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Mrs. Salmon's letter on the death of
ib Shakespeare's Genius
In publishing the Memoirs of the Life of This declaration, however clear it may be to Dr. Horne, my intention was only to give a me, is more than some of my readers will be true idea of that good man, as it presented willing to admit, or able to bear. I perceive, itself to my memory and affections, and to by what has been written, that, if it can be produce an edifying book, rather than a for- effected, bishop Horne must be taken away mal history. I flatter myself it has done from the Hutchinsonians : or, if that cannot some good; and I hope it may do more. If be done, his character must not be set too any offence has been given, I can only say high; we must beware of exaggeration ; he it was no part of my plan: but it is a com- must be represented as good and pious, rather mon fault with plain Christians, who know than wise or great. This comes not from little of the world, to tell more truth than is the truth, but from the times : and it is what wanted ; and they have nothing left but a we must expect to hear, till the times shall good conscience, to support them under the alter, and a few stumbling-blocks shall be mistake.
removed out of the way. After what I had Some few exceptions have been made to related, with so little disguise, concerning the the performance by little cavillers, which early studies of Dr. Horne, I could foresee are not worth mentioning : but I brought that his character, excellent as it is, had a myself into the most serious difficulty of all
, fiery trial to pass : I therefore prepared myby representing bishop Horne as a Hutchin- self to see—what I have seen. sonian ; which thing, it seems, ought not to But, while I heard some things which have been done ; as it was strongly suggested were unpleasant, I heard others which gave to me, from the late learned Dr. Farmer, me encouragement. For, though it was while my work was in hand. On this mat- commonly reported that I had bestowed too ter I beg leave to explain myself a little. I many words upon a cause which neither never said, nor did I ever think, that bishop required nor deserved them, one of the Horne owed everything to Hutchinson, or wisest men of this age, who is an host of was his implicit follower. I knew the con- himself, wished I had said more; it being a trary : but this I will say, because I know it cause of which the world heard much, but to be true, that he owed to him the begin- knew little, and wanted to know more. I shall ning of his extensive knowledge; for such a take this opportunity of satisfying their curibeginning as he made placed him on a new osity as faithfully as I can. spot of high ground; from which he took But I find myself called upon, by the way, all his prospects of religion and learning ; to justify the bishop against an unexpected and saw that whole road lying before him, accusation of a late author, who charges him which he afterwards pursued, with so much with fancifulness and presumption ; for what pleasure to himself, and benefit to the world. I reason, and with how much justice, learning, VOL. I.
and judgment, we shall see presently: and I divine Spirit, on the day of Pentecost, anam glad this second edition was deferred, be- nounced to the senses of men by the “sound cause the delay has given me an opportunity of a rushing, mighty wind ?” Did not our of seeing some things of which I ought not Saviour, in his discourse with Nicodemus, to be ignorant.
illustrate the agency of the divine Spirit by In a New Biographical Dictionary, a life that of the natural? “ The wind bloweth of Dr. Horne is inserted; the author of where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound which speaks of him with as much caution thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh as a man would handle hot coals. For what and whither it goeth : so is every one that is he is pleased to say of me, as a writer of born of the Spirit.” Why did he communidoctor Horne's life, I am much obliged to cate the Holy Ghost under the outward sign him; and I think it more than I deserve or of breathing upon them, if no comparison is desire : but, I should be false to the bishop's to be made between the sign and the thing memory, were I to allow his account of him signified? The word inspiration, which is to be either just or true. He gives him the the act of the Holy Ghost, denotes a blowpraise of being a blameless man! (cold ing or breathing as of the air ; and the name enough!) when they that have eyes to see, Spirit is common to the natural air and to and judgment to discern, must discover him the Holy Ghost. What is the meaning of to be, both for matter and manner, one of the all this? Does the word of God make comfirst orators and teachers this church can parisons, and put one thing for another; and boast ; and that he often displays a rich vein shall we say, there is no analogy or likeness; of wit, rarely indeed to be found in a man that is, no sense nor propriety in the substiof so much sweetness and good temper. tution? That would indeed be presumpWhat a poor figure does Priestley make in tuous, if not blasphemous: and the author the hands of the undergraduate and the would not have entangled himself in this great philosopher Hume, in the letter to doc- manner, if he had not been frightened out tor Adam Smith ! Where the bishop is of his wits at Hutchinsonianism. But, after reflected upon, for being a Hutchinsonian, it all, to those who search for it, the analogy is allowed, nevertheless, that he might be must instantly discover itself; and it hath partly right in his natural philosophy; been pointed to us without reserve, by a though I do not understand the biographer's divine of the old school, bishop Andrews; method of making it out; and I question who was in no fear of being called to an whether he understood it himself. But then account for it by the learned of that age.
