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perfection, but slothfully languishes; for it (fills it with his own temper and disposition, was not with his tongue that Apelles per- These effects from the bite of a serpent are

a formed his noble works.

not more extraordinary, than the foamings 26. The ascent to greatness, however steep and barkings, and disposition to bite, which and dangerous, may entertain an active spirit have been observed in cases of canine madwith the consciousness and exercises of its ness.—See Letters from an American Farmer, own power ; but the possession of a throne by J. Hector St. John, letter x. Crit. Rev. could never yet afford a lasting satisfaction April, 1782, p. 267. See in the same place to an ambitious mind. This melancholy the account of a battle between two snakes, truth was felt and acknowledged by Severus. a black snake and a water snake, each six Fortune and merit had, from an humble sta- feet long, till they both fell into the ditch, tion, elevated him to the first place among where one kept the head of the other under mankind. “He had been all things," as he water till he was suffocated. said of himself, “ and all was of little valne.” Omnia fuit et nihil expedit. Distracted with

SEVERITY PROFITABLE. the care, not of acquiring, but of preserving Children are the better for the severity of an empire, oppressed with age and infirmities, their parents; and the reproaches of an enemy careless of fame, and satiated with empire, serve often to correct and improve the person all his prospects of life were closed.—Gib- who is the object of them. The case, if we bon, i. 130.

credit Erasmus, is pretty much the same in 27. “ Though I suffer,” said Augustine the republic of letters.—“Unius Laurentii when sick, “ yet I am well, because I am as Vallæ mordacitas non paulo plus condı.xi God would have me to be ; for when we will rei literariæ, quam plurimorum ineptus cannot what he wills, it is we that are in the dor, omnia omnium sine delectu mirantium, fault, and not he, who can neither do nor sibique invicem plaudentium, ac mutuum permit anything but what is just.”—Letter (quod aiunt) scabentium.”—Epist

. iii. 96.xxxvii. edit. Benedict.

The severity of Laurentius Valla did more 28. “It is incomparably better,” says he service to the cause of letters, than the in the same letter,“ to shut the door of our absurd indulgence of those, who, giving heart against just anger, when it offers to indiscriminate praise to the works of others, come in, than to give it entrance; being expect the same for their own, and, to use uncertain, whether it may not grow too the words of the proverb, agree in scratching powerful for us to turn it out again.”

one another. 29. “Non est episcopatus artificium transidgendæ vitæ fallacis.-Episcopacy ought not

SHAKSPERE'S GENIUS. to be looked upon as an establishment, or a means to procure the deceitful pleasures of less inventive than is commonly imagined.

Shakspere was perhaps in some instances life.”—Letter lviii. 30. Nectarius, an heathen, interceding there was an astonishing mass of materials

It appears from Dr. Farmer's pamphlet, that with Augustine for some of his fellow-citi- before him, in old translations of the classics, zens, who had committed some crime, urges of Italian 'tales, romances, &c. Some of this reason to prevail with him: “That it is these are still extant; but many others, the the duty of a bishop to do nothing but good names of which are preserved, have perto mankind : not to meddle with their affairs, ished. From the former he is seen conunless it be to make them better, and to tinually borrowing. The celebrated speech intercede with God to pardon their faults." of Volumnia to her son is a piece of such Letter xc.

remaining prose, only thrown into blank

In most cases, however, though the

clay pre-existed, he was the Prometheus who The effects of their poison are wonderful ; animated it. as of that called the Copper-head in South

SHYNESS. America. A man stung by one became like a serpent: spots of various colors alternately Mr. Loveday used to style shyness the appeared and vanished on different parts of English madness. If indulged it may be the his body : rage filled his eyes, which darted cause of madness, by driving men to shun the most menacing looks on all present : he company and live in solitude, which few thrust out his tongue as the snakes do, and heads are strong enough to bear-none, if it hissed through his teeth with inconceivable be joined with idleness. Or it may be the force.-A striking picture of our great effect of madness, which is misanthropic and adversary, and the manner in which by his malignant. Some say pride is always at the suggestions he acts on the human mind, and bottom. You do not like company, you are



uneasy in it.





