Imágenes de páginas



fond of danger, or daring in battle, being was now arrived at it with pleasure: wheredelivered from that misery which made life a fore he besought it to receive him, and burden.—Plut. in Vit. Pelop.

restore him to his Master; that the same 6. A general in time of peace, a pilot in a cross, by which he had been redeemed, calm, and a clergyman when people are in might be the instrument of conveying him health, are of very little account. War, to his Redeemer. When come to the foot storm, and sickness, cause them all to be of the cross, he first prayed to Christ, and sought to and confided in.

then exhorted the people to remain steadfast 7. A Christian is a warrior by his profes- in the faith which he had delivered to them. sion, and has, through life, a succession of He lived two days upon the cross, and during enemies to encounter. Lust attacks him in all that time never ceased to admonish and the days of his youth, ambition disquiets his instruct the people. riper years, and avarice infests his old age. His condition reminds one of that observation of Plutarch concerning the Romans of the

The argument urged against it by the first ages, that “if ever God designed that Psalmist deserves to be well fixed in our men should spend their lives in war, they minds; and indeed, if it were so, we should were the men. In their infancy they had need no other. “ Fret not thyself against the Carthaginians to contend with for Sicily; the ungodly, &c. For they shall soon be cut in their middle age the Gauls for Italy itself ; down like the grass,” &c. Who could envy and in their old age they were obliged again a flower, though ever so gay and beautiful in to contend with the Carthaginians and Han- its colors, when he saw that the next stroke nibal.”_Vit. Marcell. ad init.

of the mower would sweep it away for 8. When a Christian beholds sickness (his ever? last more especially) coming towards him, he should address it, as St. Andrew did the cross, as that which he had long expected, and A man wishes for it, and cannot be easy which would convey him to his blessed Mas- without it: no sooner has he attained his ter, by whose sufferings it had been sancti- wish, but you hear him. lamenting his hard fied. Let us also bear in mind, that even on lot, complaining of cares, and troubles, and the cross St. Andrew ceased not to instruct visits : he has no peace, not an hour to himand admonish those around him. The words self ; his expenditure is greater than his of a preacher, in such circumstances, never income, &c. &c. All this is wrong; he fail to make a deep and lasting impression.— only exposes his own weakness. He wanted Ille verò, cum Crucem eminus intueretur, eam honor and exaltation : he has got them, and salutavit, hortatusque est, ut discipulum ejus, must take their necessary appendages with qui ei suffixus fuisset, exciperet ; eam dedica- them. If he thinks proper to receive the iam et consecratam esse Christi corpori, ejus- pay, he should not find fault with the duty. que membris, quasi margaritis, ornatam ; diu The troubles of a station are designed as an eam defatigari ipsum expectando, quemadmo- antidote to the poison of its temptations. dum Christum magistrum erpectåsset; latum They humble the possessor, and show him to se ad illam venire, cujus desiderio jam diu himself. They should be borne with meekteneretur : itaque orare, ut se exciperet, ac ness and patience, and made this use of. See magistro redderet ; ut per illam ipsum Chris- what Fenelon has said on the Cross of Prostus reciperet, qui per eam ipsum redemisset. perity, ii. 143. 155. Also a sermon in MasCumque ventum esset ad Crucem, primùm sillon's Petit Carême, where he shows a Christum oravit, deinde populum hortatus est, court to be the best school for learning morut in fide et religione, quam tradidisset, per. tification and self-denial. maneret. In Cruce verò biduum vixit, cum interea nullum finem docendi populi fecit.Peronius de Gestis A postolorum.

