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Shewing how to express the Aliquot Decimal Parts of an Integer.
IN DECIMALS, THE
1, is the off of
4, is the off of
6, is the $ & of
"9. The only inconvenience at. be expected, prcfers his own methotending this method of numbering is, dical system. its requiring a few more places, or a The mariners compass also, instead greater number of figures to express of 32, he would divide into 60 equal or set down very large numbers, than points, preferring the four cardinal are required to express the same num ones. The gammut, or scale of mubers in the old system; but as this is sic, also undergoes revision, the 1st an inconvenience that would be very line in each of the four parts being seldom felt, and but little affect the denominated A. But for the particominon concerns of life, it cannot be culars of these innovations, we refer fairly urged as an objection to its to the book itself, subjoining the aubeing established: for, such very large thor's statement of the advantages atnumbers as are requisite to express tending them. the distance, magnitude, &c. of the “85. Ifthe foregoing new systems and heavenly bodies; the number of sands divisions, or others superior to them, ou the sea shore, &c. but very rarely were universally established, the occur ; and if they were, the mind is young arithmetician, at his entrance as capable of conceiving, compre- upon the study of numbers, would hending, and forming a just idea of pot hare his progress impeded, nor their true values (which are almost his ardour damped and discouraged, beyond finite conception), when ex- by being obliged to learn divers tables pressed by the new, as by the old of irregular, legal, and customary system of numbering.
measures, and weights; but would, at. “10. The advantages belonging to the same time, be learning the rathis new system of numbering may, tionale of numbers, and insensibly perhaps, on a superficial view, appear imbibe true notions of order and revery insignificant, and the confusion gularity. The compound rules of it would create, if established, as very arithinetic might be dispensed with, formidable ; but, it is presumed, that and every species of mensuration after a little consideration, and more might be performed by the four most 50 by a little comparative practice, common rules in arithmetic; and the advantages and disadvantages the present tedious method of reducwill appear oquite otherwise ;-the ing quantities from higher to lower one would be lasting-the other tem- denominations, el vice versa, would be porary.-I think, therefore, that the effected by the mere inovement of a universally establishing such new sys- point, or the addition of a few citem of numbering, and adopting the phers. The plebeian, trader, and profollowing new division of the year, fessional man, all using one uniform circle, hour, and compass, systein of system of measures and weights, measures, &c. thereto, would be pro. would be better able to understand ductive of the greatest and most last one another's dealings. Difficulties, ing advantages to mankind in ge. disputes, and confusion, would be neral; and is the best, (all things avoided ;-the knave would be less being considered and compared toge. able to cheat, and the honest man less ther,) that can be devised”
liable to be cheated. Merchants would Mr. King also proposes a new ar.
not be perplexed by the present comrangement in the calendar, accord- plex and tedious course of exchange, ing to what he calls the solar style. arising from the use of a particular He then examples the French system set of real and imaginary monies, and of weights and measures, which he in of ditferent measures and weights in certain respects censures, and, as might every nation. Philosophers of all na
tions, would avoid the trouble and that would result therefrom, would inconvenience of reducing their ex be very unequal, and inferior. The periments and observations in che contemplation of the old systems and inistry and meteorology, from one divisions is really disgusting to the standard and scale to another; and mind devoted to order and regula. the causes of much useless trouble, rity ; but that of the new ones, arisand many distracting errors and dif- ing from considering their admirable ficulties, they are now subject to, and symmetry and agreement one with Jabour under, in comparing their ex- another, must be highly gratifying. periments, would, in a great measure, "87. I am well aware that to some be thereby removed. And, astrono. prejudiced minds, this humble and mers would be enabled to make their well-meant attempt of mine to protedious lunar computations in much pose and suggest alterations in the less time, and in a more elegant man- principles of things so long establishner than what they possibly can do ed, will appear extremely absurd and now; as the method of expressing chimerical, and expose ine to much quantities of motion and time would
censure and obloquy; but, conscious be more plain, and most of the equa- of the rectitude of my intentions, I tions might be almost instantly pro- neither court applause, nor fear cen. portioned by means of a simple slid sure. I humbly request, therefore, ing rule.--How complete and grand that such of my' ingenious readers as the beauties of the new system of are unbiassed and free from prejunumbering, measures, weights, and dice, will have the goodness, either coins ; new division of the circle, &c. in the Mathematical and Philosophie would appear, when applied to the cal Repository, or in the Gentleman's practical parts of the mathematics, or Monthly Magazine, (which are if they were displayed by the masterly works always ready to admit a free and superior genius of Mr. John Bon- discussion and investigation of every nycastle.
