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are subjoined, we select the follow- Mogul Empire, and on the Political ing:
and Commercial State of India, at “ MIDNIGHT.
the Beginning of the Seventeenth “ 'Tis now gone twelve, my soul how deep Century-An Account of the early the gloom!
Intercourse between Great Britain Nought round me strikes, save emblems and India- The Origin of the English strong of death;
East India Company-The First CharNo sound breaks forth, but groans, and sigh- ter granted to that Company by Queen ing breath:
Elizabeth-The Arguments against No fields are seen to smile, no trees to
the India Trade, and the Establishbloom.
ment of an exclusive Company, with 'Twas nigh to seven when Sol in abrupt the Replies to these Arguments—The
haste Shot down the western steep his gladdening First trading
Voyages to India by the
Company's ShipsThe Embassy of ray ; Where now in happier lands he holds his Şir Thomas Rowe to the Court of Jeday,
hanger, the Emperor of Hindustan While Albion lies forlorn,-a dreary waste : The Establishment of English FacClouds congregating fast obtrude their shade, tories in different Parts of India dur. And the night's lamp has slunk beneath the ing the Reigns of that Prince, and of dell.
his Cotemporary, James the First of Ah me! when mental midnight glooms per England. vade,
* In the preceding chapters we Huw sinks the soul all ’neath their potent brought down our history to the close swell!
of the sixteenth century. We introWhen the true source of light forbears to shine,
duced it by surveying the state of Mid-day is blackest night, e'en on equator's ancient Hindustan, with regard to line!” p. 86, 87.
religion, civil government, laws, manners, arms, commerce, arts, sciences, and literature ; so that a just and dis
tinct notion might at once be formed CLXVI. The Asiatic Regis. of these important particulars. This
TER; or, a View of the History of introduction we followed by a conHindustan; and of the Politics, Com- nected series of every well authentimerce, and Literature of Asia, for the cated public event in the civil history Year 1801. Thick 8vo.
of the empire, from the earliest ages THIS work, many others, arose to death of Akbar ; by a view of of our Asiatic possessions, and the India and Europe, previous to the necessity of a better acquaintance discovery of the passage by the Cape with them to all who are inierested in of Good Hope ; and by a concise acEast Indian affairs.
count of the rise and progress of the The present is the 3d vol. of this Portuguese establishments, together work, and is executed upon the same with a developement of the causes of plan as our Annual Registers; the va their declension. We now proceed rious articles are classed under the to call the attention of our readers following heads :-History of Hin- to still more interesting topics. dustan-Chronicle of Events in In “ The political situation of Hindia—Promotions Home Intelligence dustan, at the beginning of the sevenState Papers—Proceedings in Par- teenth century, has been noticed in liament - Proceedings at the India our view of the reign of Akbar. But House-Characters, including Bio- before we enter upon the principal subgraphical articles -- Miscellaneous ject of this chapier, it seems essential Tracts--Poetry- Account of Books. to make our readers fully acquainted As specimens of the manner in which with the condition, not only of the the principal departments are exe- continent, but of the islands of India, cuted, we give the following extracts: both in respect to politics and com
Under the article History we have merce, at the cominencement of the but one chapter ; (viz. the 3d), of direct trade between these countries which we shall give the contents and and England. introduction.
