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match before him, was, in truth and came into the nuind of a sagacions reality, the maker of every watch optician, to enquire how this matter produced from it; there being no dif- was managed in the eye; in which ference (except that the latter mani. there was exactly the same difficulty fests a inore exquisite skill) between to contend with as in the telescope. the making of another watch with His observation taught him, that in his own hands, by the regulation of the eye, the evil was cured by comfiles, laths, chisels, &c. and the dis. biving together lenses composed of posing, fixing, and inserting of these different substances, i. e. of substances instruments, or of others equivalent which possessed different refracting to them, in the body of the watel powers. Our artist borrowed from already made, in such a manner as thence bis hint, and produced a corto form a new watch in the course of rection of the defect by imitating, in the movements which he had given glasses made from different inatervals, to the old one. It is only working the effects of the different humours by one set of tools instead of ano. through which the rays of light passi ther.” Repeating the arguments of before they reach the bottoni of the the two chapters, this is thus closed : eye. Could this be in the eye with

" What effect would this discovery out purpose, which suggested to the : have, or ought it to have, upon our optician the only effectual means of

former inference? What, as hath al- obtaining that purpose!” p. 23, 24. ready been said, but to increase, be Ilere follows a minute description yond measure, our admiration of the of the structure of the eye, with the skill which had been employed in distinctions there are in the eyes of the formation of such a machine? Or ditferent animals, suited to their ele. shall it, instead of this, all at once ment and immediate use. From the turn us round to an opposite conclu- eye the author passes on to a partision, viz. that no art or skill whatever cular account of the conforination of has been concerned in the business, the ear, in which, as well as in the although all other evidences of art description of the eye, every part is and skill remain as they were, and accurately noticed, and its use and this last and supreme piece of art be operation pointed out. now added to the rest? Can this be Tu the fourth chapter the succession maintained without absurdity? Yet of plants and animals is described, in this is atheism."

which the author proceeds from the The author enters on the applica- plant to oviparous animals, and then tion of his argument in the third says, “ II.'We may advance from chapter, which is done by comparing animals which bring forth eggs; to anian eye with a telescope. It is observe mals which bring forth their young ed, “ As far as the examination of the alive; and of this latter class, from instrument goes, there is precisely the lowest to the highest ; from irrathe same proof that the eye was made tional to rational life, froin brutes to for vision, as there is that the tele- the human species, without perceive' seope was made for assisting it. They ing, as we proceed, auy alteration are made upon the same principles; whatever in the terms of comparison. both being adjusted to the laws by The rational animal does not produce which the transmission and refraction its offspring with more certainty or of rays of light are regulated.” In success than the irrational aniniai; a pursuing the argument, Dr. P. says, man than a quadruped ; a quadruped ** The resemblance between the two than a bird; nor, (for we may follow cases is still more accurate, and ob- the gradation through its whole scale,). tains in more points than we have a bird than a plant; nor a plant yet represented, or than we are, on than a watch, a piece of dead' meihe first view of the subject, aware chanism, would do, upon the suppoof. In dioptric telescopes there is an sition which has already so often been imperfection of this nature. Pencils repeated. Rationality therefore has' of light, in passing through glass lea- nothing to do in the business. If an ses, are separated into different co account must be given of the contriJours, thereby tinging the object, vance which we observe, if it be deespecially the edges of it, as if it were manded, whence arose either the viewed through a prism. To correct contrivance by which the young anithis inconvenience had been long a mal is produced, or the contrivance desideratum in the art. At last it manifested in the young animal itself,

it is not from the reason of the pa. and generally affirmed of them, as it rent that any such account can be hath sometimes been, it amounts to drawn. He is the cause of his off- such another stretch of assertion, as spring in the same sense as that in it would be to say, that all the imple. which a gardener is the cause of the ments of the cabinet maker's work. tulip which grows upon his parterre, shop, as well as his fish-skin, were and in no other. We admire the substances accidentally configurated, flower, we examine the plant, we per- which he had picked up and conceive the conduciveness of many of verted to his use; that his adzes. its parts to their end and office; we saws, planes, and gimlets were not observe a provision for its nourish- made, as we suppose, to hew, cut, ment, growih, protection and fecun- simooth, shape out, or bore wood dity ; but we never think of the gar- with ; but that these things beiog dener in all this. We attribute no- made, no matter with what design, thing of this to his agency; yet it or whether with any, the cabinet mamay still be true that, without the her perceived that they were appligardener we should not have had the cable to his purpose, and turned then tulip. Just so is it with the succession to account.