Grief is fruitless and unavailable in every He saluted the cross when he beheld it

case but one, viz. sin. We take to it kindly afar off, and entreated it to receive him as the disciple of that Master who had himself

in every instance but that. been nailed upon it. He declared that it HAPPINESS, ON FIFTY-SIX POUNDS PER ANNUM. was dedicated and consecrated to the body of Christ, and was more adorned with his A clergyman applied to the dean of limbs than if inlaid with pearls; that it had Christ-Church for the little vicarage of Blendlong expected him, as it has expected his dington, then vacant, value, de claro, about Master Christ before him; that he had long 401. per ann.“Sir,” said he, “ I maintain a looked forward to it with impatience, and wife and six children on 56/. per ann.-Not




that I should regard the matter, were the struction is conveyed. For what we learn by income certain : but when a man considers precept, we are indebted to the wisdom and it may be taken from him any day of the authority of another. The learning obtained week, he cannot be quite so easy.”—“ I will from example is obtained by deductions and get the living for you, if I can,” answered applications of our own. the dean; “but I would not have you raise your expectations too high ; because, if any

HOBBES. member of the college will take it, by our “Let us do justice,” says Bishop Warburrules he must have it.”—“O sir,” replied ton, “ to that great man's memory, at a time the divine, “ it would make me the happiest his writings seem entirely neglected; whom man in the world !—but if I miss it, I shall with all his errors, and those of the most not be unhappy. I never knew what it was dangerous nature, we must allow to be one to be unhappy for one hour in my whole of the first men of his age, for a bright wit, Life.”

a deep penetration, and a cultivated underHIGH CHURCH.

standing : several of whose uncommon spec

ulations, while they remained with him, lay A name invented, according to Mr. Leslie, unregarded; but, when taken up by others, under which the church of England might of whom we deservedly have a better opinion, be abused with greater security. Such are received their due applause and approbation. declared by Steele, in his Crisis, to be worse -Mr. Locke borrowed and improved than Papists, and the very opposite to Pro

many-e. g. that liberty belongs not to the testants. Leslie, in his letter from Barle-duc, will—the finest and most intricate dissertaspeaks of rods and tests prepared for the tion in his Essay, as he confesses to Limborch.” church of England by the Whigs, &c. had Warburton's Miscell. Translations in Prose they succeeded in Sacheverel's trial; the in- and Verse, p. 124, printed 1724, for Barker, tention of which was to make her swallow with a Latin dedication to Sir Robert Sutton. her own dung, as they said, and abjure her

- [Hobbes was a great favorite with Voltaire : doctrines.

“ Virtuous citizen! enterprising spirit—the forerunner of Spinosa and of Locke!”—It is

said in thy law of nature, “ that every man 1. History, in general, is an account of having a right to all things, every one has a what men have done to make each other unhappy. In the history of the present age, it is not power here confounded with right ?

right over the life of his fellow-creatures." is a striking circumstance, that the historian, See Voltaire's Ignorant Philosopher, p. 53.] amidst a series of murders and calamities, is glad to relieve himself and his reader, by

HONESTY. dwelling on so minute an incident, of a different kind, as that of the seeds sown by

Honesty,” saith Dr. Rees, in his DictionAnson on the desert isle of Fernandes, which ary,“ is a plant supposed to be possessed of the Spaniards afterwards found to be grown eminent medical virtues; but it hath not the up; and the goats, with their ears cut which fortune to be received into the shops.”—The served to verify the adventures of Selkirk, doctor is perfectly grave, but the words ad-, who, being left upon the island, had lived mit of a humorous sense. there several years.-See Age of Louis XIV. ii. 109.

2. Lord Chesterfield gives a good direction When the soul grows weary in her Chris in reading history, viz. to read some short tian course, and is ready to faint by the way, general history of a country; to mark the she should be refreshed and invigorated by a curious and interesting periods, such as revo- view of those heavenly joys, which are to lutions in the government, religion, laws, &c.; reward her labors. For so when the Carthen to consult the larger histories for full thaginian soldiers were well nigh overcome information as to them.

with the difficulty and danger of the passage 3. It is well observed by Hume, that, in over the Alps, their wise general, from the reading history, trivial incidents, which show top of those stupendous mountains, whence the manners of the age, are often more there was a prospect of all Italy, showed instructive, as well as entertaining, than the them the fruitful plains watered by the river great transactions of wars and negociations, Po, to which they were almost come; and which are nearly similar in all periods, and therefore, that they had but one effort in all countries of the world. Vol. v. 56. more to make, before they arrived at them.

