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the lowest couch; and on all his journeys i 6. We are all in a state of education for they either preceded him in another car- the kingdom of heaven, in statu pupillari, riage, or rode on horseback by his side. upon earth : the education of our immortal
So in the same place, with respect to the spirits is our sole business. For this we are girls-Filiam et neptes ita instituit, ut etiam formed in the womb, and pass through the lanificio assuefaceret, vetaretque loqui aut several stages of infancy, youth, and managere quidquam, nisi propalam, et quod in hood. Studies of the school fit us for mandiurnos commentarios referretur.—His daugh- hood; so manhood, and the several occupations ter and grand-daughters by his direction consequent upon it, is a state of preparawere carefully taught to spin: and they were tion for something else. Faith and prachabituated to speak and act on all occasions tice are the end of wisdom and knowledge, so openly, that every word and deed might and prepare us for the conversation, society, be entered in a journal.
and intercourse of angels, as wisdom and 2. The Neapolitan jockeys break in their knowledge prepare us for the conversation colts with so rough a hand, and such want of men. of temper, that the animal's spirit is quite 7. Milton's plan of education has more of beaten down : I once saw one thrown down show than value. He does not recommend by a brutal fellow, and almost strangled. those studies to boys, which, as Cicero says, Travels in the Sicilies.
adolescentiam alunt. Instead of laying a 3. Such is the force of education and stress on such authors as open and enlarge a habit, that there is hardly a quaker to be young understanding, he prescribes an early found, young or old, who has not the com- acquaintance with geometry and physics : mand of the irascible passions. Why can it but these will teach no generous sentiments, not be so with others ?
nor inculcate such knowledge as is of use at 4. “In the schools of philosophy ancient- all times and on all occasions. Mathematics ly,” says Goldsmith
339.), were taught and astronomy do not enter into the proper the great maxims of true policy : the rules improvement and general business of the of every kind of duty; the motives for a true mind—such sciences do not apply to the discharge of them; what we owe to our manners, nor operate upon the character. country ; the right use of authority; wherein They are extraneous and technical. They true courage consists; in a word, the quali- are useful; but useful as the knowledge of ties that form the good citizen, statesman, his art is to the artificer. An excellent wriand great captain ; and in all these Epami- ter observes, we are perpetually moralists, nondas excelled.”—See his character there but we are geometricians only by chance. drawn, for eloquence, knowledge, modesty; Our intercourse with intellectual nature is he knew not what it was to be ostentatious. necessary; our speculations upon matter are Spintherus said of him, “he had never met voluntary and at leisure. Physical knowwith a man, who knew more or spoke less.” ledge is of such rare emergence, that one -0 that our young statesmen and officers man may know another half his life, without would copy him!—Agesilaus, himself a great being able to estimate his skill in hydrostatics commander, seeing him passing at the head or astronomy : but his moral and prudential of his infantry, after having attentively con- character immediately appears. Those ausidered and followed him with his eyes a thors therefore are to be read at schools, that long time, could not he!p crying out, in supply most axioms oi prudence, most prinadmiration of him, O the wonder-working man! ciples of moral truth, and most materials for
5. Indulgence, when shown in too great a conversation; and these purposes are best degree by parents to children, generally served by poets, orators, and historians. meets with a bad return. It seems to awa- (Warton, 117.)-Milton afterwards reasoned ken a strange malignity in human nature better on this subject, P. L. viii. 191. towards those who have thus displayed an injudicious fondness. Children delight in
EULER. vexing such parents. There may be two This is a bird in Iceland. It lays most reasons-1. It makes them feel foolish, to be eggs in rainy weather: as soon as the young so cockered and teased with kindness. 2. It ones are out of the egg, the mother leads discovers a weakness, over which they can them to the shore : when they coine to the insult and triumph. But whatever may be water side, she takes them upon her back, the cause, it furnishes an argument to parents, and swims with them for the space of a few why they should never practice this beha-yards, when she dives, and the young ones, vior towards their children. The present who are left floating on the water, are obliged miseries of France arose under the govern- to take care of themselves. So the parent ment of a kind and indulgent monarch. carries children into the world, dives, and
EVIL.-ORIGIN OF IT.
leaves them to combat with its waves. Van EPAMINONDAS.—HIS HUMILITY AND PATRIOTISM. Troil's Letters.