p. 72, 73. of animals even of the bighest order. " Is it possible to believe that For the contrivance discovered in the eye was formed without any rethe structure of the thing produced, gard to vision ; that it was the ani. we want a contriver. The parent is mal itself which found out, that, not that contriver. His conscious- though formed with no such intenness decides that question. He is in tion, it would serve to see with; and total ignorance why that which is pro- that the use of the eye, as an organ duced took its present form rather of sight, resulted from this discovery, than any other. It is for him only to and the animal's application of it? be astonished by the eilect. We can The same question may be asked of no more look therefore to the intel. the ear; the same of all the senses. ligence of the parent animal for what None of the senses fundamentally we are in search of, a cause of rela- depend upon the election of the anition and subserviency of parts to their mal; consequently neither upon his use, which relation and subserviency sagacity, nor his experience. It is we see in the procreated body, than the impression which objects make we can refer the internal conforma- upon them that constitutes their use. tion of an acorn to the intelligence Under that impression he is passive. of the oak from which it dropped, He may bring objects to the sense, of the structure of the watch to the or within its reach; he may select intelligence of the watch which pro- these objects; but over the impresduced it; there being no dillerence, sion itself he has no power, or very as far as argument is concerned, be- little; and that properly is the sense." tween an intelligence which is not p. 73, 74. exerted, and an intelligence which In the close of the sixth chapter, does not exist.”. p. 57-59.

which contains the argument cumuIn the filth chapter the application lative, the author says, of the argument is continued in an ment is cumulative in the fullest sense swer to objections made by sceptical of that term. The eye proves it minds; the absurdity of such objec. without the ear; the ear without the tions is plainly demonstrated, of which eye. The proof in each example is we introduce a part of the reply to complete ; for when the design of the the observation, that the parts were part, and the conduciveness of its not intended for the use, but that the structure to that design, is sbewn, the use arose out of the parts. This dis- mind may set itself at rest : no future tinction is intelligible. A cabinet, consideration can detract any thing maker rubs his mahogany with fish from the force of the example." skin; yet it would be too much to p. 83. assert, that the skin of the dog fish Chap. VII. contains a description was made rough and granulated on of the mechanical and immechanical purpose for the polishing of wood and parts and functions of animals and the use of cabinet makers. There- vegetables. The principal of mus. fore the distinction is intelligible. But cular motion is first considered, from I think that there is little place for it which the author proceeds to the in the works of nature. Wlien roundly operation of the gastric juice and se

The argu

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cretion. The chapter closes thus : How many more to be vigorous and ** My object in the present chapter active! Yet vigour and activity are, has been to teach three things: first, in a vast plurality of instances, prethat it is a mistake to suppose, that served in human bodies, notwith. in reasoning from the appearances standing that they depend upon so of nature, the imperfection of our great a number of instruments of moknowledge proportionably affects the tion, and notwithstanding that the certainty of our conclusion ; for in defect or disorder sometimes of a many cases it does not affect it at all: very small instrument, of a single secondly, that the different parts of pair, for instance, out of the four the animal frame may be classed and hundred and forty-six muscles which distributed, according to the degree are employed, may be attended with of exactness with which we can com- grievous inconveniency. There is pi. pare them with works of art: thirdly, ety and good sense in the following that the mechanical parts of our frame, observations, taken out of the Relia or those in which this comparison is gious Philosopher. With much commost complete, although constituting passion,' says this writer, as well probably the coarsest portions of na. • as astonishnient at the goodness of iure's workmanship, are the properest our loving Creator, have I copsi. to be alledged as proofs and speci

• dered the sad state of a certain genmens of design.". p.98.

• tleman, who, as to the rest, was in The eighth chapter contains an pretty good health, but only wanted accurate and curious description of the use of these two little muscles that the principal bones of the human serve to lift up the eyelids, and so frame, with their motion and use: the “had almost lost the use of his sight, following are particularized. The ver- being forced, as long as this defect tebræ of the human neck; the fore- • lasted, to shove up his eyelids every arm ; the spine ; the enlargement and * moment with his own hands!' in contraction of the chest to allow for general we may remark how little the play of the lungs; the patella or those, who enjoy the perfect use of knee-pan; and the shoulder blade. their organs, know the comprehenFrom the bones the author passes on siveness of the blessing, the variety of to the joints, describing the way by their obligation. They perceive a which the blood-vessels, nerves, and result, but they think liitle of the tendons are conducted; the gristle multitude of concurrences and rectiwhich defends the bones that work tudes which go to form it.” p. 140, against each other : "the mucilage, 141. more emollient and slippery than oil, We have then a variety of inwhich is constantly softening and lu- stances in which we may notice some bricating the parts that rub upon advantages of structure, which are each other, and thereby diminishing more conspicuous in muscles of a certhe effect of attrition in the highest tain class or description than in possible degree."

