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graving of several Roman Antiquities, 1,200,000 are farches, besides fiftyfound, through his horse accidentally five acres of land which have been disturbing them, at a Roman station sown with acorns, or planted with called Croes Atti, on his estate in oaks." This gentleman has also made Flintshire .

considerable improvements in his “ Mr. Brereton was a Bencher of farms: “ We are told, that the cheese the Honourable Society of Lincoln's sold by him the last season amounted Inu, filled the office of Treasurer, and to four tons, and his butter 1,200 lbs. wB Keeper of the Black-Book. He He expects bis dairy will furnish him, also represented the borough of Il. during the next year, ten tons of chester in Parliament. He took the cheese for sale. Mr. Johnes has been pame of Salusbury with an estate, and indefatigable in his pursuits in agribecaine constable of the castle of culture, and has not only shewn by Flint, a valuable privilege to his ad. practice what may be done, but in a jacent possessions. His domestic hap- late ingenious publication presented piness kas manifest to his numerous to this Society, entitled, “A Cardi. and respectable acquaintance, among ganshire Landlord's Advice to his whom were some of the most learned "Tenants,' pointed out to others the men of the age.

means of doing it.” p. 10. “ Mr. Brereton died on the 8th of Among other improvements in September, 1798, in the eighty-fourth agriculture, “ The account given by year of his age, and was interred in Mr. Brown, of Markle, in Scotland, St. George's Chapel, Windsor.” p. of the wheat sown by him in the

spring of 1800, and the valuable crop As the Preface furnishes us with all housed the same year, is well deserve the information, which we think will ing attention, from its advantages in be interesting to our Readers, our ex wet autumnal seasons. tracts will be taken from it." New

" As disadvantages of climate atPremiums will be found intro tend the housing of crops when ripe, duced under the articles, Compara the method of making clover-hay in tive Tillage, Rotation of Crops, Pre Courland, communicated by Mr. serving of Turnips, Cabbages, Car John Taylor, opens to this country a rots, Parsnips, Beets, and Potatoes, new line of management for this puriaventing Thrashing Machines, ma pose, which bids fair to be of great nufacturing Tallow.Candles, Prepa. utility. The process of vegetable ferration of Tan, Preparations of Red mentation, in the preparation of bay, and Green Colours for printing on has been hitherto little attended to or Cotton Cloth, Artificial Ultramarine, understood: the consequence of neStroke Engravings, Chintz and Cop glect in this point has occasioned per-Plate Designs for Calico Printers, many stacks of hay to take fire and Engravings on Wood, Bronzes, Im be destroyed; which loss the method proved Ventilation, Cultivation of here recommended may probably preHemp in Canada, and curing Her vent. rings in the Dutch method.” p. 8. “ Mr. Palmer's method of housing

In the class of Agriculture we find corn in wet weather, as mentioned iu accounts of extensive plantations, one the present volume, appears to be of which is highly gratifying, de- scarcely known in England, but has scribing the improvements made by been successfully practised in Fifeshire, Thomas Johnes, Esq. on his estate of and other parts of Scotland. The more Hafod, in Cardiganshire, who, by general introduction of threshing-mahis excellent discrimination, and by chines has been the mean of preexertions perhaps unparalleled, has venting the loss of many crops of corn converted a desert to a paradise; and in Great Britain, by atfording quick in a wild uncultivated part of Wales, dispatch to the separation of the corn has raised such enchanting scenes, as from the wet sheaf in bad seasons, and afford inexpressible pleasure to every (as is proved by Mr. Palmer's experispectator.

ments) without injuring the quality ft appears that, " between Octo. of the grain." ber, 1795, and April, 1801, the num Some implements for draining the ber of trees planted on this estate water from lands are described, but annount to 2,065,000, of which it is observed, “ none of them is more

* Pennant's Tour, voli. p. 52, 54, 67, generally useful than the drain-plough, 73,

of which a model was this session pre

sented to the Society by his Grace the use. The application of peat earth Duke of Bridgewater: it performs and powdered lime, prepared as a the operation of surface-draining with compost, were thought improper in neatness, care, and celerity; destroys the populous district of Bolton in the but little herbage, and furnishes at a' Moors, for the production of potatoes, trifling expence, in the following though this vegetable furnishes a spring, an excellent compost for a principal part of the food of its inhatop-dressing.