Why? You are conscious of expect it from us, cannot be excused by allotsome infirmity which disqualifies you from ting those hours to meditation, to prayer, to shining, and making that figure you wish to religious studies, which belong properly to do. Others excel you in breeding, conversa- society, and to the exercise of social virtues. tion, and the arts of pleasing. You feel self- Jortin's Sermons, iii. 238. abasement and vexation at being thus abashed and kept under: you fly from the scene of torment, hating your tormentors, and abusing

They projected a league with the churches them either to yourself

, or in society of an of Algiers and Morocco, in the time of Charles inferior sort, among those who will join you, II. See their proposal to the ambassador, in having perhaps suffered the same, or worse; the works of Leslie.—Adam Neuser, who and so you relieve and comfort one another. was employed to introduce Socinianism into -All this, I am afraid, is too true. An Germany, being disappointed, went into TurEnglishman is upon the reserve, according to key, and enlisted among the Janisaries. Mrs. Piozzi, by way of security, lest he should Mosheim, iv. 192, 8vo. where see an excelsay something open to the censure and ridi- lent account of the rise and progress of Socule of others, and so his character should cinianism and its principles. Socinus thought suffer. This is upon the same principle: and Christ was to be worshipped. (Stillingfleet, so, if he cannot say something fine and witty, 149.) Some of his followers went farther, and worthy of himself, he sits sullen, and says and denied that article : he tried to reclaim nothing. Thus a whole company among us them, but in vain.—See Stillingfleet on the is often silent for a considerable time together, Trinity, preface, p. 59. At p. 62 there is a till they wish themselves and one another quotation from a Socinian writer, who styles farther. The Italians it seems, talk freely and the Tartar—“ the shield and sword of that easily all that occurs, having no such thoughts way of worshipping God.” Paulus Alciatus and fears. “A Frenchman,” says Ganganelli, is there mentioned, who from an Unitarian “is superficial and lively; an Englishman turned a Mahometan. profound and gloomy.”_Which is the best ? În a social light, and as a companion, certainly the former.

A scorpion, when he finds himself inclosed, and no way left him to escape, will bend his

tail round, and sting himself through the He is a slave who cannot do that which he head. And it is remarkable, that this is the wishes to do, and which his soler reason and only animal in the creation, man excepted, judgment dictate to be done. When this is that can be made to commit suicide. to be the case, it is rather better that the tyrant should be without than within ; for then he is always at hand to domineer ; and he is harder to be vanquished and cast off.

If the sun were intelligent, he would see and know all, even to the intimate substance

of things, as his rays penetrate to and affect The residence of wisdom is said by one of timate to the spirits and thoughts of men.

every atom of matter. Thus is the Deity inthe ancients to be in dry regions, not in bogs Cudworth adduces the instance of the sun, and fens. If the temperature of climate

as furnishing an idea how all things may be and soil have a great effect upon the mind, viewed and governed by the Deity without that of the body must needs have a far pain, labor, or fatigue, in answer to the obgreater; and he, who, by drenching himself jection of the atheists against Providence continually with liquor, puts his body into Bibl. Chois. ix. 64.): and a noble illustrathe state of Holland, may expect to have the tion it is as was ever conceived by man. A genius of a Dutchman for his pains.

curious passage on the subject of God's om

niscience is cited by Le Clerc, in the same SOCIAL DUTY.

place, from Xenophon's Mem. c. iv. 17 edit. 1. He who laments that he has not leisure Oxon. 8vo. God's glory consists in the comto pursue his studies, when he is called upon munication of his goodness to his creatures, to perform the duties of life, says Epictetus, as the light diffused from the sun is the glory is like a champion at the Olympic games, of the celestial luminary. Cudworth, B. Č. who, when he enters the lists, should fall a ix. 69. crying, because he is not exercising without.

