Imágenes de páginas


haberi velit musicum, hoc turpior sit, quod in 1. A church stocked with unpreaching eo ipso pecret, cujus profitetur scientcam: sic divines is like the city of Nibas in the neigh- philosophus in ritæ ratione peccans, hoc turpior borhood of Thessalonica in Macedonia, where, est, quod in officio, cujus magister esse volt, Ælian tells us, the cocks were all dumb. labitur; artemque vita professus, delinquit in Lib. xv. cap. 20.

vita. See the whole passage.-Tust. Quæst. 2. It is as necessary for a preacher, in the lib. ii. sect. 4. non procul ab init. Glasg. p. composition of his sermon, to take into 58.-As a grammarian, who should speak consideration the passions and prejudices of barbarous language, or a musician, who nis audience, as it is for an archer to choose should sing out of tune, would be the more his arrows with an eye to the wind and despicable for failing in the very art in which weather.

he professed to excel; so the philosopher, 3. Preachers would do eminent service to whose conduct is vicious or immoral, bereligion, if, instead of laboring to prove plain comes an object of greater disgrace; since, points, which nobody disputes, such as the while inculcating the duties of life, he fails obligations of duty, they would employ their in their performance; and, undertaking to powers in stating its measures, discovering reform the lives of others, sins in the regulathe various ways men have of eluding it, and tion of his own. showing them their conformity or noncon

9. Terse moral essays, opposed to the overformity to it.

flowings of ungodliness, remind one of the 4. The art of fine speaking is one thing, Chinese, who, in tempestuous weather, throw that of persuasion another. The prudent

feathers into the sea, to quiet the storm, and and affectionate address of a parent or a friend, drive away the devil. See Travels of the however plain and unpolished, will do more Jesuits, by Lockman. ii. 58. towards inclining the will, than all the tropes

10. It is much to the honor of the and figures, the logic and rhetoric of the Athenians, that they had a law among schools.

them, obliging every man, who found a 5. “Scarce anything," says Dr. Trapp, stranger that had lost his way, to direct him " has of late years been more prejudicial to into it again. A Christian is under obligareligion, than the neglect of the iheological tion, by the divine law, to do the same in part of it, properly so called : and it is very spirituals. greatly to be lamented, that some writers,

11. At the critical moment of that night, even of our own church, out of an undue when Count Lestock, in 1741, was going to fervor in opposing some erroneous doctrines conduct the Princess Elizabeth to the palace, of Calvin, have run into the other extreme, to dethrone the regent, and put her in posand have too little regarded the necessary session of the Russian empire, fear prepondoctrines of religion.” °Pref. to Preservative, derated, and the princess refused to set out.

The count then drew from his pocket two 6. To preach practical sermons, as they are

cards, on one of which she was represented called, i. e. sermons upon virtues and vices, under the tonsure in a convent, and himself without inculcating those great Scripture on a scaffold: on the other, she appeared

. truths of redemption, grace, &c. which alone ascending the throne, amidst the acclamations can incite and enable us to forsake sin, and of the people. He laid both before her, and follow after righteousness, what is it but to bade her choose her situation. She chose the put together the wheels, and set the hands of throne, and before morning was empress of a watch, forgetting the spring which is to all the Russias. A preacher should take the make them all go ?

same method with his people, which the 7. St. Austin did not think himself bound count took with the princess. Before the to abstain from all ornaments of style, be- eyes of those who halt between God and the cause St. Paul said, that he preached the world, through fear or any other motive, Gospel not with the enticing words of should be placed pictures of the joys of man's wisdom.” Non prætermitto istos numeros

heaven, and the pains of hell. It remains clausularum.—I do not neglect the music of only for them to choose right, and proceed my periods.—He studied to make his lan- to action. Success will be the consequence. guage sweet and harmonious.—See Donne's

12. When the Romans heard Cicero, says Sermons, p. 48.

Fenelon, they cried out, o le bel oraleur !

