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from one original source. The most the former from the latter. It is rational system of the origin of speech natural to suppose that the modern accords with the scriptural account tongues were derived from the anof Moses. On this subject the author cient, which were spoken in the same writes:
country. Thus all the present lan“ How the original societies of guages and dialects of 'Europe, amen could have been formed without mounting to about twenty-seven, the aid of language, or language in- may be traced to the Latin, German, vented without society, are points and Sclavonian. But when we obwliich the disquisitions of these wri. serve that words used in one quarter ters, howerer ingenious, are far from of the globe are like those in another enabling us to settle. The only ra- which is very remote, and that such tional and satisfactory method of words have exactly the same signifisolving the difficulty is to refer the cation, and were so used long before origin of speech to the great Creator the present inhabitants had any inhinself. Not that it is necessary to tercourse with each other, how is suppose, that he inspired the first pa- this to be accounted for Several rents of mankind with any particular words in Welch are similar, and bave original or priinitive language; but a similar meaning with Latin and that he made them fully sensible of Greek. I am aware that this resemthe power with which they were en. blance may be imputed to their comdued of forming articulate sounds, mon derivation from the Celtic. But gave them an impulse to exert it, whence arises the affinity in some and left the arbitrary imposition of remarkable instances, between the 'words to their own choice. Their Greek and Hebrew, Greek and Saningenuity was left to itself to multi- scrit, Greek and Chinese, English ply names, as new objects occurred to and Arabic,Turkish and Celtic, Welch their observation ; and thus language and Arabic, Latin and Otabeitan, was gradually advanced in process of Latin and Turkish, and English and time to the different degrees of co Persian ?" p. 91–94. piousness and refinement, which it The subsequent part of this chapter has reached among various nations. is occupied with the following topics.
“ This theory is conformable to Alphabetical characters are the most the description given in the Sacred perfect, which the author opposes to Writings, and agrees very remark- hieroglyphic writing. - Representaably with the opinions to be collected tion of ideas—their origin and profrom prophane history: Plato main- gress-those of modern Europe may tains that the original language of be traced to one source.-The disman was of divine formation; and tinctions between ancient and modern when he divides words into two clas- languages.—Origin of the Italian and ses, the primitiv. and the derivative, French languages. The rise of the he attributes the latter to the inge- modern languages forms a curious nuity of man, and the former to the part of the history of the dark immediate communication of the Su- ages. preme Being.. The Egyptians, from The contents of the second volume whom this opinion was probably de are thus arranged. rived, maintained that by Thoth, the « Vol. II. Class V. Chap. I. The god of eloquence, their ancestors History of England. - Is interesting were at first taught to articulate. to mankind in general, and peculiarly
“ To whatever part of the globe we so to Britons. Excellent remark of direct our view, we shåll find addi. Frederic King of Prussia upon this tional reasons to conclude, that all subject. The sources of our insorthe languages now spoken in the mation are numerous and authentic. world were derived originally from A sketch of those memorable reigns one and the same source, notwith during which such charters were standing their apparent difference granted, and laws were passed, as and variety. When we remark cer. form our present constitution. Altain words in Latin, that resemble fred. William the Conqueror. Hen. others in Greece, we are not surprised, ry II. John— Magna Charta. Ed. considering the intimate connection ward I. Edward Ill. Henry VII, which subsisted between the two na. Henry VIII. Queen Elizabeth. tions, and the evident derivation of Charles I. Charles II. James II.
William III. The Revolution. Queen “ Chap. IV. The Works of Nature. Anne. The House of Hanover. -The survey of the Works of Nature
“ Chap. II. The subject continued. is an employment bighly useful and -The general benefits, which result delightful. The researches of Natuto Englishmen from the genius of ralists are directed to, I.' Animals; their political Constitution.
