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practicability of cultivating it to advantage, the following contrast is presented to us: You can't open that pretty box, love;-come to me, and I will do it for you. See, what ' nice comfits there are in it.' The 'box is opened-the comfits are eaten, and mamma again screws on the lid. -Pleased with the novelty, little master again desires to have it opened, and again she complies with his request. The request, or rather command, is again repeated, and complied with, till mamma grows tired, and then she declares that the naughty box will not open any more. The ill humour which succeeds is stifled by more comfits from her pocket, or the poor child is coaxed to resume the string by which the painted horse is dragged round the room. All this I have seen, and similar occurrences may be now in your recollection. Let us see how the same circumstance is managed by a judicious mother:

Here is a pretty box, mamma; but it won't open, all that I can do.' That box, my dear, won't open by force; the lid is screwed on, and it must be turned in such a manner as to take out the screw. ObserveThere! it is opened! now see how the part that fixes is cut in the man'ner of a screw.'

O, yes! now I understand it; for I remember what papa told me one day about the cork-screw, when I was looking at it: but I thought there was no use of screws but to 'draw corks.'

All screws are made upon the same plan, or principle, as it is called, will you remember that 'word?'

Yes, mamma; but what else is ⚫ there besides cork-screws and screwlids for comfit-boxes?'

Many things, my love, are made upon the same principle. A piece of furniture, that is just by you, is made upon the principle of the 'screw; and if you will find it out I will give you a kiss.'

I see! I see! it is the stool on which my sister sits at the piano'forte. It turns and rises just like the ⚫ lid of this box.'

"This scene I have likewise witnessed. Does it require any argument to prove which of these children would be most likely to pay attention to the objects of perception? Can we be at any loss to determine which would

be best prepared for receiving instruction at that period, when, in the minds of unthinking people, instruction commences?" p. 75-77.

Pursuing the subject of attention, we meet with the following important observations:

"If the trains of thought, which, in our waking hours, incessantly flow through the mind, depend upon the nature of the objects to which we chiefly direct our attention, it appears of the utmost consequence to our success in education, to turn the attention to such objects as may introduce trains of thought unconnected with any violent emotion. This is the great advantage of the pursuit of science. When it fortunately hap pens, that the attention is thus directed in early life, the unruly passions will not gain a premature admission into the youthful bosom. Many a rural nymph might have been saved from heart-felt misery by such a knowledge of botany or mineralogy as would completely have occupied her leisure hours in retirement ; while, from the mere want of objects to engage her attention, the Damon, or the Corydon, that first presents himself, seldom fails to become fatal to the vacant mind.

"Where the attention has been early engaged in fiction, it will not, without great difficulty, be turned to realities. The cause is obvious. It is the business of fiction to excite emotion; the mind delights in this excitement; and where it is frequently produced, whatever is destitute of it will appear insipid. If, then, we would have the attention engaged in the service of the intellectual faculties, and the faculties employed in the search of truth, we must carefully abstain from introducing emotions unfavourable to our design. From the direction which is given to the power of ATTENTION, the trains of thought will derive their colouring, and the character will ultimately partake of their complexion." p.


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of melancholy Persons languid.-Ob- happy to extract from this part of the servations.

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To excite to the practice of culti vating the faculty of conception, Miss Hamilton represents the mournful effects of neglect, exemplified in prejudice, injustice, falsehood, with their train of attendant evils, which are considered to arise from a want of accurate conception. On this faculty an hundred pages are employed: did our limits permit we should be (To be concluded


Letter VII. JUDGMENT. First begins to operate upon the Objects of Perception.-Necessity of exercising it upon sensible Objects.-Illustrations.How it may at first be exercised on Moral Propositions.-Party-Prejudice inimical to its Cultivation.-Observations on this Head-The Use of History.

In this Letter the exercise of this faculty is particularly applied to the female sex in the following language: "A little reflection would teach us, that in every situation in which a female can be placed, whether she be free or subordinate, whether she moves in an exalted sphere, or be reduced to the duties of an inferior one, in public and in private, abroad or at home, judgment is ever necessary, ever essential; and that whatever be her rank and situation in society, if judgment do not form her opinions, and direct her conduct, she will become an object of contempt." in our next.)

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seventeen whole pieces. Some inaccuracies in astronomy and natural history were discovered by Mr. Clarke, which he thought himself obliged to supply in the best possible manner. We learn also from the Preface, that besides the omissions above specified, "a part in most of the meditations, and in some cases a third of each, is omitted. To the truly Christian reader, these omissions will ap

pean of serious consequence, when he is informed that they contain those parts, which chiefly relate to experimental religion. In this edition, the Translator professes to supply the defects of the former: that our Readers may judge how far he has succeeded, we subjoin the Meditation on the Circulation of the Sap in Trees, both in the old and new editions, as a specimen of the work.

Circulation of the Sap in Trees.