bitants; but the active exertions of * Thomas Andrew Knight, Esq. Mr. Horridge, of Raikes, have brought of Ludlow, bas presented to the this manure into estimation, and will Society a drill-machine for sowing probably be the means of increasing turnips, and other seeds. This very highly in ralue large tracts of land in ingenious and useful implement pose that neighbourhood, at present barrer sesses the powers of making an indent and uncultivated." ' p. 17-21. or furrow for the seed; of depositing “ Underthe class of Chemistry, the the seed within that channel, and co- experiment made by order of Genevering it instantaneously in a more ral Betham shews, that the principal effectual manner than can be done by reason of spring-water becoming puthe harrow or rake. Its construction trid at sea is owing to its being stowis simple and cheap; and it can be ed in wood-vessels, and that this puexpeditiously worked on any soil, by tridity may be prevented by using a man or boy.' p. 8–17.

vessels not likely to be acted upon by The remaining articles under this water; he has successfully employed class are, “Observations upon the na- for this purpose copper tanks well ture of blight, the destructive effects tinned. Under this class is also a of the aphis, and the means of obvi- communication on the subject of the ating the sudden changes to which our inspissated juice of lettuces, and of climate is subjected, and by which ve- the analogy of its effects with the getation is impeded ;-an implement, opium prepared from poppies. nanied a cultivator, for working rough “ Under the class of Polite Arts, fallows after ploughed crops ;-thead. Mr. Sheldrake has taken much pains vantages of the drill over the broad. to elucidate the composition of the cast husbandry, in the culture of tur. colours used in painting by the annips ;-method of draining boggy land, cients, and to improve the permaand an implement which forms an nency, and brilliancy of those emoutlet for water when retained in peat ployed by modern artists. earth;-on the destruction of the grub s. Thescarcity of the usual materials and cock-chaffer, and on the prepa- for making paper has been a considerration and application of composts able impediment to the progress of and manure. On account of the ap- literature, and called for every possiparent-importance of the last article, ble remedy. we present it to our readers.

“ The paper prepared by Mr. Will“ The preparation and application mot, from the Paut-Plant, of which of composts for manure are of very the gunny bags are made in the East essential convenience in busbandry; Indies, is of good quality, as may be and a knowledge of the modes adapts seen by the specimen. ed for such purpose in different parts “The manufacture of Chicoree root, of Great Britain is of the utmost as a substitute for Coffee, has lately importance. Great exertions are ne. extended rapidly over the continent; cessary to eradicate the topical pre- and as this article furnishes a consijudices on this head, which are known derable part of the nutriment of to prevail throughout the kingdom, many thousand persons in Germany, and to encourage methods more ef. Mr. John Taylor, from personal obficient for the purpose. In the isle of servation and minute inquiries, has Thanet, for instance, we observe, that furnished an accurate account of its sea-weeds, and even sea-sand, are culture, preparation, and use, which, diligently collected, and attended it is hoped, will contribute to the coins with great advantage to the clay-land forts of great numbers of the inhabion which they are applied, whilst on tants of this countrythe coast of Lancashire, and in otherUnder the class of Mechanics, it is parts of England, the same advan- observed, that “ many machines laid tages are wholly neglected, where before the Society have been rejected, similar opportunities otser for their owing to their want of simplicity,

their not being new, or not adequate mechanism, and it is hoped will furto the purposes intended..

nish useful hints to persons occupied The Society have, however, earnestly in that line.” endeavoured to discriminate with It has long been the earnest wish propriety, to do justice, and to en- of the Society, that Great Britain courage every spark of genius which should procure, from the produce of may lead to real improvement.- her colonies, such articles as cannot Wherever they have discovered that be grown in England, and have there. the machine produced, though not fore been hitherto obtained from fofully adequate to the object proposed, reign governments. On this subject was likely to lead to beneficial conse are two articles, one a communicaquences, they have inclined to give tion from Bengal, tending to prove encouragement.” p. 25...... that myrabolans are a valuable subin the Line of Mechanics are comprised procured from thence; the other,

stitute for Aleppo galls, and may be the following articles:

on the lake prepared by Mr. Ste. “ A machine of a cheap and sim- phens, from fresh stick-lack, yield. ple construction, for raising, water, ing a scarlet dye, resembling that and answers the purpose well. The from cochineal. The experiments advantage of the gun-harpoon further made by Dr. Bancroft shew that it confirmed by the distance from is at least equal in effect to one fourth whence three whales. were shot by its weight in cochineal. Robert Hays, which probably would The Preface closes with an account not have admitted a boat to approach from James Barry, Esq. of his addiso near as to allow the harpooner to tional improvements made to the picstrike them by the hand.-Model of lures in the great room of the Soa water-wheel.-Mr. Phillips's me. ciety. thod of driving copper-bolts into ships.--Mr. Arkwright's machine for raising ore from mines, which possesses the advantages of supplying it. XVII. LETTERS on the Elementary self with the articles to be raised; of Principles of Education. By Eliz. lifting them above the surface of the HAMILTON, Author of the Memoirs of earth, and delivering them into carts Modern Philosophers, &c. Vol. Il. attending for them: its motion is small 8vo. boards, pp. 455. Price 8s. simple and regular, and the different Robinsons. parts of the machine are easily kept