4. History, while it instructs us, flatters He represented to them, that a battle or two our pride by the manner in which that in- would put a glorious period to their toils,






and enrich them for ever, by giving them pos- | are then set to watch on purpose to prevent session of the capital of the Roman empire. this catastrophe.-Watch ! King's MorThis speech, filled with such pleasing hopes, sels of Criticism. and enforced by the sight of Italy, inspired 2. Adam worked in Paradise ; afterwards the dejected soldiers with fresh vigor and in the world. “ My Father worketh hitheralacrity to pursue their march.

to," says our Lord, “and I work.” There

is probably no absolute idleness, but in hell, HUMAN FRAME.

and in the resemblances of hell.-Ditto, p. 1. Chyle is an emulsion, in making which 126. from the food we take in, the teeth and jaws

3. The busy man, say the Turks, is act as the pestle and mortar; the spittle, bile, troubled with one devil, but the idle man is panereatic juice, &c. are the menstruum, in- tormented with a thousand. stead of the water which the chemist em- 4. Idleness is the most painful situation of ploys; the stomach and intestines are the the mind, as standing still, according to Galen, press; and the lacteal vessels the strainers to is of the body.—See Brown's Vulgar Errors, separate the pure emulsion from its fæces. ii. 1. Arbuthnot on Aliment, p. 67.

5. The irksomeness of being idle is humor2. What mechanism is that, which can ously hit off by Voltaire's old woman in attenuate a fluid compounded of the ingredi- Candide, who puts it to the philosophers,— ents of human aliment, as oil, salts, earth, and Which is worst; to experience all the water, so as to make it flow freely through miseries through which every one of us hath the lymphatic vessels, though some of them passed, or, to REMAIN HERE DOING NOTHING ? are a hundred times smaller than the arterial

6. Bishop Cumberland being told by some capillaries, ten of which are not equal to one of his friends, that he would wear himself hair! What mechamism is that, which from out by intense application, replied,—“ It is one uniform juice can extract all the variety | better to wear out than to rust out." of vegetable juices to be found in plants;

7. It was an observation of Swift, that he which from such variety of food as enters the never knew any man come to greatness and stomach of an animal, can make a fluid very eminence, who lay a bed in a morning. nearly uniform, viz. blood; and again from 8. The most sluggish of creatures, called that uniform fluid can produce the variety of the Potto or Sloth, is also the most horrible juices in the animal's body! Yet all these for its ugliness—to show the deformity of operations are as mechanically and regularly idleness, and, if possible, to frighten us performed as corn is ground in a mill, or cider from it. made from apples in a press.

9. In the mind, as well as the body 3. The lacteal vessels are the roots of an natural and politic, stagnation is followed animal, whereby it draws its nourishment by putrefaction. A want of proper motion from the food in the intestines, as a vege

does not brced rest and stability, but a motion table does from the mould in which it is set; of another kind; a motion unseen and intes

only a vegetable has its root planted without, tine, which does not preserve, but destroy. .. and an animal within itself. A fætus in

10. Sloth proceeds from want of faith or the womb is nourished like a plant, but courage, or lore, 2 Peter, i. 8. Add to faith

2 afterwards by a root planted within itself.- virtue, &c.— These things make you, that you P. 74.

be oux açyousnot idle and unprofitable. 4. Some insects have their wind-pipes on

See Whitby in loc. the surface of their bodies, and are therefore

11. The following is an admirable obserkilled by the contact of oil, not as a poison, vation of Rousseau, in his Confessions, b. v. but as it excludes the air.—Arbuthnot on Air, vol, ii. p. 89.—“In my opinion, idleness is

no less the pest of society, than of solitude. Nothing contracts the mind, nothing engen

ders trifles, tales, backbiting, slander, and 1. An indolent, idle man is a carcass ; falsities, so much as being shut up in a room, and, if he does not take care, the birds of opposite each other, reduced to no other prey (the ministers of vengeance) will be at occupation than the necessity of continual him. In Romney Marsh, when the ravens, chattering. When every one is employed, hovering on high, and keeping a sharp look- they speak only when they have something out, see a sheep turned on his back, so fat and to say ; but, if you are doing nothing, you unwieldy that he cannot recover himself, they must absolutely talk incessantly ; and this, of instantly souse down upon him, pick out his all constraints, is the most troublesome, and eyes, and then devour the body, carrying it the most dangerous. I dare go even farther, away piece-meal, as they are able. Persons and maintain, that, to render a circle truly


p. 115.