“ At the death of Akbar, in 1605, “Recapitulation of the Subjects of his doininions extended from the Tithe First and Second Chapters-Ob- bet mountains on the north, to the servations on the Constitution of the provinces of Visiapur and Golconda
on tlie south ; and from the confines sixth part only of that produce bat of Aracan, Meckly, Assam, and Boot from immemorial custom been de an, on the east, to the river Attock manded by the prince. Of this proand Cabulistan on the West. This portion of the gross produce part was vast territory comprehended the finest paid in kind, and part in money. and richest countries in India. It The state of landed property in Hin. consisted of one hundred and five dustan continued nearly the same for provinces, and two thousand seven the first three centuries after the Mahundred and thirty-seven districts. hommedan conquests. The Ghiznian With a view to the better govern- princes were rude and serocious fament of his extensive empire, to me natics, who overrun rather than subliorate the condition of his subjects, dued the western provinces, and whose and thereby to advance the general short sighted avarice never looked prosperity, Akbar divided his domi- beyond the immediate plunder of vions into fifteen subahs, over each moveable property. Instead of taking of which he appointed a subaldar or possession of, they destroyed the viceroy. The names of these subalis sources by which alone they coull wêre, Delhi, Agra, Allahabad, Oude, have secured to themselves real wealth Agimer, Ahmedabad, Bahar, Bengal, and permanent power. Whenever Cabul, Lahore, Multan, Malwa, Berar, they wanted a supply of money, they Kandeish, and Ahmednagur. Theem- plundered the manufacturers, merpire thus divided, was governed nearly chants, and peasantry, and laid waste on the same principles as the ancient the districts contiguous to the royal Hindu states, though the emperor residence. Under such circumstances, ruled with a much more absolute nothing but the extraordinary fersway than the Hindu kings; for he tility of the country, and the indehad not, like them, an arbitrary sys- fatigable industry of its native inbatem of religion, interwoven with the bitants, could possibly have preserved civil code, and a domineering hie- it from total ruin. rarchy, who by' that code was placed • After the establishment of the above the prince in the order of so- Afghan dynasty in Hindustan, the ciety, constantly operating as a check Hindus appear to have been someon his conscience, and thereby re what less severely oppressed. The straining him in the commission of princes of that race, though not less tyrannical acts. Akbar inherited from cruel or avaricious, were infinitely his ancestors on the throne of Delhi, more politic than their predecessors. a power in every respect unlimited They saw the absurdity of stripping and uncontrolable; but it was bis their conquered subjects of the whole glory to esercise that power accord of their property, and in effect de. ing to the immutable and established feating their own object, by preclodmaxims of universal justice. Though ing them from having any property he possessed in an eminent degree to pillage in future. These princes all the qualifications of a great war. therefore exacted heavy tributes rior, bis turn of mind inclined him to tliroughout the whole of the provinces promote the peacetul arts, and to they had subdued; without fixing, encourage industry amongst his sub- however, any mode or rate of payjects. In the dominions which he ment, or establishing any sort of sysconquered, as well as in those which tematic arrangement. They made he held by inheritance, he restored no appropriation of any part of the the Hindus not only to the free ex lands in their dominions, except the ercise of their religion, but to many provinces of Delhi, and the Duab. of their civil rights. In treating of in these the Hindu husbandmen were the ancient Hindu governments, we required to convert into money the have already shewn that the prince' greatest part of the gross produce of was the absolute and sole proprietor their farms, which money was col. of the soil : that the land throughout lected by the choudries or collectors, his dominions was apportioned in and by them paid into the royal treasmall allotments to the husbandman, sury: by wliom it was cultivated, which • The first Malommedan monarch allotments they held by perpetual who made any change in the political hereditary leases; that the gross pro economy of Hindustan, kas Ålla-udduce of ihe soil constituted the re. deen, whose reign, institutions, and venues of the state, and that one personal character, have been al.
ready noticed. After causing an ac- they groaned. None of the Mussul. curate survey to be made of all the man princes, during that period, provinces in his dominions, he direct made any material alteration in the ed the Hindu collectors to make esti- state of property, or in the mode of mates of the value of the gross an. collecting the revenues. Whilst the nual produce of the land in every royal treasury was regularly kept full, district; one-half of the whole he they were little anxious about the appropriated to himself : and Fe- sources from whence it was supplied. rishta adds, that he reduced the “ On the accession of Akbar, a sys• choudries to the level of the class of tem of moderation was immediately