HESE letters are thirteen in of Thembere the subjec there canica borr-stones found, and now worked, number, subjects of which in Montgomeryshire.--Mr. Garnet will be found in the following analysis Terry's mill for grinding hard sub- of the work : stances, is free from the friction of 1. On the necessity of obtaining a the screw, which presses on the grind. Knowledge of the intellectual Fuculties, jag cylinder in the common hand. in order to their proper Cultivation.mills, and is more easily regulated. How this Knowledge is to be acquired. Mr William Butlock's improvement Futility of endeavouring to cultivate the of the draw-back house-lock pos. Faculties out of the Order prescribed by Sesses every advantage of simplicity Nature.- A short Analysis of the Plan to and effect, and deserves to be intro- be pursued.-Reflections. duced into general use, as it prevents

In this letter we find the following the unpleasant soise arising from the proposition ably defended and illus common locks, and furnishes additio trated, viz. “ That the greatest pernal security to the house.-Mr. Gent's fection of which our nature is suscepa crane has the powers of raising a tible, consists in the capability of considerable weight, and projecting exerting, in an eminent degree, not that weight to a distance proper for one or iwo of the faculties with which loading it. - Mechanical modes of Provideuce has endowed us, BUT THE ventilation, for the adinission of fresh WHOLE OF THESE FACULTIES." air into hospitals and crowded rooms, The example of Jesus Christ is here practised by Sir George Onesiphorus introduced, as not beyond the grasp Paul, Baronet, with success--and Mr. of our present faculties to conceive, De Lafon's watch escapement, which or of our present powers to imitate.” displays an ingenious combination of This is succeeded by the following ar

argument: " As the body is compos- shall proceed in the following Letters ed of a variety of organs, of which to examine, in the first place, the each is equally necessary to the well- faculty of perception, shewing the being of the whole ; so the mind is a advantages that are to be derived compound, if I may. so speak, of a' from its assiduous cultivation, and the variety of faculties, none of which can very great disadvantages that accrue be defective, without enfeebling or from its neglect. injuring the rest. The lungs are not “ ATTENTION is the next subject more necessary to the functions of the that will naturally fall under our conheart, than accurate conception to sideration. I shall be at some pains · sound judgment. The circulation of to illustrate its importance, and shall the blood is not more necessary to the not scruple to advance upon it arguanimal æconomy than memory is to ments which appear convincing to my the mental. But memory depends up- own mind, though they are unsupon the attention; the accuracy of con- ported by the authority of others. If ception has the same source; and if they are founded in truth, they will both are not duly exercised, neither stand the test ofinvestigation, if otherwill attain perfection.” The conse- wise I should be sorry to protract quences arising from attending to one their fall. faculty, without a due regard to the “ CONCEPTION is the next faculty others, is next urged. Among other in- brought forth by Nature. By conjuries to which the mind is liable, ception I mean the ideas which we * Novels" are said “ to deprave the form of absent objects of sense, or of taste and corrupt the affections.” The our past sensations. So much denecessity of cultivating the mind of pends upon the vigour of this faculty, vouth previous to their entering pub. that I cannot be at too much pains to lic schools is strongly enforced, and inculcate the necessity of its being the following remarkis introduce the cultivated with never-ceasing, vigianalysis:

lance. I shall, therefore, do all in my "Where the chief aim in education power to urge the careful cultivation is directed to any other point than of this faculty, by an explanation of the improvement of the intellectual the important consequences to which and moral powers, an artificial cha- it leads, and shall give you such hints racter will be produced, which, nei- with respect to its improvement, as I ther guided by reason, nor inspired hope may be found of use to those by any noble or generous sentiment, who are concerned in the practical will be the mere puppet of opinion, part of education. and the creature of imitation ; but if " The faculty of UDGMENT is 'imitation is made to supply the place the next that will demand our attenof reason, is it probable that the early tion. I shall trace its progress from associations will be such as to lead its first dawn in the infant mind to its the mind to chuse the brightest pat- maturity; and though conscious that terns of virtue? Alas! experience bas my abilities are inadequate to the fully proved the contrary. Experi- magnitude of my subject, I shall do ence shews us daily examples of the what in me lies to entorce its imporfatal consequences of carrying the tance. To the neglect of this faculty, systein of zinana education into prac. all the follies, and many of the vices, tice, in a country where women are which abound among us, may be fairly called to act an important part on the traced. Where the judgment is sound theatre of society. Without intellect and upperverted, the unruly desires there can be no principle, and with- and affections will not revel without out principle there can be no security controul; but in order to the cultivafor virtue.

