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otter fished as well in the sea as in on the banks of the pond in different fresh water, and took great numbers directions. Those nearest to us were of young cod, and other fish there." between our station and the pain, *. 322, 323

and therefore we could observe their The utility of the hedge-hog is thus operations very plainly. Some of described.

them formed a kind of mortar; others “ The hedge-hog may be rendered, carried this on their tails, which in a very considerable degree, do served as sledges for the purpose. I mestic ; and it has been frequently observed that they put themselves introduced into houses for the pur- two and two, and ibat each of these pose of expelling those troublesome loaded the other. They trailed the insects the Blatiæ, or cockroaches, mortar, which was pretty stiff, quite which it pursues with avidity, and on to the dam, where others were statiwhich it is fond of feeding. By the oned to take it; these put it into the Calmuc Tartars these animals are gutter and rammed it down with kept in their huts instead of cạts. blows of their tails.

is There was a hedge-hog, in the " The noise of the water soon year 1799, in the possession of a Mr. ceased, and the breach was completeSample, of the Angel-inn at Felton, ly repaired. One of the beavers then in Northumberland, which perform- struck two blows with his tail, and ed the duty of a turn-spit, as well in instantly they all took to the water every respect as the dog of that name; without any noise, and disappeared. san about the house as familiarly as “ M. Du Pratz and his companions any other domestic quadruped ; dis- afterwards retired to their hut to rest, played a facility till then unknown in and did not again disturb these inThis species of animals, and used to dustrious animals till the next day. answer to the name of Tom.” p. 389. In the morning, however, they went

The following curious remarks, together to the dam, to see its conupon the manners of the beaver, are struction, for which purpose it was extracted from the observations of an necessary that they should cut part attentive spectator.

of it down. The lowering of the “ At the head of one of the rivers water in consequence of this, togeof Louisiana, in a very retired place, ther with the noise they made, roused M. Du Pratz found a beaver" dam. the beavers again. The animals seemNot far from it, but hidden from ed much disturbed by these operatheir sight, he and his companions tions, and one of them in particular erected their hut, in order to watch was observed several times to come the operations at leisure. They wait- pretty near them, as if to examine ed till the moon shone pretty bright, what passed. As he apprehended and carrying branches of trees in that they might run into the woods. their hands to hide themselves be- if further disturbed, he advised his bind, they went with great care and companions that they should again silence to the dam. He then order- conceal themselves. ed one of the men to cut, as silently “ One of the beavers then venturas possible, a gutter, about a foot ed, (continues our observer,) to go wide, through it, and immediately upon the breach, after having severai afterwards to run to the hiding place. times approached and returned like

" As soon as the water through the a spy: He surveyed the place, then gutter began to make a noise, (says struck four blows, as he did the preour writer,) we heard a beaver come ceding evening, with his tail. One from one of the huts, and plunge in. of those that were going to work, We then saw him get upon the bank, passed close by me, and as I wanted and distinctly perceived that he ex a specimen to examine, I shot bim. amined it. He then, with all his The noise of the gun made them all force, gave four distinct blows with scamper off with greater speed than his tail, and immediately the whole a hundred blows of the tail of their colony threw themselves into the wa. overseer could have done. ter and came upon the dan. When “ By firing at them several times they were all assembled, one of them afterwards, they were compelled to appeared, by muttering, to issue run with precipitation into the woods. some kind of orders, for they all in- M. Du Pratz then exainined their biz. stantly left the place, and went out bitatious, &c.

SPECIMEN.

AND

cupeful tribe.

“ Under one of the houses he found after regaling itself always returned fisteen pieces of wood, with the bark to the house as its proper babitation. in part gnawed off, apparently in- Its usual companions were a grey, tended for food. And round the hound and a spaniel, both so food or middle of this house, which formed hare-huntiog, that they often went a passage for them to go in and out out together without any persons ao at, he found no less than fifteen dif- companying them. With these two ferent cells. These habitations were dogs this tame bare spent its erenmade by posts placed slanting up- ings: they always slept on the same wards to a point, and in the middle hearth, and very frequently it would was the floor, resting firmly on notches rest itself upon them.” p. 465. in the posts." p. 405_-407.

(To be continued.) A curious method to clear a house of rats is introduced.

