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PREFATORY EPISTLE TO WILLIAM STEVENS, ESQ. but he spent his life in subduing his passions, mankind. But let it rather be my amuseand in teaching us how to do the same. He ment to follow and observe the motions of the fought no battles by land or by sea; but he bee. Her journeys are always pleasant; the opposed the enemies of God and his truth, objects of her attention are beautiful to the and obtained some victories which are worthy eye, and she passes none of them over withto be recorded. He was no prime minister out examining what is to be extracted from to any earthly potentate; but he was a min- them; her workmanship is admirable; her ister to the King of Heaven and Earth; an economy is a lesson of wisdom to the world: office at least as useful to mankind, and in the she may be accounted "little among them administration of which no minister to any that fly," but the fruit of her labor is the earthly king ever exceeded him in zeal and" chief of sweet things." fidelity. He made no splendid discoveries You know, sir, to what interruptions my in natural history; but he did what was bet- life has been subject for thirty years past, and ter : he applied universal nature to the im- there is some tender ground before us, on provement of the mind, and the illustration which I am to tread as lightly as truth will of heavenly doctrines. I call these events : permit; you will pardon me, therefore, if my not such as make a great noise and signify progress hath not been so quick as you could little, but such as are little celebrated, and of have wished; and believe me to be, as I have great signification. The same difference is long been, found between Dr. Horne and some other Dear Sir, men who have been the subject of history, as
Your most affectionate and between the life of the bee and that of the wasp
obliged, humble servant, or hornet. The latter may boast of their en
WILLIAM JONES. * croachments and depredations, and value themselves on being a plague and a terror to
* Mr. Jones died in 1800.
LIFE AND WRITINGS
DR. HORN E.
DOCTOR GEORGE HORNE, late bishop of My Dear FRIEND:
(No date.) Norwich, and for several years president “ Last night, about half an hour past eight, of Magdalen College in Oxford, and dean of it pleased God to take from us, by a violent Canterbury,
was born at Otham, a small vil- fit of the stone in the gall-bladder, my dear lage near Maidstone in Kent, on the first of brother Sam. He received the blessed sacraNovember, in the year 1730. His father ment, with my mother and myself, from the was the reverend Samuel Horne,* M. A., hands of Dr. Wetherell ;* and, full of faith, rector of Otham, a very learned and respect with the most perfect resignation, departed able clergyman, who for some years had been in peace with God, the world, and himself. a tutor at Oxford. This gentleman had so It is a heavy stroke to my poor mother; but determined with himself, to preserve the she and my sisters bear up with great fortiintegrity of his mind against all temptations tude. I have lost a very dear friend and from worldly advantage, that he was heard pleasant companion! Pray for us-All join to say, and used often to repeat it, he had in every affectionate wish for the happiness rather be a toad-eater to a mountebank, than of you and yours, with
G. H.” flatter any great man against his conscience. To this he adhered through the whole course The youngest brother, the Rev. William of his life ; a considerable part of which was Horne, was educated at Magdalen College in spent in the education of his children, and Oxford, and is the present worthy rector of in a regular performance of all the duties of Otham, in which he succeeded his father, as his parish. He married a daughter of Bowyer also in the more valuable rectory of Brede, Hendley, Esq., by whom he had seven chil- in the county of Sussex. dren, four sons and three daughters. The Mr. Horne, the father of the family, was eldest son died very young. The late bishop of so mild and quiet a temper, that he stuwas the next. His younger brother, Samuel, diously avoided giving trouble on any occawas a fellow of University College, where sion. This he carried so far, that, when his he died, greatly respected and lamented. He son George was an infant, he used to wake. inherited the integrity of his father, and was him with playing upon a flute, that the an “Israelite indeed,” who never did or change from sleeping to waking might be wished harm to any mortal. Yet his char-gradual and pleasant, and not produce an acter was by no means of the insipid kind: outcry; which frequently happens when he had much of the humor and spirit of his children are awakened suddenly. What im-. elder brother; had a like talent for preaching; pression this early custom of his father might. and was well attended to as often as he ap- make upon his temper, we cannot say: but, peared in the university pulpit. His death | certainly, he was remarkable, as he grew up, was announced to an intimate friend by his for a tender feeling of music, especially that elder brother in the following short and pa- of the church. . thetic letter :
* The present master of University College, and • He died in 1768, aged 75.
dean of Hereford, &c.
