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graving of several Roman Antiquities, found, through his horse accidentally disturbing them, at a Roman station called Croes Atti, on his estate in Flintshire *.

"Mr. Brereton was a Bencher of the Honourable Society of Lincoln'sInn, filled the office of Treasurer, and was Keeper of the Black-Book. He also represented the borough of II chester in Parliament. He took the name of Salusbury with an estate, and became constable of the castle of Flint, a valuable privilege to his adjacent possessions. His domestic happiness was manifest to his numerous and respectable acquaintance, among whom were some of the most learned men of the age.

"Mr. Brereton died on the 8th of September, 1798, in the eighty-fourth year of his age, and was interred in St. George's Chapel, Windsor." p.


As the Preface furnishes us with all the information, which we think will be interesting to our Readers, our extracts will be taken from it. "New Premiums will be found introduced under the articles, Comparative Tillage, Rotation of Crops, Preserving of Turnips, Cabbages, Carrots, Parsnips, Beets, and Potatoes, inventing Thrashing Machines, manufacturing Tallow-Candles, Preparation of Tan, Preparations of Red and Green Colours for printing on Cotton Cloth, Artificial Ultramarine, Stroke Engravings, Chintz and Copper-Plate Designs for Calico Printers, Engravings on Wood, Bronzes, Im proved Ventilation, Cultivation of Hemp in Canada, and curing Herrings in the Dutch method." p. 8.

In the class of Agriculture we find accounts of extensive plantations, one of which is highly gratifying, describing the improvements made by Thomas Johnes, Esq. on his estate of Hafod, in Cardiganshire, who, by his excellent discrimination, and by exertions perhaps unparalleled, has converted a desert to a paradise; and in a wild uncultivated part of Wales, has raised such enchanting scenes, as afford inexpressible pleasure to every spectator.

It appears that, "between October, 1795, and April, 1801, the number of trees planted on this estate amount to 2,065,000, of which Pennant's Tour, voli. p. 52, 54, 67,


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1,200,000 are larches, besides fiftyfive acres of land which have been sown with acorns, or planted with oaks." This gentleman has also made considerable improvements in his farms: "We are told, that the cheese sold by him the last season amounted to four tons, and his butter 1,200 lbs. He expects his dairy will furnish him, during the next year, ten tons of cheese for sale. Mr. Johnes has been indefatigable in his pursuits in agriculture, and has not only shewn by practice what may be done, but in a late ingenious publication presented to this Society, entitled, 'A Cardi'ganshire Landlord's Advice to his Tenants,' pointed out to others the means of doing it." p. 10.

Among other improvements in agriculture, "The account given by Mr. Brown, of Markle, in Scotland, of the wheat sown by him in the spring of 1800, and the valuable crop housed the same year, is well deserving attention, from its advantages in wet autumnal seasons.

"As disadvantages of climate attend the housing of crops when ripe, the method of making clover-hay in Courland, communicated by Mr. John Taylor, opens to this country a new line of management for this purpose, which bids fair to be of great utility. The process of vegetable fermentation, in the preparation of hay, has been hitherto little attended to or understood: the consequence of neglect in this point has occasioned many stacks of hay to take fire and be destroyed; which loss the method here recommended may probably prevent.

"Mr. Palmer's method of housing corn in wet weather, as mentioned in the present volume, appears to be scarcely known in England, but has been successfully practised in Fifeshire, and other parts of Scotland. The more general introduction of threshing-machines has been the mean of preventing the loss of many crops of corn in Great Britain, by affording quick dispatch to the separation of the corn from the wet sheaf in bad seasons, and (as is proved by Mr. Palmer's experiments) without injuring the quality of the grain."

Some implements for draining the water from lands are described, but it is observed, " none of them is more generally useful than the drain-plough, of which a model was this session pre

sented to the Society by his Grace the Duke of Bridgewater: it performs the operation of surface-draining with neatness, care, and celerity; destroys but little herbage, and furnishes at a trifling expence, in the following spring, an excellent compost for a top-dressing.

Thomas Andrew Knight, Esq. of Ludlow, has presented to the Society a drill-machine for sowing turnips, and other seeds. This very ingenious and useful implement pos sesses the powers of making an indent or furrow for the seed; of depositing the seed within that channel, and covering it instantaneously in a more effectual manner than can be done by the harrow or rake. Its construction is simple and cheap; and it can be expeditiously worked on any soil, by a man or boy." p. 8—17.