II. Vegetables; III. Minerals. The " Philosophy. Chap. 1. Logic, or comparative nature of Man. The the right Use of Reason.- Advan- instinct of Animals- the admirable tages to be derived from its cultiva. care of Nature in their structure and tion-Its true nature not to be mis- preservation. Her prolific power in understood Its constituent parts are the production of organized bodies four; 1. Perception, including ideas, appears to be boundless. The Organs words, and definitions. II. Judg- of Animals adapted to their convement, of which the foundations are nience and preservation-illustrated three-Intuition, or the ground of by the structure of the Eye. Prospect scientific knowledge–Testimony, or of the dominion of Man over the the ground of historical knowledge. inferior Animals. Some parts of the II. Reasoning—its ditterent kinds, Creation apparently inconsistent with Syllogisin — arguments against this the benevolence of Nature, and yet mode of endeavouring to discover may be reconciled to her general truth. Lord Bacon's mode of rea economy. soning by Induction stated and re “ Chap. V. The subject continued. commended. IV. Method divided -The connecting links of the chain into the analytic and synthetic.- of Animals and Vegetables.-An enPractice and good examples neces- quiry into their Analogy leads to the sary to form a correct Reasoner. Ex. Science of Botany.-Its Nature. The amples reconimended-Lord Bacon sexual system was established, nöt -- Chillingworth-Grotius–Locke discovered, by Linnæus. The struc: Clarke-Bishop Butler-Synge-Pa- ture of Plants-- Local usefulness of ley. Practical influence of Logic, or particular Vegetables-The prospects well-regulated Reason, upon Man of vegetable nature highly gratifying kind during the various periods of as a subject of Taste. Mineralogylife.
Chemistry. The Works of Nature “ Chap. II. The Mathematics. raise the mind to the consideration of Objections against these studies an- their great Author.-Concluding adswered. Utility of Mathematical dress to the Supreme Being. Knowledge. Opinion of Locke fa “ Class VI. Polite Literature and vourable to scientific pursuits--their the Fine Arts. Chap. I. Taste.- Degreat perspicuity -- the method of finition of Taste-Its principles are reasoning pursued in them. Mathe. implanted in every mind distinguishmatics are pure and mixed. 1. Pure, ed by good sense.--Taste is capable viz. Arithmetic - Algebra--Geome of high cultivation-Its proper Limits try-Trigonometry. 11. Mixed, viz. and Standard. Individuals, as well Mechanics Optics --- Astronomy - as Nations, improve their Taste, in Pueunatics---Hydrostatics. The proportion to the progress of Knowestimation in which these studies ledge and Refinement. were held in ancient times.
" Chap. 11. The subject continued. “ Chap. III. The subject conti- - The Character of a Critic who is a nued.--The sphere of the Sciences Man of Taste.--Examples-Horace has been greatly enlarged by the dis. -Quintilian--Vida--Addison coveries of the moderns-Roger Ba- Spence - Lowth---The Wartons con-Copernicus-Galileo - Kepler Gray-Reynolds — Winkleman.-Huygens-Toricelli-Lord Bacon The chief Provinces of Taste.-1. Mu-Boyle-Ilerschel. The most able sic. ll. Painting. III. Poetry. The interpreter of the Laws of Nature was Beauties of the Classics. The pleaNewton-Sketch of his discoveries-- sures which result from the exercise His Character contrasted with that of a refined Taste. of Descartes. The proper subordina “ Class VII. The Sources of our tion of Science to polite Literature in National Prosperity, &c. Chap. I.a general System of Education. Union Agriculture has been esteemed an obof both in the eminent Students of ject of great importance by distinthe University of Cainbridge. guished persons both in ancient and
modern times. Eminent writers upon The Traveller gratifies his taste by the subject--Hesiod-Xenophon, &c. treading on classic ground.—He vi. -It has been most flourishing in the sits places celebrated in the writings, soil of liberty-gradually improved and distinguished by the actions of as old errors have been exploded, and the Ancients. He views the ancient new experiments tried, and adopted. and modern Specimens of the fine The best method of forming general Arts - Architecture – Sculpture principles upon this subject. Popu- Medals-Pictures-Books. He inlation is limited by the means of sub- vestigates the State of Governmentsistence. The character and relative Religion - Commerce - Agriculture, importance of the Husbandman. The &c. and remarks their combined ef. general advantages of Agriculture- fects upon the Manners, Customs, Its superiority to Commerce as a and Prosperity of Nations. Cautions source of national good, and perma- against the adoption of the dangerous nent power.
opinions, which prevail abroad upon " Chap. II. The subject conti. Subjects of Religion and Government nued. The state of Agriculture in The general result of his travels shows England compared with that of by their beneficial influence upon his France, Ireland, and America. Causes Opinions and Conduct. of the superiority of England. Plans " Chap. V. The Professions. of farther Improvement suggested. Classical Learning and the Elements All orier arts are inferior in point of of Science and Philosophy are bighly utility to that of causing the earth 10 beneficial to those who do not follos bring forth a copious produce for the a profession, as well as afford the support of mankind.