A gentleman travelling through Mecklenburg about thirty years ago, was witness to a very singulár circuin- CLXII. Tur Happy VILLAGE, stance in the post-house at New Har

a Poem. Dedicated to the Traces gard. After dinner the landlord

of the late Lord Crewe, by R. placed on the floor a large dish of

Wallis, Rector of Seaham. 4to. soup, and gave a loud whistle. Im with an Engraved Vignette. mediately there came into the room a mastiff, a fine Angora cat, an old raven, and a remarkably large rat, with a bell about its neck. The four ND now, my muse, best of the animals went to the dish, and, with

tuneful tribe, out disturbing each other, fed toge. Teach me a rising village to describe, ther; after which the dog, cat, and Give me but pow'r to modulate my lay, rat, lay before the fire, while the As Goldsmith sung of one is deep decay; raven hopped about the room. The Then shall my pen attempt th' inviting scene, landlord, after accounting for the Pourtray what is, as well as what has been,

Make truth display the charnus of Fancy's familiarity which existed among the

song, animals, informed his guest that the And time confess it as it rolls along, rat was the most useful of the four, for Confess that Blanchland has the grace alone the noise he made bad completely of Auburn dead, of lovely Auburo-gone. freed the house from the rats and mice with which it was before infest

"To Blanchland's soos, enclosed on ev'ry

side, ed.” p. 417, 418. We close our extracts from the first No stream but Derwent, useful, but not

Far from the commerce of the briny tide, volume, with the following anecdotes

large, of the bare.

Fitter to turn the mill than bear the barge, « Whilst Dr. Townson was at Göt. No stream but this, pressing the verdant tingen, he had a young hare brought glade, to him, which he took so much pains Source of domestic comfort, not of trade, with, as to renderit more familiarthan To them, deny'd to use the bending sail, these animals commonly are. In the Mount the steep deck, and court the prospe evenings it soon becaine so frolick,

'rous gale, some, as to run and jump about his To them, the soothing thought propitious sofa and bed; sometimes in its play That wealth,' wherever found, was still the it would leap upon, and pat him with its fore-feet, or, whilst he was read

Whether on Indian or Peruvian shore, ing, even knock the book out of his still does it bear the rank it always bore; hand. But whenever a stranger en It matters not from whence it takes its birth, tered the room, the little animal al

In open day, or bowels of the earth. ways

exhibited considerable alarm. * Mr. Borlase saw a hare that was

“ Inspired by this, they search the moun. so familiar as to feed from the hand, Where signs of precious ore they hope to

tain's base, lay under a chair in a common sittingroom, and appear, in every other re

Brought by the delving torrent into light, spect, as easy and comfortable in its They find it scatter'd brilliant and bright. situation as á lap-dog. It now and In goes the drift, and e'er it reaches far, then went out into the garden, but They strike against a solid rock of spar;

same;

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Onward they hack again, when, lo! the nature was still a desideratum in the vein

religious world; for although we have Displays its lustre, and relieves their pain. had dictionaries which explained Bless's sight, indeed! which with it daily scripture terms, yet it is evident these

brings Food for the poor, the best support of kings. church since the sacred canon was

could not embrace the bistory of the Happy the man who first the infant thought Nurs'd as it rose, and to perfection brought; terms which have been used; nor,

concluded, nor explain the many Whose bright success an inland circle gave All that it wisii'd for from the distant wave,

indeed, point out the various sects Bid the increasing village larger grow,

and denominations which have subAnd all the sweets of in-born traffic know. sisted since that time. The Compiler “Crewe, their proiector, master, and liege the valuable works above referred to:

does not mean, by this, to depreciate lord, Whose life was bounty mitr'd and ador'd,

he is sensible of their excellencies,

and he does not wish to undervalue The progress saw, attentive to the change, And in right order wish'd the whole to range; Work, however, is of a different na

them in order to exalt his own. This For tho' religion in disguise was gone, He knew the dire effecis of having none,

ture, as the reader will easily see, if So here be plac'd it, with a purer ray, he take the trouble to compare and To light to heav'n the true and perfect way.

examine. All might see it, all that would at least, There may, doubtless, be defects By a most faithful guide, a parish priest." in this publication which have escap

p. 5–7.

ed the eye of the Compiler ; but whoever considers the various books

that must have been consulted; the CLXIII. A THEOLOGICAL Dic- discriminations that were necessary 1 TIONARY, containing Definitions of to be made; the patient investigation all Religious Terms ; à comprehensive required; and the toil of selecting,

View of every Article in the System transcribing, and composing, must be of Divinity; an impartial Account convinced, that it has been attended of all the principal' Denominations with no small difficulty. The advanwhich have subsisted in the Religious tages, however, which my own mind World, from the Birth of Christ io the derived froin the Work, and the

propresent Day; together with an accu- bability of its being useful to others, rate Statement of the most remarkable greatly encouraged me in its proseTransactions and Events recorded in cution. Besides, to be active, to be Ecclesiastical History. By CHARLES useful, to do something for the good Buck. 8vo. Vol. I. (16 be completed of mankind, I have always considered in 2 Vols.)