The remaining articles under this class are, "Observations upon the nature of blight, the destructive effects of the aphis, and the means of obviating the sudden changes to which our climate is subjected, and by which vegetation is impeded;-an implement, named a cultivator, for working rough fallows after ploughed crops;-the advantages of the drill over the broad. cast husbandry, in the culture of tur nips;-method of draining boggy land, and an implement which forms an outlet for water when retained in peatearth; on the destruction of the grub and cock-chaffer, and on the preparation and application of composts and manure. On account of the apparent importance of the last article, we present it to our readers.

"The preparation and application of composts for manure are of very essential convenience in husbandry and a knowledge of the modes adapt ed for such purpose in different parts of Great Britain is of the utmost importance. Great exertions are necessary to eradicate the topical prejudices on this head, which are known to prevail throughout the kingdom, and to encourage methods more ef. ficient for the purpose. In the isle of Thanet, for instance, we observe, that sea-weeds, and even sea-sand, are diligently collected, and attended with great advantage to the clay-land on which they are applied, whilst on the coast of Lancashire, and in other parts of England, the same advantages are wholly neglected, where similar opportunities offer for their

use. The application of peat earth and powdered lime, prepared as a compost, were thought improper in the populous district of Bolton in the Moors, for the production of potatoes, though this vegetable furnishes a principal part of the food of its inhabitants; but the active exertions of Mr. Horridge, of Raikes, have brought this manure into estimation, and will probably be the means of increasing highly in value large tracts of land in that neighbourhood, at present barren and uncultivated." p. 17-21.

"Under the class of Chemistry, the experiment made by order of General Betham shews, that the principal reason of spring-water becoming putrid at sea is owing to its being stowed in wood-vessels, and that this putridity may be prevented by using vessels not likely to be acted upon by water; he has successfully employed for this purpose copper tanks well tinned. Under this class is also a communication on the subject of the inspissated juice of lettuces, and of the analogy of its effects with the opium prepared from poppies.

"Under the class of Polite Arts, Mr. Sheldrake has taken much pains to elucidate the composition of the colours used in painting by the ancients, and to improve the permanency, and brilliancy of those employed by modern artists.

The scarcity of the usual materials for making paper has been a considerable impediment to the progress of literature, and called for every possible remedy.

"The paper prepared by Mr. Willmot, from the Paut-Plant, of which the gunny bags are made in the East Indies, is of good quality, as may be seen by the specimen.

"The manufacture of Chicoree root, as a substitute for Coffee, has lately extended rapidly over the continent; and as this article furnishes a considerable part of the nutriment of many thousand persons in Germany, Mr. John Taylor, from personal observation and minute inquiries, has furnished an accurate account of its culture, preparation, and use, which, it is hoped, will contribute to the comforts of great numbers of the inhabitants of this country."

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Under the class of Mechanics, it is observed, that many machines laid before the Society have been rejected, owing to their want of simplicity

their not being new, or not adequate to the purposes intended.

The Society have, however, earnestly endeavoured to discriminate with propriety, to do justice, and to encourage every spark of genius which may lead to real improvement. Wherever they have discovered that the machine produced, though not fully adequate to the object proposed, was likely to lead to beneficial consequences, they have inclined to give encouragement.” p. 25. ..

In the Line of Mechanics are comprised

the following articles:

"A machine of a cheap and simple construction, for raising water, and answers the purpose well.-The advantage of the gun-harpoon further confirmed by the distance from whence three whales were shot by Robert Hays, which probably would not have admitted a boat to approach so near as to allow the harpooner to strike them by the hand.-Model of a water-wheel-Mr. Phillips's method of driving copper-bolts into ships. Mr. Arkwright's machine for raising ore from mines, which possesses the advantages of supplying itself with the articles to be raised; of lifting them above the surface of the earth, and delivering them into carts attending for them: its motion is simple and regular, and the different parts of the machine are easily kept in order.-Account of a quarry of burr-stones found, and now worked, in Montgomeryshire.-Mr. Garnet Terry's mill for grinding hard substances, is free from the friction of the screw, which presses on the grinding cylinder in the common hand mills, and is more easily regulated.— Mr William Bullock's improvement of the draw-back house-lock possesses every advantage of simplicity and effect, and deserves to be introduced into general use, as it prevents the unpleasant noise arising from the common locks, and furnishes additio nal security to the house.-Mr. Gent's crane has the powers of raising a considerable weight, and projecting that weight to a distance proper for loading it.-Mechanical modes of ventilation, for the admission of fresh air into hospitals and crowded rooms, practised by Sir George Onesiphorus Paul, Baronet, with success-and Mr. De Lafon's watch escapement, which displays an ingenious combination of

mechanism, and it is hoped will furnish useful hints to persons occupied in that line."