But when the 8. Tully's censure, passed on immoral phi- o, what a fine orator : losophers, comes home to the business and Athenians heard Demosthenes, they called bosoms of wicked clergymen. Ut enim, si out, Allons, battons Philippe !—Come on, grammaticum se professus quispiam barbare down with Philip! The difference between loqualur ; aut si absurde canat is, qui se the eloquence of the Grecian and that of the

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Roman orator is here expressed in a manner 2. In describing Sallust, at one time the equally judicious and lively: and this is the loud advocate of public spirit, and afterwards true criterion of a sermon, as well as of an sharing in the robberies of Cæsar, Warburton oration. The exclamation of the audience expresses this variation of character by the should be, not, O le bel orateur! but, Allons, following imagery : baltons Philippe! Let us attack such a pas- “ No sooner did the warm aspect of good sion, such an appetite, such an error; let us fortune shine out again, but all those exalted oppose the world, the flesh, and the devil ! ideas of virtue and honor, raised, like a beauDemosthenes therefore is the author who tiful kind of frost work, in the cold season of should be studied and imitated by preachers. adversity, dissolved and disappeared.”




PROVIDENCE. It is much to be wished, that Christians

1. Sometimes it pleaseth God to punish would apply themselves to obey the Gospel, men for smaller sins in this life; which instead of endeavoring to discover the designs would not be, unless greater punishments of God concerning man before man was cre- were prepared for greaters sins in the next. ated, or the precise manner in which he There must either be a future day of judgment touches the hearts of those who are convert- and retribution, or no God who governs the ed. Salvation may be obtained without world. knowledge of this sort : besides, the wit of 2. There is a certain part in the great man may not be able to solve the difficulties drama, which God intends each of us to act ; that may be started on every side of these but we often take a fancy to change it for questions ; upon which, obscure and intricate some other, by which means we become as they are, if decisions are made and enforced miserable or ridiculous. “It is an unconas articles of faith, schisms and factions must trolled truth,” says Swift, “ that no man ever ensue. But the mischief is done, and there made an ill figure who understood his own is no remedy; divines are therefore obliged talents, nor a good one who mistook them.” to explain their own sentiments, and oppugn See Ascham, p. 166. those of their adversaries, respectively, as

3. The schemes of worldly politicians are well as they are able. Thus strifes are in- so many spiders-webs, which, when woven creased, time lost, and edification neglected with infinite care and pains, are swept away

at a stroke, by Providence, with the besom PRINGLE (SIR JOHN.)

of destruction. He was particularly fond of Bishop Pearce's

Omnia sunt hominum tenui pendentia filo, Commentary and Notes. He was brought up Et subito casu, quo valuere, ruunt. in principles of virtue and piety; he was

OviD. seduced to deism, but brought back again by an attentive consideration of the evidence;

Hung on a thread, man's perishable pride

Trembles, and falls as fate and chance decide. and settled by discovering that the doctrine of the Trinity made no part of the Scriptures ;

4. What inextricable confusion must the that the mercy of God was not confined to a world for ever have been in, but for the few, exclusive of others, and that future pun- variety which we find to obtain in the faces, ishments were not eternal.—See Kippis's the voices, and the handwritings of men! account prefixed to his Speeches. This is a No security of person, no certainty of posway of making matters easy : a man strikes session, no justice between man and man, no out of the Gospel what he does not like, and distinction between good and bad, friends then is graciously pleased to profess himself a and foes, father and child, husband and wife, believer of the rest. After this fashion, the male and female. All would have been exreligion certainly bids fair to become univer- posed to malice, fraud, forgery, and lust. sal.

“ another name to the catalogue of the excellent and him in the light, his voice in the dark, and

now, every man's face can distinguish judicious persons who have gloried in being his handwriting can speak for him though rational Christians !

absent, and be his witness to all generations. Did this happen by chance, or is it not a

manifest, as well as an admirable indication 1. Prosperity too often has the same effect of a divine superintendence? See Derham, on a Christian, that a calm at sea hath on a i. 310. Dutch mariner, who frequently, it is said, in 5. When we peruse the history of Israel those circumstances, ties up the rudder, gets in the Scriptures, we behold the working of drunk, and goes to sleep.