subject that is useful), candidly to “ 86. I was not prompted to pub- point out the defects and inconvenilish this Essay, by a persuasion, that ences, either in the theory or practhe improvements it contains would tice of the foregoing new proposed be readily and implicitly established, systems and divisions; and the subut that they may become subjects perior excellencies, (if any such can of consideration amongst mathema- exist), of those now in use over these ticians and philosophers; so that the new ones. If these things can be fairly most simple, rational, and convenient and truly done, then will I freely systems and divisions, may in time, acknowledge my errors, and gladly be found out, and as universally esta- lay down my opinion—That the new blished as possible. The establish- systems and divisions (herein proment of the new system of number. posed and explained) are preferable ing, although the most necessary, yet in almost every respect, and in the will be the most unlikely to take greatest degree superior to those of place; though the confusion it may the same kind now used, or eren to be conceived to create, if established, those too hastily established by the would be but of short duration to French Republic-otherwise l'sball -traders and the commonally of the still be inclined to maintain my people; but the advantages it would opinion : yet, nevertheless, I would produce would be for ever felt. After not by any means wish to be underthe reduction of the mathematical stood, as desiring arbitrarily to lay and astronomical tables from the old down what I have done as absolutely to this new system of numbering was unimprovable, and not to be altered : etfected, (as mentioned in Art. 2), ma --10, I have no such desire :- My thematicians and philosophers would only wish is, that this humble atnot very much feel the inconvenience tempt to smoothen the rugged patlis arising therefrom, as a small volume to science, may excite the attention, of tables might be soon and easily in general, of my superiors in matheconstructed, to reduce the old to the matical and philosophical learning new numbers, et vice veriu. In fine, so that these interesting and impor. it appears very plain to me, ilsat the tant matters may becoine subjects inconveniences arising from establi:ht. of general consideration amourse the ing the said new systems and divisions, literuti, and be by them thoroughly alen compared with the advantages investigated; and that, after receir
ing every necessary improvement, rules of the society for its managebest suited to civil, coinnercial, and ment are given at length, and the philosophical purposes, that we, as following circumstance, which conmen, are capable of giving to them, tributed very much to the establishthey may, for the universal good, be ment of the society, is related. “ One universally established.
of the members of this society, pass. *89. I shall not therefore attempt ing along the Uxbridge road, observ. to set up a further or more enlarged ed a man of a very decent appeardefence for the proposed improve. ance, reclined on a bank by the wayments in this Essay, but leave them side, with a pair of crutches near to defend themselves, óbeing firmly him. His account of himself was,
of opinion, that if the principles on (and we have no reason whatsoever to which they are founded be false, no question the truth of it), that he defence from me can make them was a Gloucestershire manufacturer; "right, --if sounded on truth, no cen that he had been a short time in sure from others can make them • London, where he had the misforwand
'tune to break his leg, and had been **89. To conclude, let no one be admitted a patient into an hospital; discouraged by groundless fear from (that his leg had been very well set, laudably attempting to simplify the 'and all proper care had been taken principles, and enlarge the bounds of of him; and, upon bis discharge Icarning and science :- let every vir that morning, some gentleman, he tuous, aspiring youth, and real friend said, had kindly given him a shil. to improvement, awaken from de ling, on part of which he had subspair, and rejoice at the pleasing hope, sisted so far; that he was going to his so congenial to his feelings, that if parish in Gloucestershire, but had " the day be not yet come, the day is not the means of paying for his carvery fast approaching, when know riage in the waggon. This story ledge shall be justly appreciated; was not related in vain. I leave it to • when systematic pedantry shall no the reader's consideration, what course 'longer acquire the reputation of of life remained to this poor man, had learning; when those literary pur- he not unexpectedly met with friendly
suits, which incumber the memory, assistance, but to beg,—to steal,-or . without cailing forth the exertion to perish !". P.12. • of intellect, or amending the heart, Section 1]. Hints respecting crimes shall be deservedly reprobated; and punishments. • when prejudice shall melt away be The arguments which are here ad*fore the genial beams of investiga- vanced in support of the author's sention and iruth ; and when learning timents, and the interesting circumshall only be esteemed as it becomes stances by which they are enforced, 'subservient to virtue, and, of con will, we hope, justify our occupying sequence, to the happiness of man so much room on this section." Many • kind'.” p. 52–55.
of our legal punishments have long appeared to me more likely to har.
den, than to reform the otsender, not CXXIX. Lettsom's Hints, design, ments in proportion to the degrees of
only by the inequality of punished to promote Beneficence, Temiperance, vice, but still more by their publicity. and Medical Science.