His enemies, jealous of his glory, with a FLOQUENCE.
design to affront him, caused him to be elected For the difference between Cicero's elo the city scavenger. He accepted the place quence and that of some who styled them with thanks, and declared, that, instead of selves Attic, dealing in short sentences and deriving honor from his office, he would give
, turns, like Pliny afterwards, see Middleton's it dignity in his turn.—I dare say kennels Life of Cicero, iii. 332.—Is there not at this never were so well scoured before. time a similar decline in England from the true, nervous flowing eloquence- particularly of the pulpit! Dr. Blair is the Pliny. 1. The philosophers of old saw the world
overflowed by a torrent of corruption, as the
Egyptians beheld their country every year 1. Employment is the best cure for grief ; deluged by the Nile, Both were equally to as Tacitus tells us of Agricola, that, when he seek for the spring-head and cause of these had lost his son, in luciu bellum inter remedia effects. erat—he resorted to war as a remedy against
2. The ancient philosophers speak of man's grief. In Vità, sect. 28.
degeneracy, with its consequences, in a much 2. Cheerfulness is the daughter of employ- better way than many who pretend to be ment; and I have known a man come home friends to reason and to Christ, but are so to in high spirits from a funeral, merely because neither, while they make it their business to he had had the management of it.
extenuate the fall of man, and the corruption 3. Anxiety and melancholy are best dis- introduced thereby into human nature. See pelled and kept at a distance by employment. some wonderful citations in Orig. Sacr. iii. 3. .
3 On the day before the battle of Pharsalia, Plutarch tells us, when dinner was ended in the camp,
while others either went to Euler lived at Petersburgh during the sleep, or were disquieting their minds with administration of Biron, one of the most apprehensions concerning the approaching tyrannical ministers that ever breathed. On battle, Brutus employed himself in writing till the philosopher's coming to Berlin, after the the evening,composing an epitome of Polybius. tyrant's death, the late queen of Prussia, who
could hardly get a word out of him, asked
him the reason of his silence.—“Because," The use to be made of their revilings, &c., said he, “I come from a place where if a is thus set forth by Bishop Taylor: “Our man says a word he is hanged.” enemies perform accidentally the office of friends: they tell us our faults, with all their deformities and aggravations: they offer us affronts, which exercise our patience, and tivity at Syracuse, owed the good usage they
Many of the Athenians, during their caprestrain us from scandalous crimes, lest we met with to the scenes of Euripides, which become a scorn and reproof to them that hate they repeated to their captors, who were exus. And it is not the least of God's mercies, tremely fond of them. On their return they that he permits enmities among men, by went and saluted that poet as their deliverer, means of which our failings are reproved and informed him of the admirable effects, more sharply, and corrected with more seve
wrought in their favor by his verses. Scarce rity and simplicity than they would otherwise be. The gentle hand of a friend is more apt flattering than this testimony.
any circumstance could be more pleasing and to bind our wounds up, than to probe them and make them smart.»See Life of Christ, for. p. 541.
The most common cause of fatness is too
great a quantity of food, and two small a Envy pines at the applauses which virtue quantity of motion; in plain English, glutreceives; as Plutarch tells us, that when tony and laziness. I am of opinion, that Titus Flaminius, by conquering Philip, had spare diet and labor will keep constitutions, restored the Grecian cities to their freedom, where this disposition is strongest, from being the acclamations of the people assembled fat. You may see in an 'army forty thouat the celebration of the Isthmian games sand foot soldiers without a fat man amongst caused the crows, as they were Hying over them: and I dare affirm, that by plenty and the stage, to drop down dead upon it.-In rest twenty of the forty shall grow fat.Vità Flamin.
same, it depends, whether a man shall beWhile a faction entertain their old princi- lieve, or not: and here we must look for the ples, it is folly to suppose they will not, when true reasons why one man is a Christian, and
another an Infidel. opportunity serves, return to their old practices. Quæro, quid facturi fuissetis ? Quan- minds of the truth of a doctrine, but it is
6. Rational evidence may satisfy men's quam quid facturi fueritis non dubitem, cum videam quid feceritis. Cic. pro Ligario.' The grace which must bring them to obey and fine lady will be the cat she was, when a
adhere to it, by convincing them of its excel
lence, by subduing the desires and affections mouse runs before her.
that militate against it, and so improving an historical into a saring faith.