tion of sound judgment, it is not only “ In order to cultivate the intel- necessary that the atlections be unJectual faculties to advantage, it ap- corrupted, but that they be early enpears to me, that we ought to accom- gaged on the side of truth. pany Nature in her progress; and as Having dwelt at large on the she gradually unfolds the powers of cultivation of judgment, we shall then the inind, that we should devote ouro proceed to an examination of the faselves to the improvement of each culty of ABSTRACTION. This fafaculty, in the order it is by her pre- cuity, though common to all, and sented.'

susceptible of great improvement, is " Assuming this as a principle, I seldom cultivated to any perfection,

but by the few whose course of studies the true path of moral rectitude. By has led them to cherish a turn for the neglect of these faculties we not speculative inquiry; If general rea- only enfeeble the understanding, but uning were indeed needful to none lay the foundation of those false assobut the philosopher, we should leave ciations which extend their baleful inthe philosopher to enjoy it as his pe- fluence to the affections of the heart." culiar prerogative; but if it can be p. 56. prored to be no less necessary in the Letter III. ATTENTION. The conduct of life than in the specula. Power of Attention in improving the tions of philosophy, it becomes our Perception. The Velocity of its Operabusiness to find out the means which rations so great as to render it frequently, are best adapted to its improvement. imperceptible. - The Infiuence of the These the circumscribed limits of my passions upon Attention.- Illustrations present plan will not permit me to by Example. explain at large; neither are my abi Among many self-evident de. Eties equal to such a task; but having monstrations to prove the subjects prved the advantages which result enforced in this letter, we select the from the cultivation of this faculty, following: “You, I know, can knit, the hints which I shall offer, may be and can do it so well, that you may sufficient to direct the mind in search have forgot the process of learning it. of higher guides.

Take then one of your children, who * Subsequent to abstraction I shall knows nothing of the matter, and in place what otfers upon the cultivation teaching her you will observe the of TASTE and IMAGINATION, be difficulty of the operation. The pocause the faculty of abstraction is ne- sition of the needles must first be atcessary to both. A few hints concern- tended to; then the thread must be ing the necessity of cultivating the twisted round the proper finger; then power of REFLECTION will conclude the stitch must be lifted by the the series." p. 24-29.

needle; then the fore-finger of the The second letter is on the subject right-hand must cast the thread round of PERCEPTION, and contains, the needle, which must then be reProgressive Developement of the Facul- turned through the stitch, and finalties.-Perception explained.--Hints to- ly, the stitch must be gently dropped wards its Cultivation in early Infancy. by the needle in the left hand, with- Its Connection with the benevolent out injury to the rest. Every one of Affections.

these operations requires a separate In this letter, the want of attending and fixed attention ; and yet by ha. to the faculty of perception is con- bit they come to be perforined so rasidered as causing “ a baleful in. ' pidly, that we appear to give them no fiuence upon the moral character," thought. By habit I can perform all and “ a dulness in comprehending these operations, while reading a book

any object." Those who have never that seems to require my whole un? been accustomed to pay attention to divided attention,

perceptions received from various But that the attention is still, howobjects of sense, “ want the first link ever imperceptibly, engaged, is evi. of the chain, and have nothing where. dent from this, that the moment I on to fasten the new ideas with which drop a stitch, it is taken notice of, rou present them.” The exercise of and that, however deeply cngaged in perception is evidenced by observa- my studies, I do not forget to turn tipas op infancy,and the cultivation of the stitch that marks the seam at it strongly recommended from its first every second round. appearance. The close of this letter “ 'Should any grave philosopher merits attention, and is thus express- deign to look inio these pages, I will ed: “So nicely interwoven are the permit him to sinile at this simple moral feelings and the intellectual fa. illustration, which he may, if he culties of man, that it is impossible pleases, call argumentum ad feminam; effectually to improve the one, while but if it aid my design of exhibiting the other is neglected or destroyed. the power of attention, as essential in In the cultivation of the perceptive every voluntary operation of mind or faculties, we lay the foundation for body, it will fully answer the purpose that quick discernment which is for which I intended it.” p. 70-79. equally necessary in acquiring just In order to impress the mind with notions of things, and in discovering the importance of attention, and the Vol. I.


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