By exposure to the general notice, (Concluded from page 479.) the perpetrator of a crime endeaVOLUN
OLUME II. The engraved title vours to acquire hardiness, that he
page to this volume is decorat. may destroy shame, and brave disa ed with ihe silhouette ot' W. Blizard, grace-to retrieve reputation is now
almost impracticable-he feels himSection I. Hints respecting a Sa- self disregarded by society, and he maritan Society. Such a society is disregards it; nor does he longer feel instituted at the London Hospital, an interest, where he receives no soand has for its object such patients as cial gratification; and whether it be are destitute, and may be at a consi a public whipping, or the public hulks, derable distance from their bouses, he loses shame and remorse, and acand a variety of cases are stated, in quires the passions of revenge and which, after the cure of their malady, cruelty, and an habitual profligacy of subsequent relief is necessary. The conduct.
532 Lettson's Hints to promote Beneficence, Temperance, &c.
and at the same time I desired are too apt to form their decisions of him to accept a card, containing my vice from the vicious act itself, rather address, and to call upon me, as be than from the motives that lead to it, might trust to my word for his liberty whilst our decisions and punishments and life. He accepted my address, should rather be guided by the lat. but I observed his voice faultered. It ter. We may, perhaps, in general, was late at night; there was, how. justly plead our incompetency of as ever, sufficient star-light to enable certaining motives to action ; but in
me to perceive, as I leaned towards certain instances, and under circum- him on the window of my carriage stances which precede or attend ac that his bosom was overwhelmed with tions, very different shades of crimi- conflicting passions ; at length, bend. nality will be discovered, and ought ing forward on his horse, and reco. to influence both judgment and chas- vering the power of speech, he affect. tisement; there are even vices, or ingly said ; ' I thank you for your supposed vices, which seem to vibrate 'offer-American affairs have ruined from a false shame, or mistaken in, 'me-I will, dear Sir, wait upon you.' tegrity. The impoverished husband, Two weeks afterwards a person enupon whom the sustenance of a fa- tered ny house, whom I instantly remily depends, may privately steal, cognised to be this highwayman : or boldly rob, from the urgency of I come,' said he, to communicate domestic sensibility, without a mali to you a matter that nearly concious design to commit a real or per cerns me, and I trust to your homanent injury against another.
nour to keep it inviolable. I told “ Persons of superior stations, who, him, I recollected him, and I
refrom incidental contingencies, be- quested him to relate his history with come suddenly destitute of resources candour, as the most effectual means for present subsistence, may be urged, of securing my services; and such by a kind of honest phrenzy, to rob was the narrative, as would have on the highway, to discharge debts of excited sympathy in every heart. necessity, or to supply calls of hun. His fortunes had been spoiled on the ger, and thus forleit their lives to American continent, and after a long the laws of their country from mis- imprisonment, he escaped to this asytaken, rather than vicious motives. lum of liberty, where his resources Such individuals are not irreclaim• failing, and perhaps with pride above able, and at all times demand com the occupation of a sturdy beggar, he miseration. One instance, which rashly ventured upon the most dreadlately occurred to my knowledge, ful alternative of the highway, where among some others equally extra. in his second attempt be met with ordinary, 'I shall relate to explain me. I found his narrative was lite. this reasoning :-It was my lot, a rally true, which induced me to try few years ago, to be attacked on
various means of obviating his disthe highway by a genteel looking tresses. To the commissioners for person, well mounted, who demand- relieving the American sutierers ap. ed my money, at the saine time plication was made, but fruitlessly; at placing a pistol to my breast. I re length he attended at Windsor, and quested him to remove the pistol, delivered a memorial to the Queen, which he instantly did; I saw his agi. briefly stating his sufferings, and the tation, from whence I concluded he cause of them. Struck with his ap: had not been habituated to this ha- pearance, and pleased with his ad. zardous practice; and I added, that dress, she graciously assured him of I had both gold and silver about me, patronage, provided his pretensions which I freely gave him; but that I should, on enquiry, be found justiwas sorry to see a young gentleman fied. The result was, that in a few risk his life in so unbecoming a man days-she gave him a commission ip ner, which probably would soon ter- the army, and by his public services minate at the gallows; that at the twice has his name appeared in the best, the casual pittance gained on Gazette
promotions the highway would atford but a precarious and temporary subsistence, but
* After some years employment in the that if I could serve him by a private service of his sovereign, this valuable oficer assistance more becoming his appear fell a victim to the yellow fever, in the West ance, he might farther command ny Indies.