Providence in every event. The history





of other nations would appear in the same its faults, prays to be forgiven, is desirous to light, if the same person were to write it, and be informed; is less adventurous; more cirunfold in like manner the grounds and reasons cumspect; sensible of its own fruilty; forof his proceeding with them. At present we gives everybody; abounds in good will; must learn as much as we can, by an applica- delights in good offices; keeps itself clean; tion of parallel cases. So with regard to is pleased with itself; looks cheerful; is individuals.

cheerful! Why, then, will any one be so 6. We easily persuade ourselves that a indiscreet, as to dress this lovely form in cause is good, when its patrons are victorious, such a frightful manner, as to terrify the beand have the disposition of things in their holder, instead of inviting him to embrace hands. Cicero, pleading before Cæsar, for it?”—Dr. Newton's Sermon on the Ministerial the life of Ligarius, says, that, while the Duty, p. 30. civil war was carrying on, Causa tum dubia,

RETIREMENT. quòd erat aliquid in utraqne parte, quod probari posset : nunc melior certe ea judicanda 1. The din of politics in all companies est, quam etiam dii adjuverint. The cause makes one sometimes envy the Carthusian was then doubtful, since there was, in each monks, of whom it is said—“ They led a life party, something to claim our approbation : of tranquility amidst the general tumults but now undoubtedly that cause must be con- which distracted the rest of the world, of sidered as the better, in whose favor Heaven which they hardly heard the rumor ; and itself has declared.

knew nothing of the mighty sovereigns of the 7. “Such a respect,” says Plutarch,“ had earth, but by name, when they prayed for the Romans for religion, that they made all them.”—Volt. Hist. iv. 128. their affairs depend solely on the pleasure of 2. The following simile of the same writer, the gods, never suffering, no, not in their upon a subject of the same kind, is extremely greatest prosperity, the least neglect or con- just and beautiful.—“ The artificers and mertempt of their ancient rites, or oracles ; being chants, whose humble station had protected fully persuaded, that it was of much greater them from the ambitious fury of the great, importance to the public welfare, that their were like ants, who dug themselves peaceable magistrates and generals should reverence and and secure habitations, while the eagles and obey the gods, than if they conquered and vultures of the world were tearing one subdued their enemies.” In Vitá Marcell. another in pieces.” iii. 25. ii. 141.

3. The retired situation of the old solitary saints, and their moping and musing way of

life, threw them frequently into melancholy It was well said by Dr. Whichcot—“If and enthusiasm, and sometimes into phrensy I provoke a man, he is the worse for my heads strong enough to bear perpetual soli

and madness; and, indeed, there are few company: if I suffer myself to be provoked tude, and a confinement to the same place, by him, I shall be the worse for his.”

the same objects, the same occupations, and RECTITUDE.

the same little circle of action ; and when to

all this is added want of proper food and Mr. Harris observes, from M. Antoninus, proper sleep, it is no wonder if a man lose that rectitude is ascribed to actions, as de- his senses. Jortin's Sermons, iii. 240. noting the directness of their progression

4. Retirement is necessary at times, to reright onward, and quotes from a sonnet of lieve from the cares of life; as the Indians, Milton

in some countries, at evening bury themselves

in the sand, to escape from the musquitoes.Yet I argue not

Mosely on Tropical Diseases, p. 20.
Against Heaven's hand or will; nor bate one jot
Of heart or hope ; but still bear up, and steer

N. B. When a man retreats into the Right onward.

country for health, he should go to some disThree Discourses, 306. tance from the usual scene of business, and

cut off the communication with care and RELIGION.

anxiety. Ibid. 39. “Religion, viewed at a proper point of 5. Though retirement is


dear delight, sight, hath a very beautiful face. It is says Melmoth, yet upon some occasions I innocent, and very careful not to hurt any- think I have too much of it; and I agree body, or, doing it inadvertently, is uneasy till with Balzac, “Que la solitude est certainement it hath made him amends. , It always means une belle chose ; mais il y a plaisir d'avoir well, and does as well as ever it can. If it quelqu'un à qui on puisse dire de tems en offends, it wants to be reconciled; confesses tems, que la solitude est une belle chose."