"THE trees, which for several months appeared quite dead, begin insensibly to revive. Some weeks hence we shall discover in them still more signs of life. In a short time the buds will grow large, will open, and produce their precious blossoms. We have it


observed this revolution regularly in the commencement of each spring, and, perhaps, have been hitherto ignorant of the means by which it was performed. The effects which we observe in spring, in the trees and other vegetables, are occasioned by the sap, which is put in motion in their tubes, by the air and the increasing heat. As the life of animals depends on the circulation of their blood, so likewise the life and growth of plants depend on the circulation of the sap. To effect this, God has formed and adjusted all the parts of vegetables, so as to concur to the preparation, preservation, and motion of this nutritious juice.

"It is principally by the bark, that in spring the sap ascends from the root into the body of the tree; and that even through the year, life and nourishment are distributed to the branches, and the fruits which they bear. The woody part of the tree is composed of small longitudinal fibres, which extend in a spiral line from the root to the top of the tree; and which are very closely united together. Among these fibres, there are some so very small and fine, that one of them, which is scarcely as large as a hair, contains more than eight thousand fibrilla! There are an innumerable multitude of little tubes, which contain the nutritious juice, and which facilitate its circulation. These tubes extend through all the branches, and ascend to the very top of the tree. Some conduct the sap from the root to the top; and others bring it down again to the root. The sap rises through the ascending tubes, during the heat of the day, and comes back by the descending ones, in the cool of the evening.

"The leaves answer the same end: their principal use is to concoct the sap; not only that which proceeds from the root, but also that which the tree receives externally by means of the dew, the humidity of the air and the rain. This nutritious juice is distributed through every part of the tree; but it could not ascend by the tubes, if they were not open at the top; and it is through these pores that the watery parts of the juice evaporate, while the oily, sulphureous, and earthy particles are united together to nourish the tree, to be transformed into its substance, and to


always in our power to observe this revolution regularly in the beginning of each spring; but, perhaps, have been hitherto ignorant by what means it operates. The effects we observe in spring, in trees, and other vegetables are produced by the sap, which is put in motion in the stalks of the trees by the air and increase of heat. As the life of animals depends on the circulation of their blood, so also the life and growth of plants and trees depend on the circulation of sap. For this purpose, God has formed and disposed all parts of vegetables, so as to concur towards the prepara tion, preservation, and circulation of this nourishing juice. It is chiefly by means of the bark, that the sap in spring rises from the roots into the bodies of trees, and even conveys throughout the year, all the nourishment to the branches and fruit. The wood of the tree is composed of small long fibres, which extend in a direct line the whole length of the tree to the top; and which are very closely joined together. Among those fibres there are some so small and fine, that one of them, though scarce as thick as a hair, contains more than eight thousand little fibres. There are a multitude of little veins to contain the nourishing juice, and to make the circulation easy. These veins extend to the other branches, and rise up the whole length of the tree to the top; some conduct the sap from the root to the top of the tree, and others bring it down from the top to the bottom. The sap rises up the ascending veins in the heat of the day, and comes down the others again in the cool of the evening. The leaves serve for the same purpose, and their chief use is to make the sap circulate; not only that which proceeds from the root, but also what the tree receives outward by means of dew, the moisture of the air and rain. This nourishing juice is spread through every part of the tree; but it could not rise through the stalks, if there were not openings in them at the top. It is through these pores that the watery parts of the sap evaporate, while the oily, sulphureous, and earthly parts mix together to nourish the tree, to transform into a substance, and give it a new growth. If the juice does not reach it, if the circu lation is stopped, if the interior or


give it a continual increase. If the juices cease to flow; if the circulation be obstructed; if the internal organization of the tree be injured, either by intense cold, frost, old age, a wound, or other external injury, the tree dies.

"After these reflections, can we in this season behold trees with the same indifference as formerly? Can the change which is about to take place in them be unworthy of our attention? and can we observe the renovation of nature, without thinking of that God who has given life to all his creatures; who provides juices suitable to the trees; who communicates to the sap the power to circulate in the vessels; and to distribute nourishment, life, and growth to the trees? Alas! we are a full proof, that it is possible to see these things every year, and yet to pay no proper attention to them. For many years, at the return of spring, we have had the opportunity of observing this vivifying power, which shews itself in plants and in trees; but we have paid as little attention to it as the beasts which graze on the plains. And, what is yet more astonishing is, that we have been equally inattentive to the preservation of our own lives, to the growth of our bodies, and the circulation of our blood! As we have the happiness of seeing another new spring, may we reflect on it in a more rational and Christian manner! may we recollect, that God is nigh to us in every part of his works; and that each of his creatures proclaims his magnificence! But all our wishes will be fruitless, if the Lord himself, who is the God of all grace, do not incline our hearts to know and glorify his great name.

"While nature is reanimated, grant, O God, that our souls may be quickened by thy spirit! Let this new existence, which all the vegetables receive in this beautiful season, be the signal which shall cause us to awake from our slumber, and excite us to walk before thee in holiness; to lead a life of spiritual activity, agreeable to thy will; and duly to feel and worthily to magnify thy power and goodness! May this be the sacrifice which our souls shall present unto thee in these days, which give us such bright prospects of future good! Amen."


ganization of the tree is destroyed, whether by too severe cold or frost, by age, by any wound or outward ac cident, the tree dies.

