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diately on their recovery from this tained no damage, so that instead torpid state, but continue quiet till of blaming the Divine Government, they have consumed the remains of we shall have much reason to adore their provisions, which amounts often it. After all, what are the few pounds to one-third of the whole : then, the of corn which the hamster carries former opening his hole in March, away from our fields, in comparison the latter in April, they come out, re- of the thousands of bushels which we turn to their former manner of life, collect there ?” p. 122-126. and go about seeking herbs.
“It cannot be denied, that the hamster is a very destructive creature. Some years they are so numerous as to occasion a dearth by their
XIX. EULER'S LETTERS, &c. immense comsumption of corn. In (Concluded from page 36.) one year 11,000 skins, in a second HE subjects of the second vo
luine are illustrated in the folbrought to the town-house of Gotha, lowing order : to receive a reward for their destruc- Letter 1 to 5. On the knowledge tion. The hamster lives a consider- of truth; objections of the Pyrrhoable time, and multiplies prodigious. nists; demonstrative, physical, and ly. The female brings forth twice or moral certainty; with precautions thrice in the year, and her litter is for attaining assurance of sensible never fewer than six; but oftener from and historical truths. --6. Of the sixteen to eighteen. The growth of knowledge of the essence of bodies. the young is very rapid: at fifteen -7, 8, 9. Extension and its divisidays old they begin to dig the earth; bility.-10 to 17. Of monads, with and in about three weeks they are objections and arguments of monacapable of subsisting independently dists, and reflections on the system. of the dam.
-18 to 20. Nature of colours and “ The hamster is preyed on by se: analogy between colours and sounds. veral animals, bat the ferret seems-21 to 39. Of electricity,, nature ordained to be its most inveterate and explanation of thunder and enemy. It is not so strong as the lightning, with the possibility of prehamster, but it is much more active venting and averting effects of thunand cunning; and by these means der.-40, 41. Problem of the longiit prevails over him. In summer and tude, with general description and autumn, he is the ferret's food. He magnitude of the earth.--42 to 45. pursues him, even into his den, and of latitude.46 to 53. Knowledge of kills bim there ; and having thus gain- the longitude, by calculation of space ed the victory, he makes it his own passed through, time-piece, eclipses habitation. From this he goes out a of Jupiter's satellites, eclipses and hamster-hunting, and having found, motion of the moon.--54 to 60. On he seizes him so strongly, that he drags the mariner's compass and properties him away and preys upon him. of the magnetic needles.-61 to 71. '
* Even this circumstance shews On magnetism.-72 to 108. Of diopthe wisdom of the Divine Providence. trics, with nature, properties, use, This animal is in hostility with all effects, and construction of different others, and yet the species is pre- kinds of glasses.-109 to 112. Reserved ! Every creature is an object presentation and apparent magnitude of the care of Divine Providence, be- of sun, moon and stars.---113. The cause necessary to the perfection of heavens appear under the form of an the whole. The hamster may be arch, Aattened toward the zenith. objected to because destructive; but 114. Reasons for the faintness of the were there not such creatures, God light of heavenly bodies in the ho. would not cause the earth to bring rizon.--115. Illusion respecting the forth so plentifully. For these he distance of objects and the diinimakes a provision in our fields, and nution of lustre. — 116. On the they can consume no more than he azure colour of the heavens.-117. has provided for them. At times What the appearance would be they may become a scourge, but if the air were perfectly transpawhen we balance our gains with our rent. - 118. Refraction of rays of losses, we shall find, on the most scru- light in the atmosphere, and its pelous reckoning, that we have sus eifects, twilight, rising and setting
of the heavenly bodies.--119. The keep too near the wire; but happen. stars appear at a greater distance than ing carelesly to advance his chest a they are. Table of refraction. little, he received a terrible stroke,
Mr. Euler closes bis illustrations of accompanied with a loud clap, which electricity with a description of the na- stretched him lifeless on the floor. ture of thunder, and its resemblance “ About the same time, the late to electricity; the latter is evidenced Dr. Lieberkuhn and Dr. Ludolf were by the following proofs :
about making similar experiments in “ Let a bar of metal, say of iron, this city, and in that view had fixed be placed on a pillar of glass, or any bars of iron on their houses; but be. other substance whose pores are close, ing infornied of the disaster which that when the bar acquires electricity had befallen Mr. Richmann, they had it may not escape or communicate the bars of iron iinmediately removitself to the body which supports the ed, and, in my opinion, they acted bar; as soon as a thunder-storm wisely. arises, and the clouds which contain “ From this you will readily judge, the thunder come directly over the that the air or atmosphere must bebar, you perceive in it a very strong come very electric during a thunderelectricity, generally far surpassing storm, or that the ether contained in that which art produces; if you ap. it must then be carried to a very high ply the hand to it, or any other degree of compression. This ether, body with open pores, you see burst- with which the air is surcharged, will ing from it, not only a spark, but a pass into the bar, because of its open very bright flash, with a noise simi- pores, and it will become electric, as it lar to thunder; the man, who ap- would have been in the common plies his hand to it, receives a shock method, but in a much higher deso violent that he is stunned. This gree.” Mr. E. concludes his explasurpasses curiosity, and there is good nation of the phenomena of thunder reason why we should be on our and lightning with these observa.. guard, and not approach the bar dur. tions in Letter 38, and then proceeds ing a storm.
