be divided by in 1802.

either of thein without leaving a reThe subjects of the fourth chapter mainder; and the fractions si 1,4, are concerning the tribes that occupy and $, being the most familiar and the habitable parts of the great de. useful in every kind of calculation, sert.--Tibbo and Tuarick. --Empires commerce, and trade, wherein numof Bournu, Ashen, and Houssa.-Con-bers are concerned; it readily ap. cluding with general observations. pears, that before a systein of mea

The last paper contains Observa- sures, weights, and coins, possessing tions on the Language of Siwah. By every necessary and possible advanWilliam Marsden, Esq. F. R. S. in a

tage can be established, it will be abletter to the Right Honourable Sir solutely necessary to adopt a new sysJoseph Banks, Bart.

tem of numeration, or art of numA 'List of the Society closes the bering. work, which contains 195 pages. “ 7. If, therefore, in numbering, we

were to begin with unity, or one, and ascend to the number of eight units only, and call that number ten; and

8 times that number a 100; 8 times CXXVIII. An Essay, intended to that a 1000 ; &c. so that 10 of such

establish a new Universal System of new system would be = 8 of the old; Arithmetic; Division of the Year, 100 of the new = 64 of the old; 1000 Circle, and Hour ; System of Stan- of the new=512 of the old ; 10,000 dard Measures, Weights, and Coins ;

4096; 100,000 = 32,768; 1000,000 Division of the Mariner's Compass,

= 262,144; 10,000,000 = 209,7152; and Scale of the Barometer, and &c. then we should have a very easy Thermometer; and on making some

and convenient system of numeranecessary Alterations in the Form and tion; and the j, (= 4 of 4), the t, v, Construction of the Scale (or Gammut) and 4 of ten, and its multiples, might of Music. In which is also contain“ be had in whole numbers. In this ed, a concise Account of the new Mea. sure, Weights, and Coins; Division of the numbers, and their characters

new system of numbering, the names of the Circle, Astronomical Day, and

or figures, beginning with unity, may Calendar; and Era of the French be one, 1; two, 2; three, 3; four, 4; Republic; with Critical Remarks five, 5; six, 6 ; seven, 7; ten, 10; thereon. By John King.

eleven, 11 ; twelve, 12 ; thirteen, 13;

fourteen, 14 ; filteen, 15; sixteen, 16; HOUGH this work is but a

seventeen, twenty, 20twentytude of the object, which is no less the names and figures of eight, & ; than to introduce a new system in nine, 9; eighteen, 18 ; nineteen, 19; mathematics, may excite the curio- &c. being entirely laid aside.

Thamphlet in size, the magni omne, le site weni y***0,922 ; and so on;

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