ryots; so that these opulent collec. adopted. The first edict that was is• tors might not throw the burden sued was strictly to prohibit the ex' from themselves on the industrious action of peishčush or tribute from • farmers. He also enacted, that the the farmers, to let all merchandize · fees received by the collectors, as pass toll free, and to forbid the prace • perquisites of office, should in fu- tice of recruiting the army by force • ture be paid into the royal treasury' from amongst the Hindi labourers. This heavy impost, but still more the This edict, which was rigidly enforcalteration which was made in their an- ed, and followed by others of the cient customs, reduced the peasantry same complexion, in a few years to misery and despair; the cultiva. changed the face of affairs over the tion of the lands was neglected ; and whole empire, and paved the way for many of the opulent ryots in the nor those institutions which crowned the theri provinces abandoned their reign of this prince with a just and houses and fled to the woods. At the durable glory." p. 1-4. death of Alla, this destructive system
(To be concluded in our nerl.} was discontinued; but the same rate of impost was exacted, with more or less rigour, from that period till the accession of Firose-Sbah. But that CLXVII. A SHORT IIistory of the judicious and benevolent monarch no ancient Israelites; a work of the sooner assunied the reins of govern greatest Ulility to all who desire fully to ment, than he remitted a great part understand their various Customs, of the assessinent made by Ala; and Munners, &c. Iritten originally in by many wise and salutary regula French by the ABBE FLEURY Much tions, restored the agriculture, and enlarged from the “ Apparaius Biblia revived the commerce of the empire. cus" of Pere LAMY, and corrected
“ The conquest of Timur, which throughout by A. CLARKE Crown. took place above about ten years after Svo. boards. the death of Firose - Shah, involved the whole country in anarchy: Whe: ISHOP HORNE says, in one of prince were prepared for Hindustan (meaning the Abbè Fleury's) conor for Persia, is a question of little tains a concise, pleasing, and just acimportance, as they never were adopt- count of the manners, customs, laws, ed in any country; though Akbar polity, and religion of the Israelites. indeed appears to have profited by it is an excellent introduction to the them in forming his plan of govern. reading of the old Testament, and ment. From the invasion of Timur, should be put into the hands of every until the reign of Akbar, the informa: young person. An elegant English tion which has been handed down by version of it (he adds) by Mr. Farne. Ferishta, respecting the state of the worth was first printed in 1756." This landed property, is very imperfect. version is the same for substance as It would appear, however, that though is here reprinted, but corrected and the exactions which were made by enlarged (as the title expresses it) the sovereign were immoderately bigl, froin Père Lamy, a man of great eruand occasionally enforced with cir dition, to whom we are indebted for cumstances of the most atrocious cru the fourth part of the present voa elty, yet trade and agriculture were lume. As a specimen of the work, carried on by the industrious Hindus we shall extract the second chapter according to their ancient customs, of Part I. On the employments of the in spite of the oppression under which Israelites, particularly agriculture. Vol. I.
“We do not find any distinct pro- we generally place those that work fessions among the Israelites. From in the country in the last rank: and the eldest of the tribe of Judah to the most people set a greater vaise upra youngest of that of Benjamin, they fat idle citizens, that are weat, and were all husbandmen and shepherds, lazy, and good for nothing, because, driving their plouglis and watching being richer, they live more luxe their flocks themselves. The old man riously, and at their ease. of Gibeah, that lodged the Levite, * But if we imagine a country. whose wife was abused, was coming where the difference of conditions is hack at night from his work, when not so great, where to live genteelly he invited him to sojourn with him. is not to live without doing any thing Gideon himself was threshing his at all, but carefully to preserve ones corn when the angel told him he liberty, which consists in being subshould deliver his people. Ruth got ject to nothing but the laws and into the good graces of Boaz by public authority ; subsisting upon gleaning at his harvest. Saul, though ones own stock, without depending a king, was driving oxen when he re- upon any body, and being content ceived the news of the danger Jabesh with a little, rather than do a mean Gilead was in. Every body knows thing to grow rich; a country whers that David was keeping sheep, when idleness, effeminacy, and ignorance Samuel sent to look for him to anoint of what is necessary for the sapport him king; and he returned to his of life, were discountenanced, and flock, after he had been called to play where pleasure was in less esteem upon the harp before Saul. After he than health and strength : in such a was king, his sons made a great country it would be more creditable feast at the shearing of their sheep. to plow, or keep a flock, than to folElisha was called to be a prophet as low diversions, and idle away all he drove one of his father's twelve ones time. Now there is no necese ploughs. The child that he brought sity of having any recourse to Plato's to life again was with his father at commonwealth to find men of this the harvest when it fell sick. And character, for so lived the greatest Judith's husband, though very rich, part of mankind for nearly four thougot the illness of which he died on the like occasion. The Scripture “ To begin with what we are best abounds with such examples.