Under his father's tuition, he led a plea- they both did as well as they could: and the sant life, and made a rapid progress in Greek contest, instead of dividing them, united them and Latin. But some well-meaning friend, ever after, and had also the effect of inspiring tearing he might be spoiled by staying so them with a love of the lyric poetry of that long at home, advised the sending of him to author : which seems not to be sufficiently school. To this his good father, who never known among scholars, though beautiful in was given to make much resistance, readily its kind. The whole work was once in such consented : and he was accordingly placed esteem, that King Alfred, the founder of in the school at Maidstone, under the care University College, and of the English conof the reverend Deodatus Bye, a man of good stitution, translated it. principles, and well learned in Latin, Greek, His studies, for a time, were in general the and Hebrew ; who, when he had received same with those of other ingenious young his new scholar, and examined him at the age men; and the vivacity of his mind, which of thirteen, was so surprised at his proficiency, never was exceeded, and made his conversathat he asked him why he came to school, tion very desirable, introduced him to many when he was rather fit to go from school ? gentlemen of his own standing, who resemWith this gentleman he continued two years ; bled him in their learning and their manners, during which, he added much to his stock particularly to Mr. Jenkinson, now earl of of learning, and among other things a little Liverpool, Mr. Moore, now* Archbishop of elementary knowledge of the Hebrew, on Canterbury, Mr. Cracherode, Mr. Benson, the plan of Buxtorf, which was of great ad- the Honorable Hamilton Boyle, son of Lord vantage to him afterwards. I am witness to Orrery, the late Reverend Jasper Selwin, the high respect with which he always spoke and many others. Mr. Denny Martin, now of his master, whom he had newly left when Dr. Fairfax, of Leeds Castle, in Kent, was my acquaintance with him first commenced from the same school with Mr. Horne; and at University College, to which he was sent has always been very nearly connected with when he was little more than fifteen years him, as a companion of his studies, a lover of
When servants speak well of a his virtues, and an admirer of his writings. master or mistress, we are sure they are To show how high Mr. Horne's character good servants ; and, when a scholar speaks stood with all the members of his college, old well of his teacher, we may be as certain he and young, I need only mention the followis, in every sense of the word, a good ing fact. It happened about the time when scholar.
he took his bachelor's degree, which was on I cannot help recounting, on this occasion, the 27th of October, 1749, that a Kentish that there was under the said Deodatus Bye fellowship became vacant at Magdalen Colanother scholar, very nearly related to Mr. lege; and there was, at that time, no scholar Horne, of whom the master was heard to of the house who was upon the county. The say, that he never did anything which he senior fellow of University College, having wished him not to have done. But, when heard of this, said nothing of it to Mr. Horne, the lad was told of this, he very honestly ob- but went down to Magdalen College, told served upon it, that he had done many things them what an extraordinary young man they which his master never heard of. He is now might find in University College, and gave in an office of great responsibility. They him such a recommendation as disposed the who placed him in it, supposed him still to society to accept of him. When the day of retain the honesty he brought with him from election came, they found him such as he had Maidstone school; and I never heard that he been represented, and much more; and in had disappointed them.
1750 he was accordingly chosen a fellow of While Mr. Horne was at school, a Maid- Magdalen College, and on the first of June, stone scholarship in University College be- 1752, he took the degree of master of arts. came vacant; in his application for which he If we look back upon our past lives, it will succeeded, and, young as he was, the master generally be found, that the leading events recommended his going directly to college. which gave a direction to all that followed,
Soon after he was settled at University were not according to our own choice or College (where he was admitted on the 15th knowledge, but from the hand of an overof March 1745-6,) Mr. Hobson, a good and ruling Providence, which acts without conlearned tutor of the house, gave out an exer- sulting us; putting us into situations which cise, for a trial of skill, to Mr. Horne, and are either best for ourselves, or best for the the present writer of his life, who was also in world, or best for both; and leading us, as it his first year. They were ordered to take a led the patriarch Abraham, of whom we are favorite Latin ode of Boetius, and present it to the tutor in a different Latin metre. This • Late.