to state the possibility of preventing * A professor at Petersburgh, nam- and of averting the effects of thunder ed Richmann, has furnished a melan- in Letter 39. choly example. Having perceived a “ Thunder then is nothing else but resemblance so striking between the the effect of the electricity with which phenomena of thunder and those of the clouds are endowed; and as an electricity, this unfortunate natura electrified body, applied to another in list, the inore clearly to ascertain it its natural state, emits a spark with by experiment, raised a bar of iron some noise, and discharges into it the on the roof of his house, cased below superfluous ether, with prodigious imin a tube of glass, and supported by petuosity; the same thing takes place a mass of pitch. To the bar he at- in a cloud that is electric, or surchargtached a wire, which he conducted ed with ether, but with a force incominto his chamber, that as soon as the parably greater, because of the terbar should become electric, the elec- rible mass that is electrified, and tricity might have a free coinmunica- in which, according to every appear. tion with the wire, and so enable him ance, the ether is reduced to a much to prove the effects in his apartment. higher degree of compression than we And it may be proper to inform you, are capable of carrying it by our mathat this wire was conducted in such chinery. a manner as no where to be in con- " When, therefore, such a cloud aptact but with bodies whose pores are proaches bodies, prepared for the ad. close, such as glass, pitch, or silk, to mission of its ether, this discharge prevent the escape of electricity. must be made with incredible vio
“ Having made this arrangement, lence: instead of a simple spark, the he expected a thunder-storm, which, air will be penetrated with a prodiunhappily for him, soon came. The gious flash, which, exciting a comthunder was heard at a distance; Mr. motion in the ether contained in the Richmann was all attention to his whole adjoining region of the atmowire, to see if he could perceive any sphere, produces a most brilliant light; mark of electricity. As the storin and in this lightning consists. approached, he judged it prudent to : “ The air is, at the same time, put employ some precaution, and not into a very violent motion of vibra
tion, from which results the noise of “In a word, all the strange cir. thunder. This noise must, no doubt, cumstances, so frequently related, of be excited at the same instant with the effects of thunder, contain nothing the lightuing; but you know that which may not be easily reconciled sound always requires a certain quan- with the nature of electricity. tity of time, in order to its transmis- “ Some philosophers have mainsion to any distance, and that its tained, that thunder did not come progress is only at the rate of about a from the clouds, but from the earth, ihousand feet in a second; whereas or bodies. However extravagant this light travels with a velocity incon- sentiment may appear, it is not so abceivably greater. Hence we always surd, as it is difficult to distinguish, hear the thunder later than we see in the phænomena of electricity, whethe lightning: and from the number ther the spark issues from the body of seconds intervening between the which is electrified, or from that which flash and the report, we are enabled is not so, as it equally fills the space to determine the distance of the place between the two bodies; and if the where it is generated, allowing a thou- electricity is negative, the ether and sand feet to a second.
the spark are in eifect emitted from " The body itself, into which the the natural or non-electrified body, electricity of the cloud is discharged, But we are sufficiently assured that, receives from it a most dreadful in thunder, the clouds have a positive stroke; sometimes it is shivered to electricity, and that the lightning is pieces; sometimes set on fire and emitted from the clouds. consumed, if combustible; sometimes " You will be justifiable, however, melted, if it be of metal; and, in in asking, if by every stroke of thunsuch cases, we say it is thunder- der some terrestrial body is affected? struck; the effects of which, however We see, in fact, that it very rarely surprising and extraordinary they strikes buildings, or the human body; may appear, are in perfect consis- but we know, at the same time, that tency with the well-known phænomne trees are frequently affected by it, na of electricity.