agreeable, every one must be not only doing for some time cover the natural deformity of something, but something which requires a a prince, he cannot always keep it on. He little attention.”

must take it off scmetimes, in order to breathe; and one single opportunity is suffi

cient to satisfy the curious. Artifice, then, Lord Chesterfield once told lady Fanny shall seat itself in vain on the lips of a Shirley, in a serious discourse they had on the prince. We do not form a judgment of men evidences of Christianity, that there was one, from their words, but by comparing their which he thought to be invincible, not to be actions with them, and with each other. got over by the wit of man; viz. the present Falsehood and dissimulation can never stand state of the Jews—a fact to be accounted for this test. A man can act well no part but on no human principle. This anecdote was his own; and, to appear to advantage, must related to me by a person who had it from

appear in his proper character.—Ibid. • lady Fanny herself.

4. Be not thou, then, wicked with the wicked, but be thou virtuous and intrepid

among them. Thou wilt make thy people Intention is the same in the inner man, as virtuous as thyself; thy neighbors will imithe eye is in the outer. While the eye is tate thee, and the wicked tremble.—Ibid. clear, it illuminates the whole body ; each 5. Inundations which lay countries waste, member is perfectly enlightened for the per- lightnings which reduce cities to ashes, the formance of its functions as if itself were an poison of the plague which dispeoples proeye. If any humors suffuse the eye, the vinces, are not so fatal to the world, as the whole body is instantly overwhelmed with dangerous morals and unruly passions of darkness. So the system of a man's conduct

kings. Calamities from heaven endure but by a pure or vitiated intention. The inten- for å time; they destroy but some countries; tion is the view in which the action is per- and those losses, though grievous, are retrievformed, the aim, as we say, taken before the able: but the crimes of kings cause whole performance of it. If the light be darkness, nations to suffer, from generation to generaif that which ought to direct the action be tion.-Ibid. itself perverted and depraved, how great must be that depravity!

LANGUAGE (FIGURATIVE) OF THE SS. Respecting the figurative language of the

Scripture, there is this curious and important 1. “Before an opera is to be performed at question to be determined—Whether God Turin, the king himself takes the pains to adopted it, because it was the style of the read it over, and to erase every line that can eastern nations; or it became the style of the admit of an indecent or double meaning. eastern nations, because God originally conThis attention is particularly paid to the stituted and employed it? theatre, on account of the morals of the royal family.” Mrs. Miller's Letters from Italy, i. 200.

The observation, made by a great casuist 2. Kings honor human nature, when they on human laws, holds much stronger with distinguish and reward those who do most regard to divine ones The obedience of honor to it, and while they give encourage that man is much too delicate, who insists ment to those superior geniuses, who employ upon knowing the reason of all laws, before themselves in perfecting our knowledge, and he will obey them. The lawgiver must be who devote themselves to the worship of supposed to have given his sanction to the truth. Happy are the sovereigns who them- law from the reason of the thing; but, where selves cultivate the sciences; who think with we cannot discover the reason of it, the Cicero, that Roman consul, the deliverer of sanction is to be the only reason of our obehis country, and father of eloquence; "Lit-dience.” Bp. Taylor's Duct. Dub. b. iii. c. erature is the accomplishment of youth, and vi. rule 3. the charm of old age. It gives a lustre to

LEARNING. prosperity, and a comfort to adversity; at home and abroad, in travel and in retirement, 1. There is no kind of knowledge which, at all times and in all places, it is the delight in the hands of the diligent and skilful, will of life.”—A king, guided by justice, has the not turn to account. Honey exudes from all universe for his temple, and good men are flowers, the bitter not excepted; and the bee the priests that sacrifice to him-Critical knows how to extract it. Essay on Mac.