Fitzosborn, 122. Solitude is certainly a fine 4. Cardinal Wolsey's reflection, made just thing? but there is a pleasure in having some before he expired, should be laid to heart by one whom we may tell from time to time, every man, when tempted to bestow upon that solitude is a fine thing. It is the disad- the world, or any thing on it, that affection vantage of retirement and solitude, that men and service which are due to God._" Had I fall into erroneous and fantastical opinions but served God as diligently as I have served and systems, for want of sifting and proving the king, he would no: have given me over them in conversation and friendly debate. in my grey hairs." This is well stated in Letter lxxiv. p. 365. 5. To those, who would win men to reW. Law was a remarkable instance of it. ligion by fire and faggot, may be applied the

6. Conversation should certainly be more remark of the Earl of Huntley, when propractised than it is, on subjects of science, tector Somerset marched into Scotland with morality, and religion. The less a man con- 18,000 men, to effect a marriage between the verses, the less he will be able to converse. young queen of that kingdom and Edward Selkirk, who spent three years alone on the VI.—“'That he disliked not the match, but Island of Juan Fernandes, had almost lost the hated the manner of wooing.” use of his speech. Thuanus used to say, 6. A person coming into Melancthon's reading was not of that use to him as con- house, found him holding a book with one versing with learned men, which he did hand, and rocking a child with the other. daily. Why was the style of Sallust artificial Upon his expressing some surprise, Melancand dark, when that of Cæsar and Cicero thon made such a pious discourse to him, was natural and plain? Because the two about the duty of a father, and the state of latter, by being accustomed to harangue grace in which children are with God, that senates and popular assemblies, gave them- this stranger went away, says Bayle, much selves to use such speech as the meanest should more edified than he came. well understand, and the wisest best allow : 7. Very striking is St. Augustine's reflecwhereas Sallust wrote in his study, and from tion, on the effect produced by our Lord's books only. Sir John Cheeke, in Ascham, p. answer to those who came apprehend him.339.-Cited also by Lord Monboddo.

“I am he. Eyw etui" Quid judicaturus

faciet, qui judicandus hoc fecit !-How will RICH TO ASSIST THE POOR.

he act as a judge, who acted thus as a crimEpaminondas, who himself had nothing to inal! give, sent a friend in necessity to a rich citi- 8. Melancthon, when he went to the conzen, with orders to ask 1000 crowns in his ferences at Spire, in 1529, made a little jour

His reason being demanded by the ney to Bretten, to see his mother. "The citizen—“Why,” said Epaminondas, “ it is good woman asked him, what she must because this honest man is poor and you are believe, amidst so many disputes ? and rich." That he thought was a sufficient repeated to him her prayers, which con

tained nothing superstitious. “Go on, mother,” said he, “ to believe and pray as you

have done, and never trouble yourself about 1. Adrian, the coadjutor of Ximenes in the controversies.”—The advice of a wise and a government of Castile, was much disturbed good man. at the libels which flew about against them. 9. Three or four English gentlemen on Ximenes was perfectly easy. “II,” said he, their travels through Italy, happening to be

1 “ we take the liberty to act, others will take at St. Marino, on a fish day, applied to a the liberty to talk, and write : when they butcher, to procure for them, if possible, a charge us falsely, we may laugh; when truly, joint of'veal. The butcher said he would do we must amend.”

anything to oblige them, but could not kill 2. Dr. Green of St. John's College, trying for them, as nobody would buy but themto skate, got a terrible fall backwards. “Why selves. They continued very importunate, doctor,” said a friend who was with him, “I and offered to take any quantity. “Well thought you had understood the business bet- then, gentlemen,” said the fellow at last, "I ter.” “Oh,” replied the doctor, “ I have the will venture to kill a calf; and, if you will theory perfectly; I want nothing but the take half of it to-day, I will trust to the practice.” How many of us, in matters of REPUBLIC for the other half to-morrow.” a much higher and more important nature, 10. Bajazet, upon the march, at the head come under the doctor's predicament! of his mighty army, after the capture of his

3. “ You have the word, and we have the favorite city Sebastia, by the enemy, hearing sword,” said Weston to the reformed divines a poor shepherd playing on his pipe on the in Queen Mary's time.

side of a hill, exclaimed,—“ Happy shep





herd, who hast no Sebastia to lose !!— , what the latter had been saying ? The earl Knolles.

gravely replied, “Sir, my Lord Craven did 11. Mahomet II. after he had taken Con- me the honor to whisper, but I did not think stantinople, being reproached for spending it good manners to listen.”—This was exactly all his time with Trene, a captive Greek, in the spirit of Charles's own witticisms. forgetting his intended conquests, and neglect- Ibid. p. 97. ing the concerns of empire, ordered a con- 20. When the same Lord Dorset was vention of all his great men; produced Irene dying, Congreve, who had been to visit him, before them; asked them, if they could being asked how he left him, replied, " Faith, blame him, when they beheld her? and he slabbers more wit than other people have then, to convince them he could master his in their best health.” Ibid. p.