7. “ Experience (saith Mr. Hume) is our 1. In the affairs of this world, as hus-only guide in matters of fact." Doth he bandry, trade, &c., men know little and mean our own experience or that of others ? believe much. In the affairs of another world, If our own, we are to believe nothing but they would know every thing, and believe what we ourselves have seen parallel instances nothing.
of; if that of others, we depend for that upon 2. If we are rationally led, upon clear testimony, which only informs us, there has principles and good evidence, to believe a been in past ages an established order and point, it is no objection that the point is mys- course of nature, and at certain times a violaterious and difficult to be accounted for. A tion or suspension of them. man in his senses will not deny the plieno- 8. There are many people who cannot see; menon of the harvest moon, because he there are more, perhaps, who will not. It is cannot solve it.
remarked of the elder Scaliger, that, in his 3. When the Jews attribute the miracles confutation of Cardan, he would not read the of our Saviour to the power of magic, they second edition of the book de Subtilitate, in prove the facts, without disproving the cause which were made a great number of correcto which we ascribe them.
tions, lest he should be deprived of many 4. Enthusiasts require assurance, and philo- occasions of triumphing over his adversary. sophers will be content with nothing less Gen. Dict. Scaliger.-See another instance in than demonstration. But how is it in the Jones's Essay, p. 191. affairs of common life? The soldier does 9. Infidelity is often punished with credunot ask a demonstration, whether, in the day lity. The prediction of a mad life-guardof battle, he shall be crowned with victory, man was attended to in London by those or covered with disgrace; but, fearing the who never heeded the prophecies of Isaiah, worst, and hoping the best, he minds his or Jeremiah; and an impudent mountebank duty: the merchant does not want a demon- sold a large cargo of pills, which, as he told stration concerning the returns of his trade : the people, were excellent against earththe husbandman cannot promise himself a quakes. plentiful crop, proportioned to his labor and
10. The deist will not believe in revelaindustry. No man can assure himself that tion till every difficulty can be solved. The he shall see another day : but every one atheist will not believe in the being of a minds his business as if he knew for certain God, but upon the same terms. They must that he should: and he would be thought a both die in their unbelief. They should bedownright madman that acted otherwise. lieve upon sufficient evidence, and trust God
5. Faith is reckoned for a virtue, and for the rest. The atheist e. g. cannot reconrewarded as such, because, though it be ancile the notion of a God with the existence assent of the understanding upon proper evi- of evil. But there is sufficient evidence for dence, the will hath a great share in facili- the existence of both. Here let us rest : tating or withholding such assent. For the God has his reasons for permitting evil, or strongest evidence will be nothing to him he would not have permitted it. If he has who does not inquire diligently after it, judge been pleased to discover them in his word, honestly and impartially of it without passion or if we can discover them by a view of or prejudice, and frequently consider and things, well: if not, still reasons there are ; reflect upon it from time to time through and, what we cannot know now, we shall life, that it may produce its fruits, and be a know hereafter. principle of action. These are acts of the 11. No cloud can overshadow a true will
, in a man's power to perform or not to Christian, but his faith will discern a rainbow perform, and therefore rewardable. On the in it. performance or non-performance of these, 12. First Tim. iv. 6. Nourished up in the not on the evidence, which is always the words of faith.—“ It is one thing for a man
to enlighten his understanding, to fill his Swift-gliding mists the dusky fields invade, imagination, and to load his memory; and To thieves more grateful than the midnight shade.