only solid foundation for professional “ Chap. II. Commerce. The Knowledge. The attainments requi. extensive prospect of Industry exerted site for, 1. The Barrister. II. The in every part of Great Britain excites Physician. III. The Clergyman. our curiosity to enquire into, I. The Concluding Chapter.–Final ExAdvantages II. The Principles. hortations to the improvement of the III. The comparative State of Com- faculties of the mind, and the acquiremerce. The natural advantages of ment of useful knowledge, arising the Island of Great Britain as a com- chiefly from the circumstances of the mercial Country have been gradually present times. improved by great public works. The " Appendix.-Lists of useful Books, influence of Commerce upon Agri- particularly of select editions of the culture. Character of the English Classics, recommended by Persons Merchant. The methods which have eminent for learning and judgment been adopted for the promotion of which illustrate more clearly, and exCommerce. A Comparison between plain more fully the preceding Subthe present and former State of Eng. jects.” xv-xx. land proves the beneficial effects of In the chapter on the clerical proCommerce-The obstacles opposed fession, we notice the following obto its farther improvement may be servations upon the character of a removed.-Great Britain superior to young man induced by proper mo. most Countries in the requisite means tives to undertake the pastoral for a widely-extended Cominerce. care,
Chap. IV. Foreign Travel. - Its “ Equally removed from indiffechief advantages. The qualifications rence on the one hand, and enthu. necessary for a gentleman who visits siasm on the other, he embraces his foreign countries. The natural Beau- profession from a deliberate prefer. ties, remarkable Places, and principal ence, and full persuasion that it will Curiosities of his own Island to be afford him more frequent opportunipreviously viewed. Bad effects of ties, than he could find in any other going abroad too young. Haste in situation of life, to increase the glory passing through different countries, of God, and advance the good of and Ignorance of foreign languages mankind. He is resolved to discensured. The objects of attention charge his duties with zeal and dilivary according to the education and gence proportioned to their importfavourite pursuits of the Traveller.- ance, and therefore cherishes such Eminent inodern Travellers--Gray- dispositions of mind as are best calHoward - Sir Joseph Banks - Sirculated to promote the great designs William Hamilton-Moore-Young. of his profession. He feels the most
exalted and heart-felt satisfaction in ledge, and the discriminating doeperforming all the offices of piety, trines of the church of England. and resolves to give in every instance “ The studies of his riper years of his conduct, to his public and pri. will derive peculiar advantage from vate instructions, the effectual re. the progress he had previously made commendation of a good example. in polite literature and the sciences.
“ At the commencement of his By his knowledge of the Greek lantheological studies he will retrace the guage, he will be enabled to read the grounds, upon which he has erected New Testament in the original with bis belief in the fundamental truths ease and pleasure. Thus will he be of christianity. He will review the well versed in that book, which is principles of natural religion, and the sacred repository of the words consider the arguments for the being, and actions of the Redeemer of manattributes, and providence of the kind-the unerring guide of life, and great Creator and Governor of the the pure source of all his instructions. world. He will peruse the Scriptures He will peruse it with a critical view of the Old Testament, and will re to the particular style of each evan. mark the intimate connection, which gelist, the idiomatic and foreign forms subsists between its leading circum- of expression, and the particular allustances, such as the fall of man, the sions to ancient manners and custypes and institutions of the Mosaic toms. He will be careful to compare Law, and the regular succession of one passage with another, and thus prophecies, with the great scheme of will illustrate the general meaning of redemption developed in the New. the sacred writers. He will call to He will review the external and in- bis assistance the works of skilful ternal evidences of christianity, and commentators and critics, to enable examine all the proofs in such a man- him to see clearly the application of ner, as not only to be fully convince every parable and illustration, to ex® ed himself of the truth of the reve: plain difficult terms, and to tollow to lation, but so as to be furnished with its full extent the chain and connexsuch stores of information, and to ion of argument. Let him carry on acquire by study and meditation such his researches with a pious, humease in the application of them, as "ble, teachable, and impartial spia to be ready, upon all proper occa ‘rit, guarding against preconceived sions, to oppose the cavils of the opinions hastily adopted, against sceptic, the infidel, and the sectarist, bigotry for particular systems, blind by giving, in compliance with the prepossessions in favour of a partiadvice of the inspired apostle, 'an cular interpreter, and the preju. o answer to every man that asketh dices of habit, of his place of edu.
him a reason of the hope that is in 'cation, or study of his relations and • him.'