as the honour of an intelligent being. It is not the student wrapt up in metaphysical subtilties; it is not the re.

cluse living in perpetual solitude ; it T

the wisest of men, " that if the massing wealth, that can be considered • soul be without knowledge, it is not as the greatest ornaments, or the • good.' Knowledge, in a great mea greatest blessings to human society : sure, forms the true dignity and hap- —it is rather the useful than the shina piness of man: It is that by which he ing talent that is to be coveted. holds an honourable rank in the scale “ Perhaps it may be said, the of being; and by which he is render Work is tinctured too much with my ed capable of adding to the felicity of own sentiments, and that the theology his fellow creatures. Every attempt, is too antiquated to please a liberal, therefore, to enlarge its boundaries, philosophizing, and retined age. In and facilitate its acquisition, must be answer to this, I observe, that I could considered as worthy of our attention do no other, as an honest man, than and regard. The present Work is cominunicate what I believed to be designed to promote these valuable the truth. It is a false liberality to and important ends.

acquiesce with every man's opinion; “The plan of conveying knowledge to fall in with every man's scheme, by dictionaries has been long esta- to trifle with error, or imagine there blished, and well received in the re is no difference between one senti. public of letters. A dictionary, how- ment and another; yet, notwithever, of a religious and ecclesiastical standing this declaration, I trust the

PREFACE.

on ;

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fratures of bigotry are not easily dis- neral council should decide all the cernible in this work; and that, points in question between the Prowhile I have endeavoured to carry iestants and Catholics. The occa. the torch of truth in my hand, 1 sion of it was this : The emperor had have not forgotten to walk in the path made choice of three divines, viz. of candour.

Julius Phlug, bishop of Naumberg; " It is almost needless here to say, Michael Helding, titulai bishop of that I bave availed inyself of all the Sideon , and Joho Agricola, preacher writings of the best and most eminent to the elector of Brandenburgh; who authors I could obtain. Whatever drew up a project, consisting of 26 has struck me as of importance in articles, concerning the points of ecclesiastical history; whatever good religion in dispute between the Caand accurate in definition; whatever tholics and Protestants

. The controjust views of the passions of the hu verted points were, the state of Adam man mind; whatever terms used in before and aíter his fall; the rethe religious world; and whatever demption of mankind by Jesus Christ; instructive and impressive in the sys- the justification of sinners; charity tems of divinity and moral philoso- and good works; the confidence we phy, I have endeavoured to incor ought to have in God; that our sins porate in this work. And in order are remitted; the church and its true to prevent its being a dry detail of marks, its power, its authority, and terms and of dates, I have given the ministers; the pope and bishops; the substance of what has been generally sacraments; the mass; the comme. Advanced on each subject, and occa moration of saints; their intercessi. sionally selected some of the most and prayers for the dead. interesting and practical passages "The emperor seat this project to from our best and celebrated sermons. the pope for bis approbation, which I trust, therefore, it will not only be he refused; whereupon Charles V. of use to inform the mind, but im- published the imperial constitution, press the heart; and thus promote called the Interim, wherein he de. the real good of the reader. The clared, that it was his will, that all critic, however, may be disposed to "bis catholic dominions should, for be severe; and it will, perhaps, be the future, inviolably observe the easy for him to observe imperfections. customs, statutes, and ordinances But be this as it may: I can assure of the universal church; and that him I feel nyself happy in the idea those who had separated themselves that the work is not intended to serve ' from it should either reunite thema party, to encourage bigotry, or selves to it, or, at least, conform to strengthen prejudice, but for the 'this constitution; and that all should • service of truth, by one who would quietly expect the decisions of the • be glad to attend and grace her general council.' This ordinance • triumphs; as her soldier, if he has

was published in the diet of Augs. • had the honour to serve successfully burg, May 15, 1548 ; but this des • under ber banner; or as a captive vice neither pleased the pope nor the

tied to her chariot wheels, if he has, protestants : the Lutheran preachers • though undesignedly, committed openly declared they would not se • any olence against her. After all, ceive it, alledging that it re-established however, what a learned author said popery: some chose rather to quit of another work I say of this:- If their chairs and livings than to sub•jt have merit, it will go down to pos- scribe it; nor would the duke of Sar: • terity; if it have none, the sooner ony receive it. Calvin, and sereral it dies aud is forgot the better'." others, wrote against it. On the

other side, the emperor was so sea We adduce the following successive vere against those who resused to acarticles, as a fair specimen of the cept it, that he disfranchised the work and the talents of its Author,

cities of Magdeburg and Constance " INTERIM, the name of a formulary, for their opposition. or confession of faith, obtruded upon “ INTERMEDIATE STATE, a terra the Protestants, after the death of made use of 10 denote the state of the Luther, by the emperor Charles V. soul between death and the resurrecwhen he had defeated their forces. tion. From the scriptures speaking It was so called, because it was only frequently of the dead as sleeping in to take place in the interim, till a ge their graves, many have supposed