« The following history of a con- the only seaman he had with him to ict was related by Mr. Livius, a take the small boat, and scull her on ative of New Hampshire, in Ame shore, to procure what he then want. ica, and then chief justice of Que ed; he made some frivolous excuses, ec under General Carleton. He till at length, by the persuasion of was now in London, and on reading his captain, he consented to go on E morning paper, he observed a pa. his errand; but scarcely had he stept agraph to the following import; on shore, before he was recognized To-morrow the noted house-breaker, and arrested. In the presence of the Cox, with ***, of Piscataway, in judge he was identified, and the galNew Hampshire, for returning from lows was his sentence. Chief justransportation, will be executed at tice Livius observing to him, that he Tyburn. The chief justice had ne seemed to have some comfortable food rer seen Newgate; and observing that in his cell, inquired how he could af2
person from his own native coun ford to purchase it; he replied, that try was condemned to expiate his a person, he believed a Roman Cacrimes on the gallows, was induced tholic clergyman, gave him money; to visit this prison, and see his coun in hopes of his dying a Papist ; ' but,' tryman. His relation was nearly, as
added he, “I am no Papist in my I can recollect, (for the transaction • beart,' and as to dying, I have happened about the year 1780,) was, hardships enough not to care so much however, too interesting ever to be about it as about my wages, which I obliterated from my memory. The want iny wife and children to receive convict had been an American sailor, for me. He was asked if he knew and passing in a boat from the ship Mr. Livius's family, which he de, lying off Wapping to the shore, the scribed immediately. boatinan informed him that he could “ The whole history appeared to sell him some canvas, sufficient to the chief justice to merit further inmake him a hammock, very cheap; vestigation ; and instantly be prothe price was sixteen shillings; within ceeded to enquire respecting the cira short period afterwards, he was cumstances attending the chartering arrested for purchasing stolen goods, and sailing of the ship; and also, the and proof being adduced to the court particulars of the original trial, and that the canvas was worth twenty subsequent sentence, which correfour shillings, he was condemned to sponding with the sailor's narration, be transported to America, then un theworthy magistrate hastened to Lord der the crown of Great Britain; this, Weymouth's office, and thence to the he said, he did not much regard, as King, at Windsor, and returned to he could' work his way thither, from London just in time to stay the fatal his seamanship, and his family lived rope. After the trials and circumin New Hampshire.
stances attending them were revised, "Some time after his arrival in the King was pleased to change the America, as a transport, he hired him. sentence to transportation during his self in a vessel chartered to Lisbon, natural life, and he was shipped off and which he understood was not to from London soon after this act of touch in England. The agent at Lis mercy: Livius, however, who felt a bon, however, received orders, from lively interest in the fate of his coun. a merchant in London, to load the tryman, whom he believed guilty from tessel for the latter port; this at first ignorance, and not from design, realarmed him greatly, but he recon newed his importunities, and at length ciled hiniself to the voyage under a got an order for pardon; he hurried Jesolution never to go on shore whilst with the glad tidings down the river, on the river Thames: he kept this and overtook the convicts at Gravesresolution till the day before the ves- end, where he found on board the transsel was appointed to sail; upon which port ship the poor sailor chained to occasion the captain had given all his another convict. The order from the men the privilege of going on shore, Secretary's office was shewn to the and taking leave of their acquaint captain, who absolutely refused to reance; the unfortunate American was sign him agreeable to the pardon, the only sailor who did not accept because he had received these conthis offer; the captain remained also victs from Mr. Akerman, to whom om board, and recollecting something alone he was answerable, and that that he wanted in the town, requested the prisoners were no longer under