• friends, and of his expected patrons. “ Unless his belief be founded • To earnest prayer for the superinupon couviction, and be the result of tending, guidance of the Supreme his own careful examination, is he not • Being, let him join his own assiduliable to be lulled into a criminal in. 'ous exertions, and follow the path difference, shaken by the assaults of of truth, whithersoever it may lead false philosophy, or deluded by the him'.” p. 352--355. visions of enthusiasm ? In the situa “ With respect to the mode of detions, in which he may be placed, in livering a sermon, it may be observ company with the intidel, the sceptic, ed, that the advice of a judicious or the scoffer, or with Christians of friend, as to the management of the various denominations, he will pos- voice, and the propriety of gesture, sess none of the requisite stores of will be of much more use than voknowledge, by the assistance of which lumes of instructions. These can no he may discover the artifice or the more lead to perfection, than studyignorance of his opponent, and ren- ing the most exact theory of music der his attacks ineffectual-he may can enable a reader to play well upon be silenced, may be disconcerted, an instrument, to which end applicaand may expose himself and his pro- tion and practice can alone conduce. fession to disgrace and ridicule, unless In like manner a good delivery must he be firmly grounded in all the im-, be the effect of repeated trials. Preportant points of Christian know- cepts may improve the judgment, but
will give little aid to the power of he, edified in the performance of the performance-they may form critics, sacred services, by the emphatic corbut cannot make speakers.
rectness of a Porteus, the solemn “ The principal fault attributed to tones and impressive dignity of a the divines of the church of England Parr, and the devout, judicious, and is, that they are remarkable for a unaffected 'elocution of a Maltby. cold and inanimate mode of delivery. Were the public duties of piety thus This circuinstance points out the ad- generally performed throughout the vantages, which formerly arose from nation, is it not probable, that the the custom of preaching without the crowds, which now fill the convenassistance of a written sermon. The ticles of sectarists, would resort with preacher then gave way to the current eagerness to their respective churches, of his own thoughts, and expressing and, attracted by the inanner of cehimself as in animated conversation, lebrating the service, would enjoy transfused, without any diminution the additional advantages of solid and of their heat and strength, his own truly edifying instruction !" p. 359sentiments into the breast of his 361. hearers.
“ A pious, learned, and diligent “ Impressive as this practice cer- divine is one of the strongest supports tainly was, yet it may be remarked, and brightest ornaments of his counthat the present mode of delivering try. In his general intercourse with sermons has peculiar advantages. maukind, while he maintains his dig. Sermons by the help of reflection are nity, he is free from formality or momore correctly composed, with rea roseness ; enjoys society, but avoids soning more just, instructions more its dissipation and its follies, and judicious, points of faith and doc. knows the value of time too well to trine more fully and truly explained, sacrifice any very considerable share and what is of great importance, with of it to mere amusement. To those, more regularity and method. As the who differ from him in religious opidivine of the church of England is nions, he shows firmness of principle by custom contined to one method, without asperity of conduct, as he is he should study to improve it as much ever mild, gentle, and tolerant He as he can. As that extemporary dis warms the hearts of his flock by his course, which approaches the nearest fervent and unaflected piety, and he to a written sermon in regularity of enlightens their understandings, concomposition, and purity of style, is firms their faith, and invigorates their the best; in like manner among the practice, by his judicious and inpreswritten sermons, that is undoubtedly sive discourses. In his private ad. most excellent, which is composed monitions he is diligent in giving adwith the easy air, and pronounced vice, and delicate in his manner of with the unatfected warmth and flu- doing it; always considering wheency of the extemporary:
ther ihe means he employs of recon“Nothing is so impressive, or tends ciling animosities and reproving vice so much to the attainment of excel- are best calculated to answer the prolence, as the sight and the contem. posed ends. He maintains a proper plation of living example. It is much intercourse with all classes of his pato be lamented, that we have no pub- rishioners, but he is neither arrogaat lic school of eloquence, for the in- to the poor, nor servile to the rich. struction of young divines in that To the indigent and deserving he is species of delivery, which is neces a constant friend, and protecis them sary to give pathos, dignity, devout- from the oppression of their supeness, and spirit, to their mode of per. riors; he relieves their wants as far as forming the various services of the it is in his power, and reconciles them church-in the reading desk, the to their laborious and humble stati. pulpit, at the baptismal font, and the ons, by the most carnest ex bortations altar. Until such an institution be to patience and contentment. He is established, we must refer to those, the composer of strife, and the soother whose practice requires only to be of outrageous passions, and no less generally known to be highly admir- the temporal than the spiritual minised, and zealously followed.' Happy ter of peace. Ilis family is the mo. are they who have an opportunity to del for all others in their attention to