and that many thunder-strokes are “ A sword, it is known, has some discharged into the earth and into times been by thunder melted in the the water. I believe, however, it scabbard, while the last sustained no might be maintained, that a great injury; this is to be accounted for many do not descend so low, and that from the openness of the pores of the electricity of the clouds is very the metal, which the ether very frequently discharged into the air or easily penetrates, and exercises over atmosphere. it all its powers, whereas the sub- “ The small opening of the pores of stance of the scabbard is more closely the air no longer opposes any obstrucallied to the nature of bodies with tion to it, when vapours or rain have close pores, which permit not to the rendered it sufficiently humid; for ether so free a transinission.
then, we know, the pores open. " It has likewise been found, that “ It may very possibly happen, in of several persons, on whom the thun- this case, that the superfluous ether der has fallen, some only have been of the clouds should be discharged struck by it; and that those who were simply into the air; and when this in the middle suffered no injury. The takes place, the strokes are neicause of this phænomenon likewise is ther so violent, nor accompanied with manisest. In a group exposed to a so great a poise, as when the thunder thunder-storm, they are in the greatest bursts on the earth, when a much danger who stand in the nearest vis greater extent of atmosphere is put in cinity to the air that is surcharged agitation.” with ether; as soon as the ether is discharged upon one, all the adjoining air is brought back to its natural state,
The Possibility of preventing, and of and consequently those who were nearest to the upfortunate victim feel
averting, the Effects of Thunder. no effect, while others, at a greater “ It has been asked, whether it might distance, where the air is still suffi- not be possible to prevent, or to avert, ciendly surcharged with ether, are the fatal effects of thunder? You are struck with the same tbunder-elap. well aware of the importance of the VOL. I.
question, and under what obligation “ It would, no doubt, be a matter I should lay a number of worthy peo- of still greater importance, to have it ple, were I able to indicate an infal- in our, power to divest the clouds of lible method of finding protection their electric force, without being unagainst thunder.
der the necessity of exposing any one “ The knowledge of the nature and place to the ravages of thundef; we effects of electricity, permits me not should, in that case, altogether preto doubt that the thing is possible. I vent these dreadful effects, which tercorresponded some time ago with a rify so great a part of mankind. Moravian priest, named Procopius * This appears by no means imDivisch, who assured me that he had possible ; and the Moravian priest, averted, during a whole summer, every whom I mentioned above, unquestionthunder-storm which threatened bis ably effected it; for I have been asown habitation and the neighbourhood, sured, that his machinery sensibly at. by means of a machine constructed tracted the clouds, and constrained on the principles of electricity. Se them to descend quietly in a distillaveral persons, since arrived from that tion, without any but a very distant country, have assured me that the thunder-clap. fact is undoubted, and confirmed by “ The experiment of a bar of iron, irresistible proof.
in a very elevated situation, which “ But there are many respectable becomes electric on the approach of characters, who, on the supposition a thunder-storm, may lead us to the that the thing is practicable, would construction of a similar machine, as have their scruples respecting the law. it is certain, that in proportion as the fulness of employing such a preser- bar discharges its electricity, the vative. The ancient pagans, no doubt, clouds must lose precisely the same would have considered him as im- quantity; but it must be contrived pious, who should have presumed to in such a manner, that the bars may interfere with Jupiter, in the direction immediately discharge the ether which of his thunder. Christians, who are they have attracted. assured that thunder is the work of ci It would be necessary, for this God, and that Divine Providence purpose, to procure for them a free frequently employs it to punish the communication with a pool, or with wickedness of men, might with equal the bowels of the earth, which, by reason alledge, that it was impiety to means of their open pores, inay easily attempt to oppose the course of sove- receive a much greater quantity of reign justice.
ether, and disperse it over the whole • Without involving myself in this immense extent of the earth, so that delicate discussion, 1 remark that con- the compression of the ether may not flagrations, deluges, and many other become sensible in any particular spot. general calamities, are likewise the This communication is very easy by means employed by Providence to means of chains of iron, or any other punish the sins of men; but no one, metal, which will, with great rapidity, surely, ever will pretend, that it is un- carry off the ether with which the bars lawful to prevent, or resist, the pro- are surcharged, gress of a fire or an inundation. Hence “ I would advise the fixing of strong I infer, that it is perfectly lawful to bars of iron, in very elevated situause the means of prevention against tions, and several of them together, the effects of thunder, if they are at- their higher extremity to terminate in tainable.