97. passions, seizing her by the hair with his left 21. Shaftesbury (author of the Characterhand, chopped off her head with his right. istics) attempting to speak on the bill for

12. Very shrewd and sensible observations granting counsel to prisoners in cases of high are often made by persons disordered in their treason, was confounded, and for some time

Dr. Heylyn used to apply, upon could not proceed; but recovering himself, this occasion, an old Spanish proverb, which he said, “What now happened to him, would says, that light makes its way into a dark serve to fortify the arguments for the billroom, through a Crack.

If he, innocent, and pleading for others, was 13. “ Nec vero ego,” says Sadolet, “ aliud daunted at the augustness of such an assemmedius fidius statuo esse sapientiam, quam bly, what must a man be, who should plead meminisse unumquemque quid sui officii et before them for his life ? Ibid. p. 106. muneris sit, idque cum fide et cum integri- 22. When the lieutenant of the Tower tate præstare." Epist. p. 21.–That, that offered Strafford a coach, lest he should be alone I deem to be wisdom, which enables a torn to pieces by the mob, in passing to exeman to keep present to his mind a sense of cution; he replied, “I die to please the his duty, and with integrity and firmness to people, and I will die in their own way.”— perform it.

Royal and Noble Authors, p. 163. 14. Many of those fighting heroes, so cele- 23. Henry Lord Falkland being brought brated in story, may be compared, as Mr. early into the house of commons, and a grave Boyle observes, to worthless gnats, consider- senator objecting to his youth, and “ to his able' only for their noise and stings with not looking as if he had sown his wild oats ;" which they disturb men's rest.

he replied with great quickness, “ Then I 15. Valeria being asked, why, after the am come to the properest place, where are death of her husband Servius, she would not so many geese to pick them up.” Ibid. p. marry again? answered, “Ideo hoc facio 221. quia Servius meus, licet aliis mortuus sit, 24. “My dear Pouilly,” says Bolingbroke, apud me vivit, vivetque semper.”—This I “ of all the men I ever knew in my life, do, because my Servius, though dead to there are but three fit to take upon them the . others, lives, and will ever live, to me.”_ task of governing nations—you and I and See Dieterich. ii. 435.

Pope.”—Pope had resigned his understand16. Dr. Johnson being asked what he ing to Bolingbroke ; who was so pleased thought of the Scotch universities: “Why, with the sacrifice, that he thought Pope, of sir,” said he, “ they are like a besieged town, all the men in the world, qualified to be a where every man has a mouthful, and no prime minisier. This was most undoubtedly man has a bellyful.”

Pope's title; and it is natural for us to sup17. The same person, being asked by some pose, that M. Pouilly de Champeaux held Scotch philosophers, whether he thought a his estate by the same kind of tenure.— The man would exist by choice, or necessity ? letter containing this very curious passage replied_“If an Englishman, by choice; if a was lately published in the preface to an ediScotchman, by necessity.”

tion of the works of Champeaux. On the 18. Rochester said, with astonishment, same principle of vanity, Bolingbroke palmed " that he did not know how it was, but Lord upon his friends a silly mistress of his for Dorset might do anything, and yet was never a wit, because she repeated good things which to blame." Every body excused whom he had said, and pretended to have forgotten. every body loved for the tenderness of his Ah la pauvre humanité ! nature.-Royal and Noble Authors, p. 96.

25. Repentance and renovation consist not 19. On Lord Dorset's promotion, King in the wish, or purpose, but in the actual Charles, having seen Lord Craven (a proverb operations of a good life. As Dryden observes, for officious whisperers to men in power) pay that speculative painting, without the assisthis usual tribute to him, asked the former, lance of manual operation, can never attain to


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