acquainted with. Of this sort were “This, without doubt, is what most the maxims of the Greeks and Ro. offends those who are not acquainted mans. We see every where in Ho. with antiquity, and have no opinion mer, kings and princes living upon of any customs but their own. When the fruits of their lands and their one speaks of ploughmen and shep- hocks, and working with their owu herds, they figure to themselves a hands. Hesiod has written a poem parcel of clownish boors, that lead a on purpose to recommend husband. slavish miserable life, in poverty and ry,'as the only credible means of contempt, without courage, without subsisting and improving ones for. sense or education. They don't tune; and finds fault with his broconsider, that what makes our coun ther, to whom he addresses it, for try people cominonly so wretched, is living at other people's expence, by their being slaves to all the rest of pleading causes, and following atairs mankind : since they work not only of that kind. He reckons This emfor their own maintenance, but toployment, which is the sole oceupafurnish necessaries for all those that tion of so many amongst us, no bet. Jive in a better manner. For it is ter than idleness. We see by Xenothe countryman that provides for the phon's (Economics, that the Greeks citizens, the officers of the courts of had no way lessened their opinion of judicature and treasury, gentleinen, husbandry, when they were at the and ecclesiastics : and whatever ways highest pitch of politeness. we make use of to turn money into * We must not therefore impute provisions, or provisions into money, the fondness of the Romans for busall will end in the fruits of the earth, bandry to stupidity and want of let. and those animals that are supported ters: it is rather a sign of their good by them. Yet when we compare all sense. As all men are born with these different conditions together, limbs and bodies fit for labour, they
thought every one ought to make any of them. They left this occuuse of them, and that they could pation to the Romans whom they had not do it to better purpose than in subdued, and continued in their anmaking the earth aftord them a cer- cient ignorance, wbich time seeined tain maintenance and innocent plen- to have made venerable; and en, ty. It was not, however, covetousa tailed such an idea of nobility upon ness that recommended it to them; it, as we have still much ado to get since the same Romans despised the better of. gold, and the presents of strangers. .“ But, in the same degree that they Nor was it want of courage and bra. Jessened the esteem for agriculture, very; since at that very time they they brought hunting into credit, of subdued all Italy, and raised those which the ancients made but little powerful armnies with which they af- account. They held it in the highest terwards conquered the whole world. repute, and advanced it to very great On the contrary, the painful and perfection, sparing neither pains nor frugal life they led in the country expence. This has been generally was the chief reason of their great the employment of the nobility. Yet, strength, making their bodies robust to consider things in a true light, the and inured to labour, and accustom- labour spent in tilling the ground, ing them to severe discipline. Who. and rearing tame creatures, answers ever is acquainted with the life of at least as well as that which only Cato the Censor, cannot suspect him aims at catching wild beasts, often of a low way of thinking, or of mean. at the expence of tillage. The mo. ness of spirit: yet that great man, derate pains of one that has the care who had gone through all the offices of a great number of cattle and poulin the commonwealth when it flou. try, is, surely, as eligible as the vio. rished most, who had governed pro- lent and unequal exercise of a hun. xinces and cominanded armies; that ter; and oxen and sheep are at least great orator, lawyer, and politician, as useful for our support as dogs and did not think it beneath him to write horses. It may well therefore be as. of the various ways of managing lands serted, that our customs, in this point, and vines, the method of building are not as agreeable to reason as stables for different sorts of beasts, those of the ancients.. and a press for wine or oil; and all “ “ Besides, the Greeks and Romans this in the inost circumstantial man were not the only people that esteemner; so that, we see, he understood ed agriculture as the Hebrews did: it perfectly, and did not write out of the Carthaginians, who were origiostentation or vain-glory, but for the nally Phænicians, studied it much, as benefit of mankind.
appears by the twenty-eight books “ Let us then frankly own that our which Mago wrote upon that subject. contempt of husbandry is not founded The Egyptians had such a reverence upon any solid reason; since this occu- for it, as even to adore the creatures pation is no way inconsistent with that were of use in it. The Persians, courage, or any other virtue that is in the height of their power, had overnecessary either in peace or war, or seers in every province to look after even with true politeness: Whence the tillage of the ground. Cyrus the then does it proceed? I will endea- younger delighted in planting and vour to shew the real cause. It comes cultivating a garden with his own only from use, and the old customs hands. As to the Chaldeans, we canof our own country. The Franks, not doubt of their being well skilled and other people of Germany, lived in husbandry, if we retlect upon the in countries that were covered with fruitfulness of the plaius of Babylon, forests : they had neither corn nor which produced iwo or three hunwine, nor any good fruits : so that dred grains for one. In a word, the they were obliged to live by hunting, history of China teaches us, that agri, as the savages still do in the cold culture was also in high esteem among countries of America. After they had them in the most ancient and best crossed the Rhine, and settled on times. Nothing but the tyranny of better lands, they were ready enough the northern nations has niade is so to take the advantages that result generally disesteemed. from agriculture, arts, and trade; “ Let us then divest ourselves of but would not apply themselves to the mean opinion we have conceived