others. The ninth chapter treats of the The attention is engaged in the inuscles, which, with their tendons, tenth chapter by a very minute de. are the instruments by which animal scription of the vessels of animal bomotion is performed." It will be our dies, beginning with the circulation business to point out instances in of the blood, in which the author which, and properties with respect to shews, first, the disposition of the which, the disposition of these mus blood vessels, i.e. the laying of the cles is as strictly mechanical as that pipes; and secondly, the construcof the wires and strings of a puppet.” tion of the engine at the centre, viz. the p. 132.

heart, for driving the blood through The relation of the muscles to the them. Under the first, the security bones is pointed out; the nature of of these vessels is shewn in the provimuscular motion, the property of the sion made for their conveyance and muscles not interfering or obstructing defence to all parts of the body; and each other's motion, their positions, in the second place, the formation of their variety of forms, are described, the heart and its action, (which is by and the Dr. proceeds : “ The ejacu• dilation and contraction,) are des lations can never be too often re- scribed. The author says, “ the simpeated, How many things must go plest idea of its action is, that by right for us to be an hour at ease! each contraction, a portion of blood

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is forced as by a syringe into the ar The twelfth chapter, on compara. . teries; and, at each dilatation, an tive anatomy, is intended, by the ne .equal portion is received from the merous instances it contains, to shes veios. This produces at each pulse the resemblance that exists in anima a motion and change in the mass of nature, and that all its varieties as blood, to the amount of what the ca. deflections are subvervient to specie. : vity contains, which, in a full grown occasions and utilities. human heart, I understand, is about

(To be concluded in our nert.) an ounce, or two table-spoonsfull. How quickly these changes succeed one another, and by this succession how sufficient they are to support a .stream or circulation throughout the CXXXIV. DISCOURSES preackedes system, may be understood by the several Occasions. By Jors ERfollowing computation, abridged from SKINE, D D. one of the Mizistemi Keill's Anatomy, p. 117. ed. 3d. of the Old Grayfriars Church, Edir * Each ventricle will at least contain burgh, 2d Edition, 8vo. one ounce of blood. The heart • contracts four thousand times in one R. Erskine, we are informed, is hour; from which it follows, that an aged and venerable mini• there passes through the heart, ster of the establishment in Scotland, • every hour, four thousand ounces, and inany of the discounes here

or three hundred and fifty poupas printed were addressed ad clerze, • of blood. Now the whole inass of being preached before different sy• blood is said to be about twenty- nods, and on other public occasions. • tive pounds, so that a quantity of The contents of this volume are a • blood equal to the whole mass of follows: I. The Qualifications neces. • blood passes through the beart sary for Teachers of Christianity, from • Tourteen times in one hour; which James iji. 1. II. Ministers cauis about once every four minutes.' tioned against giring Offence, 2 Cor. Consider what an atiair this is when vi. 3. ---lll. Blessing of Christian we come to very large animals. The Teachers, Is. xxx. 20.—IV. Difiaorta of a whale is larger in the bore culties of the pastoral office, 2 Cor. than the main pipe of the water works ii. 10. -V. Motives for hearing at London Bridge ; and the water Sermons, Prov. viii. 33, 34. roaring in its passage through that VI Directions for hearing Sermoos, pipe is inferior, in impetus and velo Luke viii. 18. VII. lpstruccity, to the blood gushing from the tions and Consolations from the whale's heart. Hear Dr. Hunter's Unchangeable of Christ, Heb. xii. account of the dissection of a whale. 8.-Vill. The Agency of God in • The aorta measured a foot diame. Human Greatness, i Chron. xxix. 'ter. Ten or fifteen gallons of blood 12.IX. The People of God con• is thrown out of the heart at a sidered as all Righteous, Is. Ix.21.• stroke, with an immense velocity, X-XV. The important Mystery of • througb a tube of a foot diameter the Incarnation, I Tim. ii. 15, 16. The whole idea fills the mind with -XVI. Power given to Christ for wonder.p. 164–166.

