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You will keep all your accounts accurately and present them after the treaty, supported, in all cases, by proper vouchers; and, on this point, the delivery of the goods to the Indians to be witnessed by the most respectable white characters who may be present.
The rate of your compensation for your services shall be the same as the President of the United States stipulated in your former employment of this nature, at Tioga.
Given at the War Office of the United States, in the city of Philadelphia, this second day of May, 1791.
Secretary of War. To Colonel TIMOTHY PICKERING.
The Secretary of War to Colonel Timothy Pickering.'
WAR DEPARTMENT, May 18, 1791. COLONEL TIMOTHY PICKERING:
SIR: I have received yours of the 8th of May. The report of the Jersey men to Colonel Abraham Miller, as delivered to you, relative to the Oneidas, Tuscaroras, Cayugas, and Onondagas, joining the Western Indians in hostilities against the United States, is, most probably, ill founded. In order that you may possess all the information relative to the objects of your mission, in my power to afford, I transmit you, herein enclosed, a letter from Colonel Brandt, dated 20th February, 1791, which I have not yet answered; a letter from Mr. Kirkland, of the 22d of April, and my answer thereto; and, also, my letter to General Schuyler, of the 11th instant; Brandt's letter to Mr. Kirkland, of the 8th of March; Governor Clinton's letter to me of the 27th of April, and my answer thereto, of the 11th instant. You will see by the letter to Governor Clinton, the turn that the idea of employing Brandt has taken, and you will please entirely conform thereto. It is sincerely to be desired that every effort be made to establish peace with the Indians on a solid basis, and, if possible, previously to an active campaign against them. But, if force must be exercised to prevent their depredations, it is to
American State Papers, Indian Affairs, Vol. 1, p. 166.
be hoped that it will be administered in such a manner as to bring them to terms, so as to prevent the necessity of another campaign. You will, therefore, to the utmost of your power, give every facility to all the messages of peace, and impress all the Indians who shall come within your sphere of action with the justice and humanity of the General Government.
The goods for your treaty were sent off by Mr. Hodgdon on the instant.
I am, &c., &c. Colonel TIMOTHY PICKERING.
The Secretary of War to Colonel Timothy Pickering.'
WAR DEPARTMENT, June 13th, 1791. SIR: I have received yours of the 12th ultimo, with its enclosures for General Chapin.
Colonel Procter has returned to this city, without effecting the object of his mission. He was at Buffalo creek from the 29th of April until the 21st of May. Brandt's interest was against any of the chiefs going forward with him to the Western Indians. But he finally carried the point, that a number of the chiefs and warriors would accompany him, provided he could obtain a vessel for their transportation from Niagara. But they absolutely refused to proceed, either in canoes or by land, from, as they said, an apprehension of the Western Indians.
Brandt had gone to the Western Indians about the 12th of May with a design, as the Indians said at Buffalo creek, of endeavoring to make peace.
Indeed, it would appear from the imperfect information I at present possess, that the British have made use of Brandt, with a view to peace, intending to make a merit of it, in some future time. You will see by the speech of the Farmer's Brother, which I enclose, the ultimate intentions of the Indians who were assembled at Buffalo creek.
This is the only written document which I have yet received from Colonel Procter, he having sent his despatches by Captain Houdin, by the way of Wyoming. I expect that he will wait on you, and I hope you will conceive it to be proper to open his
American State Papers, Indian Affairs, Vol. I, p. 166.
despatches to me. But if you should not, and there should be anything of real importance for you to know, I shall despatch an express to you.
I believe your treaty will be pretty generally attended. Mr. Morris will not attempt to purchase any lands at present, although one of his sons will be present at the treaty. Mr. Morris does not approve of the conduct of Mr. Ewing, and informs me he has ordered Ewing to be discharged. General Butler, in a letter of the ed instant, mentions that he was taking some steps with the Six Nations to induce them to send some of their warriors to join our army, and that he would inform me further thereon by the next post. He was informed by Colonel Procter of your treaty, and has not been directed by me upon the subject. And I have also recently informed him of the treaty, and that he must not take any measures which would interfere with it.
If you should persuade the Indians to send a party to join our troops, the route should be from Cornplanter's town to fort Franklin, on the junction of French creek with the Alleghany.