told that he “knew not whither he was known in the university for their abilities in going.” This was plainly the case in Mr. music, of whom the principal were Mr. Horne's election to Magdalen College. A Phocion Henley, of Wadham College, Mr. person took up the matter, unsolicited and in Pixel, of Queen's, and Mr. Short, of Worsecret: he succeeded. When fellow, his cester, drew me often to Wadham College ; character and conduct gave him favor with which society has two Hebrew scholarships, society, and, when Dr. Jenner died, they on one of which there was a gentleman, a elected him president: the headship of the Mr. Catcott, of Bristol, whose father, as I college introduced him to the office of vice- afterwards understood, was one of those chancellor, which at length made him as well authors who first distinguished themselves as known to Lord North, as to the Earl of Liver- writers on the side of Mr. Hutchinson. He pool: this led to the Deanery of Canterbury, possessed a very curious collection of fossils, and that to the Bishopric of Norwich. some of which he had digged and scratched
If we return to the account of his studies; out of the earth with his own hands, at the we shall there find something else falling in hazard of his life ; pit near Wadham Colhis way which he never sought after, and at- lege, which would have buried him, having tended with a train of very important conse- fallen in very soon after he was out of it. quences. While he was deeply engaged in This collection* I was invited to see, and the pursuits of oratory, poetry, philosophy, readily accepted the invitation, out of a genand history, and making himself well ac-eral curiosity, without any particular knowquainted with the Greek tragedians, of which ledge of the subject. This gentleman, perhe was become a great admirer, an accident, ceiving my attention to be much engaged by of which I shall relate the account as plainly the novelty and curiosity of what he exhiband faithfully as I can, without disguising or ited, threw out so many hints about things diminishing, drew him into a new situation of which I had never heard, that I requested in respect of his mind, and gave a new turn the favor of some farther conversation with to his studies, before he had arrived at his him on a future occasion. One conference bachelor's degree. I may indeed say of this, followed another, till I saw a new field of that it certainly gave much of the color which learning opened, particularly in the departhis character assumed from that time, and ment of natural history, which promised me opened the way to most of his undertakings so much information and entertainment, that and publications, as he himself would witness I fell very soon into the same way of readif he were now alive.
ing. Dr. Woodward the physician, who had It is known to the public that he came very been a fellow-laborer with Hutchinson, and early upon the stage as an author, though an anonymous one, and brought himself into
* It is now deposited in the public library at Brissome difficulty under the denomination of an tol, to the corporation of which city he left that and IIutchinsonian; for this was the name given to his MSS., on a principle of gratitude for the prefer
ment they had given him; and there I saw it in the those gentlemen who studied Hebrew and
year 1790, with many large and valuable additions. examined the writings of John Hutchinson, of the collector it may be truly said, that he was Esq., the famous Mosaic philosopher, and be- not only an Hebræan in his learning, but an Israelcame inclined to favor his opinions in the ite in life and manners. To his industry we owe a olory and philosophy.
Treatise on the Deluge, which, when compared
with many others, will be found to give the best and About the time of which I am speaking, most curious information upon the subject. This there were many good and learned men of good and innocent man, whose heart was well both universities, but chiefly in and of the attected to all mankind, died before his time; and University of Oxford, who, from the repre-ported, will raise the indignation of every sensible
the manner of his death, if it has been truly resentation given to the public, some years be-l and charitable mind. He kept his bed with a bad fore, by the right Honorable Duncan Forbes, fever; and, when rest was nocessary, he was disthen Lord President of the Court of Session turbed by the continual barking of a dog that was in Scotland, and from a new and more prom- civil message desiring that the dog might be removed
chained up near at hand. When his friends sent a ising method of studying the Hebrew lan- till the patient was better, it was refused; and, in guage, independently of Jewish error, and the event, he was fairly barked to death. If this from a flattering prospect also of many other fact be true, how cheap are the lives and sufferings advantages to the general interests of religion cule! homini plurima ex homine sunt mala :-for
of some men in the estimation of others !-Herand learning, were become zealous advocates the dog intended no harm. Of this gentleman himin favor of the new scheme of Mr. Hutchin- self, we are informed by one of his intimate friends, son., Mr. Horne was led into this inquiry, that, when he settled his account at the year's end, partly by an accident which had happened
he considered all the money that remained after his
own debts were paid, as the property, not of himself, to himself.