Pope's Il. b. iii. v. 17. another to nourish his heart with it. A man nourishes himself with it, if he live upon it; 6. Superstition often leads to atheism. and he lives upon it, if he change it into his Many Turks are Epicureans; and in counown substance, if he practice it himself, if tries where popery prevails, the philosophers, he render it proper and familiar unto him as they affect to call themselves, are running self, so as to make it the food and nourish- apace into materialism. When a man has ment with which he ought to feed others.”— been cheated by a rogue pretending to honQuesnel in loc.
esty, he is apt too hastily to conclude, there
is no such thing as honesty in the world. FALSE LEARNING.
7. Magic was originally nothing more 1. Some people rate the modern improve than the application of natural philosophy to ments in religious knowledge by the volumes the production of surprising but yet natural of metaphysical subtilties written upon the effects. Chemists had opportunities of being subject; as the emperor Heliogabalus formed best acquainted with the elements and their an estimate of the greatness of Rome, from operations, and were the greatest magicians, ten thousand pounds' weight of cobwebs and reputed conjurors. which had been found in that city.
8. Sir Henry Wotton ordered the follow2. Two learned physicians and a plain ing inscriptton to be put on his monumenthonest countryman, happening to meet at an inn, sat down to dinner together. A dispute
Disputandi pruritus ecclesiarum scabies. presently arose between the two doctors, on The itch of disputation is the bane of the church. the nature of aliment, which proceeded to such a height, and was carried on with so
9. The same person being asked, if he much fury, that it spoiled their meal, and thought a Papist could be saved ?' “You they parted extremely indisposed. The may be saved,” replied he, “without knowcountryman, in the meantime, who under-ing that.”—An excellent answer to the stood not the cause, though he heard the questions of impertinent curiosity in religious quarrel, fell heartily to his meat, gave God matters. thanks, digested it well, returned in the 10. Many persons spend so much time in strength of it to his honest labor, and at criticising and disputing about the Gospel, evening received his wages. Is there not that they have none left for practising it. As sometimes as much difference between the if two sick men should quarrel about the polemical and practical Christian ?
phraseology of their physician's prescription, 3. Aristotle, in his Metaphysics, disputes and forget to take the medicine. against certain philosophers, who, it seems,
11. “Geo. Trapezuntius had a good porheld that a thing might be, and not be, at the tion of the spirit which prevailed among the same time.
learned of his times : proud, conceited, dog4. Many parts of what is called learning matical, impatient of contradiction, and quarresemble the man's horse, which had but two relsome, he contributed,
as much as any one, faults; he was hard to catch, and good for to falsify the maxim of Ovid—Ingenuus didinothing when he was caught. See Warton's cesse, &c.” Biog. Dict.—See instance of Preface to Theocritus, p. 17.
Laurentius Valle, Valesius, Scioppius, Scali
ger, Cardan, and others. -Fools shall be pull’d
12. Never (say the moderns) were the SS. From wisdom's seat ; those baleful unclean birds, Those lazy owls, who, perch'd near fortune's top,
so much studied, and so thoroughly explained, Sit only watchful with their heavy wings
as at present. So, probably, said the PhariTo cuff down new-fledg’d virtues, that would rise sees, and doctors of the law when they cruTo nobler heights, and make the grove harmonious. cified Christ. Refined criticisms on the
Pierre, of lazy Senators, in Venice Preserved. sacred writings made the most fashionable 5. The science called metaphysics seems
branch of learning among the Jews, in comnever to have been of service to true parison of which, profane literature was held religion, but only to have obscured and in great contempt, and indeed, by many of religion, but only to have obscured and their zealots, in great abhorrence.-See Jodarkened its truths, which, under that cover, have often been stolen away by its enemies. seph. Antiq. lib. xx. cap. ult. sect. ult. DodMay it not be compared to the mist, or fog; glory from men;" he never soothed the van
, , dridge, i. 317.-Our Lord “received not described by Homer, as spread on the tops of the hills?