2. Cicero's apology for the great men of 3. Though the mask of dissimulation should Rome who employed their leisure hours in




[ocr errors]


philosophical disquisitions is worthy notice: him; as when the disciples saw Jesus walksome, it seems, thought such employment ing upon the sea, and knew not who it was, unworthy of them.—“ Quasi verò clarorum they were scared with the appearance; and virorum aut tacilos congressus esse oporteat, therefore our Lord, to take off their fear, aut ludicros sermones, aut rerum colloquia only made himself better known to them: Ii leviorum.Nec quidquam aliud viden- is Ī, says he, be not afraid. See Norris's dum est nobis, quos populus Romanus hoc in Sermons, xi. 194. gradu collocavit, nisi ne quid privatis studiis de operâ publicâ detrahamus. Quod si, quum fungi munere debeamus, operam nostram nun- 1. The famous oriental philosopher, Lockquam a populari cælu removemus, quis repre- man, while a slave, being presented by his ħendet nostrum otium, qui in eo non modò nos- master with a bitter melon, immediately ate metipsos hebescere et languere nolumus, sed it all. How was it possible, said his master, etiam ut plurimis prosimus enitimur ?"—Acad for you to eat so nauseous a fruit? Lockman Lucull. sect. 6.-As if it were proper for replied, “I have received so many favors eminent men to remain mute in company, or from you, that it is no wonder I should once to confine their conversation to drollery and in my life eat a bitter melon from your trifles. Placed as we are by the Roman hand.” This generous answer of the slave people in this elevated station, our only con- struck the master to such a degree, that he cern is to take care, that private study never immediately gave him his liberty.-With withdraws us from a due attention to the such sentiments should man receive his porpublic service. But if we are ever ready to tion of sufferings at the hand of God. perform every duty we owe to our country, 2. The same Lockman, being informed by who shall grudge us an application of our angels (as the legend goes) that God would leisure, by which we not only rescue our- make him a monarch, replied—“If he would selves from indolence, but endeavor to pro- grant me liberty to choose my condition of duce fruits advantageous to others?

life, I had rather continue in my present 3. There are some who have too mean an state, and be kept from offending him : otheropinion of their own abilities, and by fancy- wise all the grandeur and splendor of the ing themselves to be useless, become so, and world would be troublesome to me." dare not attempt many things, in which they “Speak the truth,” said the same philosoare capable of succeeding, and which they pher; -“ keep your word ;-and intermeddle ought to perform. This behavior arises more not in affairs which do not concern you.” from INDOLENCE or MELANCHOLY, than from “Be a learned man, a disciple of the humility. Jortin's Sermons, iv. 24. learned, or an auditor of the learned ; at

4. Inventors and projectors, however will least be a lover of knowledge, and desirous and visionary, often afford matter, which a of improvement.” wise man will know how to qualify and turn to use, though they did not. See Account

LYNCH (DEAN.) of Settlement in America, i. 65.

He was a constant preacher through life, 5. Mr. Locke always used to say, “I like either at the cathedral, one of his livings, or your builders; for, whether they succeed or at Grove, his family estate ; in short, whernot in constructing the edifice, they bring ever he happened to be. Of his charities a together materials very valuable to a more judgment may be formed from the following skilful architect.” See Sublime and Beauti-'circumstance. His son was sent for by the ful, 92.

citizens of Canterbury, and chosen burgess, 6. An original genius resembles the eagle, without a shilling expense. “Sir," said the who disdains to share the plunder of another poorer freemen, sitting sober in their houses bird ; and will take up with no prey, but when he went round to thank them, “you that which he has acquired by his own pur- had a right to command our votes ; your suit. 7. “I pity unlearned gentlemen in a rainy Communicated to me by Dr. Beauvoir, who

father fed us, and your mother clothed us." day” was the usual saying of Lord Falkland. went round with him. The dean never

forgot anything once treasured up in his

memory. Light is the great source of blessing in the natural world, love in the moral. The excel

MACDONALD (HUGH.) lencies of both are united in the Divine Na- The world tempts and disappoints ; it ture : God is light, and God is love. A excites desires after happiness, but satisfies slavish and superstitious fear of God pro- them not. The case of its votaries too much ceeds, therefore, from a misapprehension of resembles that of the perfidious rebel, Hugh

[ocr errors]


« AnteriorContinuar »