2. A neglect of our duty to our friends and families, or to any person who may justly The different sects may instruct each its






own children in a school of its own; but I and likewise the dog-kind, with herb-eating do not see how the children of different sects animals of the same bulk. Birds of prey can be instructed together in one school, as excel granivorous in strength and courage. their doctrines, catechisms, &c. are different, I know more than one instance of irascible and the children are to be conducted to sepa- passions being much subdued by a vegetable rate places of worship: the parents of one diet.—Arbuthnot. sort will not approve of their children being 2. Imitation requires judgment to discern carried to the church or meeting-house of when circumstances are parallel; because, if another. How can you bring them all up in they are not, it will be absurd and ridicua catholic way, unless you have one catholic, lous; as a goose, that sees another goose i. e. universal, general, common religion, in drink, will do the same though he is not which to bring them up? To be of a caiho- thirsty.—The custom of drinking for comlic spirit, is to unite in that one religion ; pany, when drink is disagreeable and prejunot to jumble together the errors, inconsis- dicial, seems to be a case of the same kind, tencies, and heresies of all. This must end and to put a man (feathers only excepted) in indifference. It may bring the people of upon a footing with a goose. the church nearer to the sects; but the 3. The emperor of Abyssinia, at his meals, present times do not give us any hope that has always an officer present, whose business it will bring the sects nearer to the church. it is, as soon as he perceives in his imperial -See Bruce, v. i. P. 519–523.

majesty any tendency to intemperance, to tell him of it; upon which he immediately

rises from table, and retires.—See Dr. Pon1. In Kardan, a province of Tartary, as cet's Journey into Ethiopia, in the Jesuits? ' soon as a woman is delivered, she rises,

Travels by Lockman, vol. 1. washes, and dresses the child. Then the

4. “You Europeans," say the Hottentots, husband, getting into bed with the infant,

are madmen.

You build great houses, keeps it there forty days, and receives visits though your bodies take up but little space as if he had lain in.—It seemeth not easy to you have so great a number of wants, in account for this custom. Apply this to the order for clothing and nourishing yourselves, case of authors who publish other people's that, not contented with things sufficient for works as their own, and take the credit to yourselves in Europe, you come to this and themselves; or to rectors, who value them

other countries, in order to dispossess the selves on account of the good done by their inhabitants of their clothes and food. With curates.

regard to ourselves, we want neither money 2. Various have been the disputes, in dif- nor wares: as we neither eat nor dress after ferent ages and nations, about the object of your manner, there is nothing can oblige us adoration. In some parts of Tartary, the to work and disturb ourselves as you do." inhabitants, to make short work of it, wor

5. Hippocrates and Cornaro did so much ship the oldest man in the house, as the being honor to physic and temperance, as to insure from whom the rest of the family have

their bodies from the attack of any disease ; received life and all things.—Apply this to nor were they mistaken. those who dote upon antiquity, as such.

6. Porphyry's comparison is very just, that a full meal is like Sisera's banquet, at the

end of which there is a nail struck into a The Mogul Tartars, Abbé Grozier tells us, xxxi. 20.

man's temples. See Arnold on Ecclus, who feed on raw flesh, are subject to con- 7. A man who is determined, either by tinual indigestions whenever they give over choice or necessity, to drink rum and water, the use of tea. It may be the same in some should keep a jealous eye on his measure ; degree with all who eat so much animal food that once violated, his palate becomes vitias we do. It is true, the work of digestion ated; and, if reason is not exerted to prevent, is made easier by fire, in dressing; but then it will seldom be found equal to the task of our stomachs are weaker than those of the correcting a habit formed upon the ruins of Tartars. Tea should not be drunk, but when fortitude: Mosely on Tropical Diseases, p. there is something for it to feed upon. 55.-An admirable observation, deserving

well to be regarded by all who drink a mixTEMPERANCE.

ture of any spirits with water-or even of 1. Carnivorous animals have more cour- wine and water. age, and muscular strength, and activity, in proportion to their bulk; which is evident by comparing the cat-kind, as lions, tigers, 1. “ No man,” saith Lord Bacon, “can be






so straitened and oppressed with business and grant me ever to consider this, and so to culan active course of life, but he may have tivate it, that it may bring forth fruit to life many vacant times of leisure, while he ex- eternal! Amen. pects the returns and tides of business.” The question is, how these shall be filled up;

TRIUMPH BEFORE VICTORY. with study and contemplation, or with sen- Nothing can be got, but much may be lost, suality and pleasure. A man may be out of by triumphing before a battle. When Charles his bed for sixteen of the twenty-four hours: V. invaded France, he lost his generals and a what might not be done in that time?” See great part of his army by famine and disease; Rambler, 108, vol. iji. p. 14.