ity of great and learned men, in order to ob
tain their favor. The Jews searched the SS. Hoιμεσιν ντι φιλην, κλεπτη δε τε νυκτος αμεινω.-1. γ. 11. Ιbut it was in order to find in them their own
fond fancies concerning temporal greatness, wealth, and dominion. 13. Apply to the contrast between the sal- against which, of all others, quo warrantos are
Places in the temple of fame are a tenure, utary doctrines and beautiful imagery of Scrip- sure to be issued. ture on the one hand, and the noxious tenets and barren speculations of metaphysical scepticism on the other, the following lines
When the Dutch patriots were rampant in of Collins in his Oriental Eclogues
1787, flowers of an orange color were proHere, where no springs in murmurs break away,
scribed; and the officers of justice were for Or moss-crowned fountains mitigate the day, some time employed in removing anemones In vain ye hope the dear delights to know, and ranunculuses from the Hague. Their Which plains more blest, or verdant vales bestow ; Here rocks alone, and tasteless sands are found,
restoration was soon after effected by the And faint and sickly winds for ever howl around. Prussian troops.—See Bowdler's Letters, Ecl. ii. Hassan's address to his camels travel-P. 43. ling through the burning deserts of the East.
FORTITUDE. 14. Apply to the case of a Christian what 1. Frederic the famous duke of Saxony Pacatius says of Theodosius, and the treat- was playing at chess in his tent with his ment he received from fortune--Quem scep- cousin and fellow-prisoner the landgrave of Iro et solio distinaverat, nunquam indulgenter Lithenberg, when a writ was brought him, habuit : sed ut severi patres his quos diligunt signed by the emperor, for his execution the tristiores sunt, ita illa te plurimis et difficilli- next morning, in the sight of his wife and mis reipublicæ temporibus exercuit, dum aptat children, and the whole city of Wittemberg. imperio.—Fortune did not treat with kindness Having carefully perused it, he laid it down the man whom she had destined for the scep- as a paper of no concern, and saying to the tre and the throne: but as severe parents are landgrave, “ Cousin, take good heed to your most harsh to the children whom most they game," returned to his play, and gave love, so she prepared him for empire by the check-mate. trials which she obliged him to sustain in the 2. It is a noble character which Ascham most difficult season of the republic. gives of the above-mentioned duke—“ He
15. Saurin, after mentioning some insig- thinketh nothing which he dare not speak, nificant criticism upon which the commenta- and speaketh nothing which he will not do." tors enlarge, makes the following very perti- 3. Polybius relates, that when the battle nent observation_“Such is the spirit of was begun, which was to decide the fate of mankind, that they often consider slightly the Macedonian empire, Perseus basely withthose great truths of the SS. upon which our drew to the city Pydne, under pretence of whole religion is founded, expatiating into sacrificing to Hercules; “ a god,” says Pludiscussions upon matters of no relation either tarch,“ that is not wont to regard the offerto our duty or our happiness.” Diss. xxi. p. ings of cowards, or grant such requests as are 181.–So again—" It is amazing to find learned unjust; it not being reasonable, that he, who men, who would blush to employ but a few never shoots, should carry away the prize; minutes in studying the ornaments that are that he should triumph, who sneaks from the most in fashion in their own time, and who battle; or he, who takes no pains, should have yet the patience to devour immense meet with success. To Emilius's petition the volumes, to learn with great exactness those god listened; for he prayed for victory with of the remotest age." xx. 191.-See Law's his sword in his hand, and was fighting at the Christ. Perfect. on this subject. See Saurin,504. same time that he implored the divine assist
16. Metaphysical speculations are lofty, ance.”—An excellent hint for the Christian but frigid; as Lunardi, after ascending to an soldier to observe and improve upon, immense height in the atmosphere, came 4. “ To stand in fear of the people's cendown covered with icicles.
sure or common talk may argue a harmless 17. Many fine books of religion and moral and peaceable mind, but never a brave and ity are already written. We are eager for truly heroic soul," Plutarch, 94. more. But if we duly attended to the Gos- 5. The body's weakness often proves to be pel, should we want them? A single short the soul's strength, and men are better Chrisdirection from God himself is authoritative tians in sickness than in health : like the soland decisive. A text would save us the dier in Antigonus's army, who, being natutrouble of reading many dissertations ; and rally weak and sickly. was a very hero, till, the time which we thus spend in learning, or out of regard for him, the king put him under rather, perhaps, pretending to learn, our duty, the care of his physicians, who made a cure might be spent in practising it.
of him; after which, he never appeared so