blessing the Elect, John xvii. 2. The communication of the blood As a specimen of this writer's sento the lungs is next poticed, and we timents and style, we offer the folare introduced to an examination of lowing extracts to our readers. the manner in which the aliment gets The first discourse is founded on into the blood, and its progress James iii. 1. thus rendered by Dr. through the intestines. Digestion and Erskine, “ Be not inany teachers, the operation of the gastric juice knowing that we shall undergo a secome under consideration, and the verer judgment.” The meaning of remaining vessels of the body are which is the office of a spiritual ionoticed in succession.

structor is altended with great diftiThe animal structure, regarded as a culty and danger, and the duties of mass, forms the subject of the ele, it are hard to be discharged. Let venth chapter. Here the construc- not, therefore, every mao rush into tion of the frame is described, the that office. Let none undertake it situation, correspondence, and use of rashly, and while destitute of the the respective parts are pointed out. gists and graces necessary to so sa.

cred a function ; for teachers, as well Where is his benevolence, where, is
as hearers, must appear before the his heart, who feels no emotion of
judgment seat of Christ. God will gladness, when his brethren are thus
require more from teachers than honourable and happy?
from others; and their private mis “Condemn not, therefore, religious
carriages, or unfaithfulness to the establishments, whether formed by
duties of their office, will expose individuals, united societies, or whole
them to the severest punishments.” nations, which secure useful teachers,

“ The principal qualifications ne so far as human prudence can secessary in the spiritual instructor” cure them, kot to the present race are stated to be a personal religion; only, but to future generations. soundness in the faith ; a good genius,' Censure not the rulers, who devise improved by a competent measure wise and salutary plans, for thus of true learning; prudence and dis- promoting the best interests of mancretion; and a due mixture of a stu. kind. Think not that they sin dious disposition, and of an active against their subjects, wben, as nurs. spirit." After amplifying each of ing fathers, or nursing mothers, they these topics, the preacher inakes an provide for them wholesome spiritual application to students, parents, pa- nourishment. Censure they indeed trons, and to the members of the sy- merit, who invade the sacred rights pod of Glasgow, before which it was of conscience, and compel the repreached.

luctant to profess the national religion. As a specimen of the Doctor's style But censure not those, who pity, and and manner we select the following supply with the means of instruction, extract from the application of the multitudes, whom poverty would dis. third discourse.

able, or covetousness and inattention “ And now, I appeal to your un. to a future world indispose, to proderstandings and to your hearts, my vide teachers for themselves, and respectable hearers. Instructions who, without their friendly aid, must be profitable, which, by the would otherwise be destroyed for blessing of God, remove or prevent lack of knowledge. Boast not thy the most dreadful misery, and se- patriotism, or love to mankind, if cure the most valuable enjoyments. thou dost, what in thee lies, to reAnd this is the case, when the guilty, move the chief restraints of wicked. hearkening to the gospel call, find ness, and to seal up the springs of pardon through the blood of Jesus, private, of family, and of public hapacceptance through his merits, and piness. If thou art zealous for light, sanctification by bis Spirit; when the improvement, and civilization, thy wicked forsakes his way, and the zeal for promoting them, is not acunrighteous his thoughts, and turns cording to knowledge. If pretendto the Lord; and when, through ers to liberality of sentiment, storm acknowledgment of the truth, those or undermine one religious establishare recovered from the snare of the ment, and no other or better, of Hevil, who were formerly led captive larger or lesser extent, replaces it ; by him at his will. Dreadful is his be not surprised that darkness codelusion, who thinks their life use vers the land, and thick darkness the less or wretched, who, waiting upon people ; that evil men and seducers God in the way of his appointment, wax worse and worse; that courrenew and exert their spiritual teousness gives place to rudeness, strength, and, if they cannot mount gentleness to harshness, compassion with wings as eagles, run and are not to cruelty. weary, or at least walk and are not “ But, must it not be acknowledgfaint." Is not the work of righteousness ed, that congregations sometimes depeace, and the effect thereof quiet- rive little or no benefit froin serness and assurance for ever? Have mons, and that to their teachers they no dignity, who are men of much of the blame belongs? It must another spirit, and, in religious and be acknowledged. This, however, moral qualitications, more excellent may be accounted for, in perfect than their neighbours? Does society consistency with what I have urged. gain little, when the wickedness of Bad men regard the effect of what ihe wicked comes to an end, by the they preach, with cold indifference, grace, not by the judgments, of God? except in so far as worldly honour us Vol.I.

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