It has long been the earnest wish of the Society, that Great Britain should procure, from the produce of her colonies, such articles as cannot be grown in England, and have therefore been hitherto obtained from foreign governments. On this subject are two articles, one a communication from Bengal, tending to prove that myrabolans are a valuable substitute for Aleppo galls, and may be procured from thence; the other, on the lake prepared by Mr. Stephens, from fresh stick-lack, yielding a scarlet dye, resembling that from cochineal. The experiments

made by Dr. Bancroft shew that it is at least equal in effect to one fourth its weight in cochineal.

The Preface closes with an account from James Barry, Esq. of his additional improvements made to the pictures in the great room of the Society.

XVII. LETTERS on the Elementary Principles of Education. By ELIZ. HAMILTON, Author of the Memoirs of Modern Philosophers, &c. Vol. II. smali 8vo. boards, pp. 455. Price 85. Robinsons.

HESE letters are, thirteen in

Tnumber, the subjects of which will be found in the following analysis of the work:

1. On the necessity of obtaining a Knowledge of the intellectual Faculties, in order to their proper Cultivation.— How this Knowledge is to be acquired.-Futility of endeavouring to cultivate the Faculties out of the Order prescribed by Nature. A short Analysis of the Plan to be pursued.-Reflections.

In this letter we find the following proposition ably defended and illus. trated, viz. "That the greatest perfection of which our nature is susceps tible, consists in the capability of exerting, in an eminent degree, not one or two of the faculties with which Providence has endowed us, BUT THE WHOLE OF THESE FACULTIES." The example of Jesus Christ is here introduced, as not "beyond the grasp of our present faculties to conceive, or of our present powers to imitate." This is succeeded by the following ar

argument: "As the body is composed of a variety of organs, of which each is equally necessary to the wellbeing of the whole; so the mind is a compound, if I may so speak, of a variety of faculties, none of which can be defective, without enfeebling or injuring the rest. The lungs are not more necessary to the functions of the heart, than accurate conception to sound judgment. The circulation of the blood is not more necessary to the animal œconomy than memory is to the mental. But memory depends upon the attention; the accuracy of conception has the same source; and if both are not duly exercised, neither will attain perfection.' The consequences arising from attending to one faculty, without a due regard to the others, is next urged. Among other injuries to which the mind is liable, Novels" are said "to deprave the taste and corrupt the affections." The necessity of cultivating the mind of youth previous to their entering public schools is strongly enforced, and the following remarks introduce the analysis:

Where the chief aim in education is directed to any other point than the improvement of the intellectual and moral powers, an artificial character will be produced, which, neither guided by reason, nor inspired by any noble or generous sentiment, will be the mere puppet of opinion, and the creature of imitation; but if 'imitation is made to supply the place of reason, is it probable that the early associations will be such as to lead the mind to chuse the brightest patterns of virtue? Alas! experience has fully proved the contrary. Experience shews us daily examples of the fatal consequences of carrying the system of zenana education into practice, in a country where women are called to act an important part on the theatre of society. Without intellect there can be no principle, and without principle there can be no security for virtue.

"In order to cultivate the intellectual faculties to advantage, it appears to me, that we ought to accompany Nature in her progress; and as she gradually unfolds the powers of the mind, that we should devote our selves to the improvement of each faculty, in the order it is by her presented.

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shall proceed in the following Letters to examine, in the first place, the faculty of PERCEPTION, shewing the advantages that are to be derived from its assiduous cultivation, and the very great disadvantages that accrue from its neglect.

"ATTENTION is the next subject that will naturally fall under our consideration. I shall be at some pains to illustrate its importance, and shall not scruple to advance upon it arguments which appear convincing to my own mind, though they are unsupported by the authority of others. If they are founded in truth, they will stand the test of investigation, if otherwise I should be sorry to protract their fall.