Lieutenant Jeffers and a party of the continental troops would join them, and proceed as General Butler should direct. Lieutenant Jeffers is well known to the Indians, and is really an intelligent and sensible man. If more than sixty should offer for this service, it would not be material. But unless they could be at fort Franklin by the 20th July at farthest, the arrangement would be useless.
I enclose you a copy of my last letter, lest you should not have received the original.
Since writing the above, Captain Houdin has arrived and brought your letter of the 5th instant, and, also, Col. Procter's despatches. But as they confirm the above ideas without containing any thing further, it is not necessary to send you copies of the several species. The Cornplanter may be depended upon; through all the changes of policy, we must cultivate and elevate him. Brandt, the Farmer's brother, and all the rest of them, ought to be treated with great kindness, and attached to us if possible. But the Cornplanter is our friend from the solid ties of interest, and we must rivet them by all ways and means in our power. Houdin's receipt will be credited to your account.
I am, &c., &c. Colonel TIMOTHY PICKERING.
The Secretary of War to the Governor of New York.1
WAR DEPARTMENT, 12th April, 1791. Sir: I have the honor to inform your Excellency in confidence, that the present view of affairs upon the frontiers, indicates strongly that all the Indian tribes northwest of the Ohio, will, in the course of the ensuing campaign, be combined in hostilities against the United States.
The President of the United States has been exceedingly desirous of avoiding an Indian war, and to establish a general peace with all the tribes, on liberal terms, and measures have been taken for that purpose, but the effect is extremely doubtful. The involved state of things, arising from circumstances not under the control of the General Government, have proceeded from one stage to another, until it seems but too probable that force only can decide the contest.
As it is to be apprehended that the Six Nations may be brought to act against us, it has been conceived important to assemble them together, particularly the Senecas, at as early a period as possible, in order to brighten the chain, and to remove all causes of discontent.
Accordingly, Colonel Timothy Pickering, who resides at Wyoming, and who had a meeting the last autumn with the Senecas at Tioga Point, has been requested to invite the Six Nations generally, to a meeting at such place as shall be most convenient to them, and at as early a period as they could conveniently be assembled.
Aware of your Excellency's influence over Captain Joseph Brandt, I have conceived the idea that you might induce him, by proper arrangements, to undertake to conciliate the Western Indians to pacific measures, and bring them to hold a general treaty. This measure would be abundantly more compatible with the feelings and interest of the United States, than to extirpate the Indians, which seems to be the inevitable consequence of a war of long continuance with them. You are entirely able to estimate Brandt's talents, and the degree of confidence which might be placed in him on such an occasion. It ought not, however, to be concealed from your Excellency that Captain Abeel or the Cornplanter has undertaken this object, and that, most probably, he is actually employed at this time on the business with Colonel Procter, who was sent from this city for the purpose. And it is also proper, that you should understand that a mortal enmity exists between Brandt and the Cornplanter.
1 American State Papers, Indian Affairs, Vol. I, p. 167.
In this situation of things, if your Excellency should entertain the opinion strongly that Brandt might be used with good effect, and consistently with the Cornplanter's mission, and that they would not clash in the business, I earnestly request that you would take the necessary measures for the purpose, according to your own judgment.
Perhaps Colonel Willet, of whose talents in managing the minds of men I have a high opinion, might accept of an agency on this occasion, as it might respect Brandt.
He will be on the spot, and if you should consider the idea practicable, you could give him such information and instructions as would tend to success. After which, the Colonel might repair to this city, in order to make the further necessary arrangements. Your Excellency could despatch an express to Brandt, to meet Colonel Willet, either at Colonel Pickering's place of meeting, or such other as you should judge proper.
Your Excellency will please to hold out such inducements to Brandt as you may judge most proper, with respect to money. The arrangement for Colonel Willet's services should be made satisfactory to him.
Any sum of money which you should conceive necessary to put this affair in motion, shall be paid to your order.
I beg your Excellency to be persuaded, that nothing but a solid conviction of your regard for the public welfare, could have constrained me to trouble you on this occasion; and I take the liberty of requesting a line from you immediately, in answer to these suggestions: for, should you judge them practicable, not a moment's time should be lost.
With great respect, &c.
His Excellency Governor CLINTON.