but of the poor, to whose use (being a single man) he An attachment to some friends, then well never failed to apply it. VOL. 1.
followed very nearly the same principles, tive to me, though I was much his junior. had made the natural history of the earth, He often allowed me the pleasure of his conand the diluvian origination of extraneous versation, and sometimes gave me the benefit fossils so agreeable and so intelligible, that I of his advice, of which I knew the meaning was captivated by his writings : and from to be so good, that I always heard it with rethem I went to others; taking what I found, spect, and followed it as well as I could. This with a taste and appetite, which could not, gentleman, with all his other qualifications, at that time, make such distinctions as I may was a reader of Hebrew, and a favorer of Mr. have been able to make since. In the sim- Hutchinson's philosophy; but had kept it to plicity of my heart, I communicated some himself, in the spirit of Nicodemus; and of the novelties, with which my mind was when I asked him the reason of it afterwards, now filled, to my dear and constant compan- and complained of the reserve with which ion, Mr. Horne, from whom I seldom con- he had so long treated me in this respect ; cealed anything : but found him very little “Why,” said he, “these things are in no reinclined to consider them; and I had the pute; the world does not receive them; and mortification to see, that I was rather losing you, being a young man, who must keep what ground in his estimation. Our college lec- friends you have, and make your fortune in tures on Geometry and Natural Philosophy the world, I thought it better to let you go on (which were not very deep) we had gone in your own way, than bring you into that through with some attention, and thought embarrassment which might be productive of ourselves qualified to speak up for the philo- more harm than good, and imbitter the future sophy of Newton. It was therefore shock- course of your life: besides, it was far from ing to hear, that attraction was no physical being clear to me, how you would receive principle, and that a vacuum had never been, them; and then I might have lost your friendand never would be, demonstrated. Here, ship.” It was now too late for such a remontherefore, Mr. Horne insisted, that if Sir I. strance to have any effect; I therefore, on Newton's philosophy should be false in these the contrary, prevailed upon him to become principles, no philosophy would ever be true. my master in Hebrew, which I was very deHow it was objected to, and how it was de- sirous to learn : and in this he acquitted himfended, I do not now exactly remember ; I self with so much skill and kind attention, fear, not with any profound skill on either writing out for me with his own hand such side : but this I well recollect, that our dis- grammatical rules and directions as he judged putes, which happened at a pleasant season necessary, that in a very short time I could of the year, kept us walking to and fro in go on without my guide. I remember, howthe quadrangle till past midnight. As I got ever, that I had nearly worked myself to more information for myself, I gained more death, by determining, like Duns Scotus in the upon my companion : but I have no title to picture-gallery, to go through a whole chapthe merit of forming him into what he after- ter in the Hebrew before night. wards proved to be.
To this gentleman, whose name was George In the same college with us, there lived a Watson, I recommended Mr. Horne at my very extraordinary person. He was a clas-departure from Oxford; and they were so sical scholar of the first rate, from a public well pleased with each other, that Mr. Horne, school remarkable for an unusual degree of instead of going home to his friends in the taste and judgment in poetry and oratory; vacation, stayed for the advantage of followhis person was elegant and striking, and his ing his studies at Oxford, under the direction countenance expressed at once both the gen- of his new teacher: and, in the autumn of tleness of his temper and the quickness of his the year 1749, he began a series of letters to understanding. His manners and address his father, which fill above thirty pages in were those of a perfect gentleman: his com- large quarto, very closely written; from the mon talk, though easy and fluent, had the whole tenor of which, it is pleasant to see, correctness of studied composition: his be- how entire a friendship and confidence there nevolence was so great, that all the beggars was between a grave and learned father, and in Oxford knew the way to his chamber-door: a son not yet twenty years of age. Of these upon the whole, his character was so spotless, letters, though they are by no means correct and his conduct so exemplary, that, mild and enough, either for style or judgment, to stand gentle as he was in his carriage toward them, the test of severe criticism, it is highly prono young man dared to be rude in his com- per I should give some account; to show pany. By many of the first people in the what those opinions were which had now university he was known and admired : and got possession of his mind; intermixing with it being my fortune to live in the same stair- my abstract such notes and explanations as case with him, he was very kind and atten- shall seem requisite for a better understanding