"After these reflections, can we see with the same indifference as formerly, the trees at this season? Will the change there is going to be in them appear so little worth our notice? And, can we observe the renewal of all nature without thinking of God, who gives life to every creature; who provides the juices analogous to trees; who communicates to that sap the power of circulating through the veins, and from thence of giving to trees life, nourishment, and growth? Alas! that it should be possible to see all these things every year, without giving proper atten tion to them: it is what I am strong a proof of. At the return of many springs, I have had the opportunity to observe this quickening virtue which appears in plants and trees; but I have thought no more about it than the animals which graze in the fields; and, what is still more won. derful, I have been equally inattentive to the preservation of my own life, the growth of my body, and the circulation of my blood. Grant that I may now, at least, as I have the happiness to see the spring again, think in a more reasonable way, and more as a Christian. May I at last acknowledge, through all the works of nature, that beneficent Creator whose greatness all the world proclaims. But all my wishes will be fruitless, if thou, thyself, O Lord, who art the God of all mercy, dost not incline my heart to acknowledge and glorify thy great and holy name. Now that all nature revives, grant that my soul may be quickened by thy spirit. May this new existence, which the vegetables receive at this lovely season, be the signal to awaken me from my slumber, and lead me to virtue."

To this edition is added a paper on the Hamster, an animal scarcely known in these nations, on which account it is here transcribed: it is inserted as a duplicate to the Meditation for the 8th of August.

"The Hamster belongs to the mus genus, but bears the nearest resemblance to that of the myoxus, or marmot. It agrees, however, with both in the construction of its habitation, its way of life, and its general properties. In Gmelin's New System of Nature, the hamsters make the third general division, called criceti: and the animal, which is the subject of this paper, is styled the Mus Cricetus Germanicus, or German Hamster. The males are about ten inches long, and the tail about three: but the females are scarcely more than one half of this size. The former weigh from twelve to sixteen ounces each. Usually the head and back are of a reddish brown colour, the cheeks red, the sides paler, with three white spots; the breast, upper part of the fore-legs, and belly, are black. But the colour varies much sometimes they are found entirely white, or yellow; and there is a species which is almost entirely black. But what is most worthy of our observation in this animal are, its feet, its teeth, and its cheek pouches.

"The hamster uses his feet to run, dig, and climb with. They are short and strong, having four toes and a claw, instead of a fifth toe, on the fore-feet; and five toes on each hind. foot. Its teeth are sixteen in number! it has two incisors in each jaw; and three grinders on each side. The grinders serve only to chew with; but the fore-teeth, or incisors, serve not only to shell the corn, but also as weapons for its defence; and to dig up the earth, where it is too hard for its claws alone.

"The cheek pouches are two skinny bags, proceeding from the jaw, above the neck and shoulders, and afterwards sloping a little towards the spine. They lie enclosed between the muscles and the outward skin. On the outside, these pouches are membranous, smooth, and shining: and in the inside, there are a great many glands which secrete a fluid, which serves to keep the parts flexible, and to resist any accidents which might be occasioned by the roughness of particular seeds. The hamster uses

these pouches to collect and carry home the corn: and they are so large as to contain an ounce and a half of corn at once: which, on his return to his den, the animal empties, by stroking and squeezing them with his forefeet, beginning behind, and pressing forward towards the mouth. When a hamster is met with his cheekpouches full of corn, he may be easily taken with the hand, without the risk of being bitten; for while his pouches are full, he has not the free use of his jaws: but if he be allowed a little time, he soon empties his pouches, as related above, and raising himself on his hind-legs, stands boldly on his defence, or darts on his eneiny.

"This animal lives always in the corn-fields. Here it forms itself a subterraneous burrow, divided into several apartments; with two holes leading from the surface: one is perpendicular, at which it goes in, and comes out: and the other, where it lodges its excrement, is oblique, that the wet inay the more readily run off. One part of this subterraneous dwelling, divided into several apartments, is the store-house, where it lays up its winter provisions of corn, beans, peas, vetches, linseed, &c. but each species of grain is kept by itself, in a separate cell. The chambers, where themselves and young lodge, are lined with straw or grass. The old ones dig their chambers several feet deep; but those of the young scarcely ever exceed one foot in depth. In these holes the animal dwells alone, for it has a rooted enmity against all other creatures, and even against those of its own species, the females not excepted. When two hamsters encounter, one of them certainly falls; and the weaker is devoured by the conqueror.

"The hamster lies by day in his den, still and quiet; and in the dusk of the evening he comes out, and runs about till midnight: he then retires again into his hole, and continues quiet till about an hour before daybreak; then he comes out once more, and runs about till sun-rising.

"The hamster's manner of living is considerably diversified: like various other animals, he becomes torpid in winter, and continues in that state the greater part of the cold season. The male awakes about the middle of February, and the female in March. They do not leave their hples imme

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