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p. 111, iv.

that the soul sleeps till the resurrec

• ficers : their censures were only tion, i.e. is in a state of entire insen. • honest reproofs; and their excomsibility. But against this opinion, and "munications were only declarations that the soul, after death, enters im- that such offenders, being incorrimediately into a state of reward or 'gible, were no longer accounted punishment, the following passages members of their communities.' Let seem to be conclusive, 17 Mat. 3. it ever be remembered therefore, that -23 Luke, 42. 5 2d Cor. 6. 1 Phil. no man or men have any authority 21. 16 Luke, 22, 23. 6 Rev. 9. See whatever from Christ to domineer articles Resurrection, Soul, and Fu over the consciences, or persecute ture State; Bishop Law's Apendix to the persons of any whose religious his Theory of Religion; Bennet's principles agree not with their own. Olam Haneshamoth, or View of See Lowell's Sermons, ser. 6; Rothe Intermediate State ; Archdeacon binson's · Claude, vol. II. p. 227, Blackburne's Historical View of the 299; Saurin's Ser. 3d vol. p. 30, Controversy concerning an Interme- preface; Locke on Government and diate State, and the separate Exist. Toleration. ence of the Soul between Death and " Intrepidity, a disposition of mind the general Resurrection; in which unaffected with fear at the approach last the reader will find a large ac of danger. Resolution either banishes count of the writings on this subject, fear or surmounts it, and is firm on from the beginning of the reforma- all occasions. Courage is impatient to tion to almost the present time. See 'attack, undertakes boldly, and is not also, Doddridge's Lectures, lect. lessened by difficulty. Valour acts 219.

with vigour, gives no way to resist" Intolerance is a word chiefly used ance, but pursues an enterprize in in reference to those persons, churches, spite of opposition. Bravery knows or societies, who do not allow men no fear; it runs nobly into danger, to think for themselves, but impose and prefers honour to life itself. Inon them articles, creeds, ceremonies, trepidity encounters the greatest points &c., of their own devising. See To- with the utmost coolness, and dares leration. Nothing is more abhorrent even present death. See Courage, from the genius of the christian reli- Fortitude. gion than an intolerant spirit, or an Investiture, in ecclesiastical pointolerant church. It has inspired licy, is the act of conferring any beits votaries with a savage ferocity; nefice on another. It was customary 'has plunged the fatal dagger intoin- for princes to make investiture of ecnocent blood; depopulated towns clesiastical benefices, by delivering and kingdoms; overthrown states to the person they had chosen, a pas' and empires, and brought down the toral statf and a ring. The account * righteous vengeance of heaven upon of this ceremony may be seen at large "a guilty world. The pretence of in Mosheim's Ecclesiastical Hist. cent. superior knowledge, sanctity and 11, part 2, chap. 2.” P. 391-401. authority for its support, is the dis Joachimites, the disciples of Joagrace of reason, the grief of wis- chim, abbot of Flora, in Calabria. dom, and the paroxysm of folly. Joachim was a Cistertian monk, and • To fetter the conscience, is injus. a great pretender to inspiration. He

to ensnare it, is an act of sa relates of himsell, that, being, very *crilege ; but to torture it, by an at- young, he went to Jerusalem in the

tempt to force its feelings, is horri- dress of a hermit to visit the holy 'ble intolerance; it is the most aban- places; and that, while he was in

doned violation of all the maxims prayer to God in the church of that of religion and morality. Jesus city, God communicated to him, by Christ formed a kingdom purely spi- infusion, the knowledge of divine ritual; the apostles exercised only mysteries, and of the holy scriptures. * a spiritual authority under the di. He wrote against Lombard, the masrection of Jesus Christ; particular ter of the sentences, who had mainchurches were united only by faith tained that there was but one essence and love; in all civil affairs they in God, though there were three persubmitted to civil magistracy; and sons; and he pretended, that, since in religious concerns they were go. there were three persons, there must • verned by the reasoning, advice, be three essences. This dispute was and exhortations of their own of. in the year 1195. Joachim's writings Vol. I.

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