and returned baffled and thoroughly mortified 2. “ Every day is a year to a silk-worm, from an enterprise which he began with such and has in it the four seasons: the morning confidence of its happy issue, that he desired is spring, the middle of the day is summer, Paul Jovius the historian to make a large prothe evening autumn, and the night winter." vision of paper sufficient to record the victoVoyages and Travels, iv. 193, from Navarette. ries he was going to acquire. To man life is a year, and a year is a day. See the Idler,

3. Past scenes are generally recollected with a solemn sadness, caused by the thought, that must be set in a due light and posture,

The Mosaic types are like triangular prisms, that the time is gone which will never more return. Our days must be well and profita- before they can represent that great variety bly spent, if we would remember them with

of spiritual mysteries contained in them. pleasure.

The office of the prophets was to do this, and 4. In our Christian course, it is but too

direct the people to see in these glasses the generally and too truly observed, that, as we Still. Orig. Sac. b. ii. c. 5.

Son of God fully represented to their view. grow older, we grow colder; we become more slack, remiss, and weary in well-doing. The reverse ought to be the case, for the reason assigned by the apostle, when, stirring up Many people, instead of minding their his converts to vigor and zeal and alacrity, own business, and securing their souls, amuse he says,

“ For now is our salvation nearer themselves with inquiring what will be the than when we believed.” In a race, the fate of Heathens, Jews, Turks, and other infipush is made at last.

dels, till they become little better than infi5. What enabled Dr. Birch to go through dels themselves—“ Lord, and what shall this such a variety of undertakings was his being man do ?” “What is that to thee? Follow an early riser. By this method he had exe- thou me.” cuted the business of the morning before numbers of people had begun it. And indeed it is the peculiar advantage of rising 1. It was a custom with the Gymnosobetimes, that it not in the power of any phists, every day, at dinner, to examine their interruptions, avocations, or engagements disciples, how they had spent the morning; whatever, to deprive a man of the hours and every one was obliged to show, that he which have already been well employed, or had discharged some good office, practised to rob him of the consolation of reflecting, some virtue, or improved in some part of that he hath not spent the day in vain. Biog. learning. If nothing of this appeared, he Brit. ii. 323.

was sent back without his dinner. A mighty 6. There is a traditional anecdote concern- good institution, surely! Pity but it could ing Mr. Boyle, that he used sometimes to be revived, and practiced in college-halls ! have it inscribed over his door—“Mr. Boyle

2. “For one lost by his own passions," is not to be spoken with to-day.” This was says Maty, “I have known at least forty very proper in one who was often engaged men ruined by not being told of incir in processes of the utmost importance, and danger.He proposes for reformation of which required an unremitted attention. universitiesIndeed, if literary men, in general, could find 1. Expulsion of those who will not suba rational method of preventing the inter- mit to rules and orders and a state of pupilruptions of needless morning visitants, it age. would be of service to the prosecution of 2. A rigorous exaction of the stated apmany useful designs. Ibid. 514.

pearances at chapel and in the hall. 7. Cardan's motto was, “ Tempus mea pos

3. To break, by varied hours of lecture, sessio, tempus ager meus." “Time is my the possibility of long junketings. estate, my land that I am to cultivate.” Lord, 4. Some feeling lectures from Plato and





ESSAYS AND THOUGHTS ON VARIOUS SUBJECTS. Epictetus on the dignity and manliness of the boni vivere parvo; the dependence and ser- meat, and that is but a comfortless dish to set

3. Wit without wisdom is salt without

el vility of debt; the inelegance and future a hungry man down to. Wit, employed to mischiefs of promiscuous concubinage. disguise and prejudice truth, is salt thrown

into a man's eyes.

4. Nothing is more absurd than to divert a 1. He who sacrifices religion to wit, like man who wants to be comforted; for salt, the people mentioned by Ælian, worships a though an excellent relisher, is a miserable fiy, and offers up an ox to it.

cordial. 2. Wit, like salt, should excite an appetite, 5. Jocularity should not be obtruded upon not provoke disgust; cleanse wounds, not company when they are not in the humor create them; be used to recommend and pre- for it; as a well bred man would no more serve that which is sound, not to be thrown force salt than pepper upon his guests, whose away upon that which is arleady rotten. constitutions it might not suit.

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