"CONCEPTION is the next faculty brought forth by Nature. By conception I mean the ideas which we form of absent objects of sense, or of our past sensations. So much depends upon the vigour of this faculty, that I cannot be at too much pains to inculcate the necessity of its being cultivated with never-ceasing vigilance. I shall, therefore, do all in my power to urge the careful cultivation of this faculty, by an explanation of the important consequences to which it leads, and shall give you such hints with respect to its improvement, as I hope may be found of use to those who are concerned in the practical part of education.

"The faculty of UDGMENT is the next that will demand our attention. I shall trace its progress from its first dawn in the infant mind to its maturity; and though conscious that my abilities are inadequate to the magnitude of my subject, I shall do what in me lies to enforce its importance. To the neglect of this faculty, all the follies, and many of the vices, which abound among us, may be fairly traced. Where the judgment is sound and unperverted, the unruly desires and affections will not revel without controul; but in order to the cultivation of sound judgment, it is not only necessary that the affections be uncorrupted, but that they be early engaged on the side of truth.

"Having dwelt at large on the cultivation of judgment, we shall then proceed to an examination of the faculty of ABSTRACTION. This faculty, though common to all, and susceptible of great improvement, is seldoin cultivated to any perfection,

but by the few whose course of studies has led them to cherish a turn for speculative inquiry. If general rea soning were indeed needful to none but the philosopher, we should leave the philosopher to enjoy it as his peculiar prerogative; but if it can be proved to be no less necessary in the conduct of life than in the speculations of philosophy, it becomes our business to find out the means which are best adapted to its improvement. These the circumscribed limits of my present plan will not permit me to explain at large; neither are my abilities equal to such a task; but having proved the advantages which result from the cultivation of this faculty, the hints which I shall offer, may be sufficient to direct the mind in search of higher guides.

"Subsequent to abstraction I shall place what offers upon the cultivation of TASTE and IMAGINATION, because the faculty of abstraction is necessary to both. A few hints concerning the necessity of cultivating the power of REFLECTION will conclude the series." p. 24-29.

The second letter is on the subject of PERCEPTION, and contains, Progressive Developement of the Faculties.-Perception explained.-Hints to wards its Cultivation in early Infancy. -Its Connection with the benevolent Affections.

In this letter, the want of attending to the faculty of perception is considered as causing" a baleful influence upon the moral character," and "a dulness in comprehending any object." Those who have never been accustomed to pay attention to perceptions received from various objects of sense," want the first link of the chain, and have nothing whereon to fasten the new ideas with which you present them." The exercise of perception is evidenced by observations on infancy, and the cultivation of it strongly recommended from its first appearance. The close of this letter merits attention, and is thus expressed: "So nicely interwoven are the moral feelings and the intellectual faculties of man, that it is impossible effectually to improve the one, while the other is neglected or destroyed. In the cultivation of the perceptive faculties, we lay the foundation for that quick discernment which is equally necessary in acquiring just notions of things, and in discovering VOL. I.

the true path of moral rectitude. By the neglect of these faculties we not only enfeeble the understanding, but lay the foundation of those false associations which extend their baleful influence to the affections of the heart." p. 56.

Letter III. ATTENTION. The Power of Attention in improving the Perception.-The Velocity of its Operarations so great as to render it frequently imperceptible. -The Influence of the Passions upon Attention.-Illustrations by Example.

Among many self-evident demonstrations to prove the subjects enforced in this letter, we select the following: "You, I know, can knit, and can do it so well, that you may have forgot the process of learning it. Take then one of your children, who knows nothing of the matter, and in teaching her you will observe the difficulty of the operation. The position of the needles must first be attended to; then the thread must be twisted round the proper finger; then the stitch must be lifted by the needle; then the fore-finger of the right-hand must cast the thread round the needle, which must then be returned through the stitch, and finally, the stitch must be gently dropped by the needle in the left hand, without injury to the rest. Every one of these operations requires a separate and fixed attention; and yet by habit they come to be performed so rapidly, that we appear to give them no thought. By habit I can perform all these operations, while reading a book that seems to require my whole undivided attention.

But that the attention is still, however imperceptibly, engaged, is evident from this, that the moment I drop a stitch, it is taken notice of, and that, however deeply engaged in my studies, I do not forget to turn the stitch that marks the seam at every second round.

"Should any grave philosopher deign to look into these pages, I will permit him to sinile at this simple illustration, which he may, if he pleases, call argumentum ad feminam, but if it aid my design of exhibiting the power of attention, as essential in every voluntary operation of mind or body, it will fully answer the purpose for which I intended it." p. 70-72.

In order to impress the mind with the importance of attention, and the


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