a point, as this figure is very much “ The melancholy accident which adapted to the attraction of electricihefel Mr. Richmann at Petersburg, ty. I would, afterwards, attach long demonstrates, that the thunder-stroke chains of iron to these bars, which I which this gentleman unhappily at- would conduct under ground into a tracted to himself, would undoubted- pool, lake, or river, there to discharge ly have fallen some where else, and the electricity; and I have no doubt, that such place thereby escaped; it that after making repeated essays, can therefore no longer remain a ques- the means may be certainly discovertion whether it be possible to conduct ed of rendering such machinery more thunder to one place in preference to commodtous, and more certain in its anotber; and this seems to bring us effect. ncar our mark.
" It is abundantly evident, that on
the approach of a thunder-storm, the
« PEACE. ether, with which the clouds are sur- “ Halt! ye legions, sheathe your charged, would be transmitted in
steel : great abundance into these bars, Blood grows precious; shed no more: which would thereby become very Cease your toils; your wounds to heal, electric, unless the chains furnished Lo! beams of mercy reach the shore ! to the ether a free passage, to spend from realms of everlasting light itself in the water, and in the bowels The favour'd guest of heaven is come: of the earth.
Prostrate your banners at the sight, « The ether of the clouds would
And bear the glorious tidings home. continue, therefore, to enter quietly The plunging corpse with half clos’d into the bars, and would, by its agitation, produce a light, which might No more shall stain th' unconscious be visible on the pointed extremi
brine; ties. “Such light is, accordingly, often Yon pendant gay, that streaming
flies, observed, during a storm, on the suminit of spires, an infallible proof that Around its idle staff shall twine. the ether of the cloud is there quietly Her beams o'er conquering navies
Behold! along th' ethereal sky discharging itself; and every one considers this as a very good sign, of
spread; the harmless absorption of many
Peace! Peace! the leaping sailors thunder-strokes.
cry, “ Lights are likewise frequently
With shouts that might arouse the
dead: observed at sea, on the tops of the masts of ships, known to sailors by Then forth Britannia's thunder pours; the name of Castor and Pollux; and A vast reiterated sound ! when such signs are visible, they con
From line to line the cannon roars, sider themselves as safe from the And spreads the blazing joy around. stroke of thunder.
Return, ye brave! your country “ Most philosophers have ranked calls; these phænomena among vulgar su
Return; return, your task is done : perstitions; but we are now fully as
While here the tear of transport falls, sured, that such sentiments are not To grace your laurels nobly won. without foundation ; indeed they are Albion Cliffs-from age to age, infinitely better founded than many That bear the roaring storms of of our philosophic reveries.” p. 140 heav'n, -147.
Did ever fiercer warfare rage,
nerous isle; XIX. RURAL TALES, BALLADS,
Let every patriot bosom glow, and Songs. By ROBERT BLOOMBeauty, resume thy wonted smile, FIELD, Author of the Farmer's Boy.
And, Poverty, thy cheerful brow. With his Portrait by Ridley. 19mo. Boast, Britain, of thy glorious guests; 45. boards. pp. 119. Vernor and Peace, wealth, and commerce, all Hood; and Longman and Rees.
Still on contented labour rests A Autor introduces his verses
on T the close of the Preface the The basis of a lasting throne.
Shout, Poverty! 'tis heaven that the Peace, in the following words :
saves ; “Since affixing the above date, an
Protected wealth, the chorus raise, event of much greater importance Ruler of war, of winds, and waves, than any to which I have been wit. Accept a prostrate nation's praise." ness, has taken place, to the univer- This volume contains the following sal joy (it is to be hoped) of every subjects: Richard and Kate : a Balinhabitant of Europe. My portion lad.-Walter and Jane: a Tale.--of joy shall be expressed while it is The Miller's Maid: a Tale.-The warm. And the Reader will do suf- Widow to her Hour-Glass.- Market ficient justice, if he only believes it Night: a Ballad.—The Fakenham to be sincere.
Ghost: a Balad.-The French Ma