In it is added, that “if he proceeded to a sup- his first discourse, on the descent of the Holy posed analogy between material and imma- Ghost, he has these words: “The wind, which terial things, and compared the agency of is here the type of the Holy Ghost, doth of the Son and Holy Ghost to that of light and all creatures best express it: for, of all air in the natural world; it will surely be bodily things, it is the least bodily, and even thought that he went upon very uncertain and invisible, as a spirit is. It is mighty or fanciful, not to say presumptuous grounds." violent; seemingly of little force, and yet I thank him for speaking out. But is this of the greatest : but never so vehement as true divinity? Is there then no analogy be- the Spirit is in its proceedings. As the wind tween things natural and divine? And have serveth for breath, so doth the Spirit give I been beating the air, and writing a volume, life, and is called the Spirit of life. As it to prove and explain it, and demonstrate the serveth for speech, so doth the Spirit give great use and value of it; and has this utterance : and, as the one serveth for sound, author discovered at last, that there is no such so by the other the sound of the postles thing? How mortifying is it to me to hear, went out into all lands.” This, and more to that so much of the labor of my life has the same purpose, saith bishop Andrews; and been thrown away! This analogy, which he I call this true divinity: he was in no fear will not suffer bishop Horne to suppose, about types and analogies : he finds the without being fanciful and presumptuous, has analogy as strict as if the air had been created been admitted and insisted upon, as plain and for this use. And what Christian, who reads certain, by the best divines of the Christian his Bible, will find fault with bishop Horne, church; who used it, and admired it, be- if he thought, and preached, as bishop Ancause they found it in the word of God: and drews did before him? This one was the it holds particularly in the two great objects delight of his times, and the other may conof nature, air and light, where this modern tinue to be the delight of our times ; notwithdivine (for such I suppose him) cannot see it standing the censures which have been thrown himself, and will not permit us to see it out against him, with so little experience, without him. Was not the presence of the that I am ashamed for the author of them.
The other great object of nature, where the ture. All who do not know the use of this analogy is not permitted to us, is that of the grand speculum, are under the poverty of iglight: but it holds in this case as strictly as norance; they lose a great help to their faith, in the other: for our Saviour calls himself the together with a great instrument for the im“true light, which lighteth every man that proving of their understanding; at least in cometh into the world;" and a prophet calls spiritual things. What would divinity be, him“ the sun of righteousness." "All the men and what can a teacher of it be, without the of this world who have light, have it from use of analogies, and the power we acquire the same sun; and all that have the light of when we argue from them? They are so life, have it from the same Saviour. And the universal in the Scripture, that a man may as operations and attributes of the true light in well read English without the alphabet, as the kingdom of grace are the same as those read the Bible without understanding its anof the light in the natural world. We took alogies. They are, therefore, never to be the authority of bishop Andrews in the former given up, but to be insisted upon, and recomexample; we may now take that of arch- mended to others, as the very life and soul bishop Leighton*; who sees the analogy be- of Christian wisdom.* tween the natural and divine light :-first, in I would willingly have avoided a party their purity; both are incapable of pollution : name, being conscious that I am not a party secondly, in their universality; both are im- man, but disposed to exercise an independent parted to all, without being diminished : judgment and take what is good and useful thirdly, in their divifying power ; the one from every quarter where I can find it, either raises plants and vegetables from the earth, for my own benefit or that of the public. If the other raises men from the dead : fourthly, I can do good, I am willing to do it under in their dispelling darkness ; all shadows fly any character which an honest man may before the sun; all the types and shadows of wear. But my adversaries (who are not a the law, all the mists of darkness and idolatry, few) have found such an advantage, for many at the appearance of the other, who is the years past, in giving me the name of a Hutch
' light of the Gentiles and the glory of Israel; insonian, that they will never part with it. even that glory, which had been so often So, as I am stamped with that name, I may Coreshowed to them : for, as the glory was in speak freely, without losing any ground. Too their tabernacle and filled it, so the fulness of many of the learned have shown an unusual the Godhead dwelt bodily in Christ : soxmuwdév propensity, for many years, to censure and ev mueshe dwelt in a tabernacle amongst us. reject every principle reported to be HutchIs not this a just and beautiful analogy? And insonian, without first knowing what it is, can there be any man of taste, who will not and what is to be said for it. The biographer, see and admire it? Is the Scripture fanciful against whom I have defended bishop Horne, in teaching it? And is this good bishop pre- attacks him as a Hutchinsonian, without sumptuous in following it? It is a grief to knowing that he was making his attack on me to be urging so many questions in so plain that quarter where the Hutchinsonians are a case : but wise men lay us under a cruel ne- strongest ; and this, not with weak arguments, cessity, when they are in such a hurry to run but with no arguments at all; unless we can away from doctrines, which they call Hutch- find one in the words—it will surely be insonian, without knowing that they have thought—which is not an argument, but an been common to the Christian world; and appeal to the judgment of others who are that every master in Israel (supposing this under the same prejudice with himself. To gentleman to be of that character) is expected prevent which for the time to come, and to to have acquired, from a proper study of the satisfy those who, having heard some things Scripture, that experience which makes all to perplex them, would be glad of better inthese things plain, and enables us to see the formation ; I shall tell them, as well as I can, spiritual in the natural world ; the glass in what the principles really are by which a which (dia, by means of which t) God hath Hutchinsonian is distinguished from other been pleased to show us that and Himself, till men. But when I consider, that this inquiry we shall see him face to face; and not, as we will lead us into some great, deep, and diffido now, by reflection from the objects of na- cult subjects of which no man can speak
worthily—and of which so many have spoken * See Sermon V, of archbishop Leighton's eigh- rashly-I tremble at my undertaking; and teen.
entreat every wise and good man to make to corpov ev aiviypari—Though the preposition allowances for me, at a stage of life when dia is here used, we do not suppose with our English version that the allusion is to dioptrics, but catoptrics : So lisoftpov is a speculum, wherein things are
* For the bishop's sentiments on this subject, see seen by reflection.
the Life, p. 74, 75.