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messages that passed between them and me prior to their assembling. These were communicated to the Secretary of War, from time to time, and though they will, no doubt, be submitted by him to your consideration, I thought it best, as they form a considerable part of the transactions, to connect them in that way, that the whole might be seen together.

By the instruction of July the second, I was directed to endeavor to extend the northern boundary, as far north as the completion of the forty first degree of north latitude. Besides that it would have been extremely difficult to have made the Indians comprehend how that was to be ascertained, I found that any attempt to extend the limits at that time, would be very ill received, if not defeat entirely the settling a peace with them; it was therefore not proposed, and the boundaries remain as settled at the former treaties, except the rectifying an error about the portage at the Miami village.

The negotiation was both tedious and troublesome, and for a long time had an unpromising aspect, but it came at last to as favorable an issue as could have been expected; and I trust will be attended with consequences friendly to the frontier parts of the United States. There are, however, several nations on the Wabash, and the rivers which empty themselves into it, that are ill disposed, and from whom there is reason to expect, that a part of the frontier of Virginia, and the settlement forming on the Miami, will meet annoyance; indeed, that they have not been disturbed during the winter was not expected, either by me or the chiefs of the nations, who met me at fort Harmar. The Wyandots did appoint persons to go to them, and inform them of the result of the treaty, and insist upon their desisting from further hostilities, which may have had some effect in producing the late tranquillity.

The claim of the Wyandot nation to the lands reserved to the Shawanese, was strongly insisted upon by them, and to be made an article of the treaty-to that I could not consent; but, to satisfy them, and that it might be kept in remembrance, it is inserted at the bottom of it, by way of memorandum. It seems this is a claim that has always been held up, and the reason it was so much insisted on at this time, they said, was, that they were sure that the Shawanese, and Cherokees incorporated with them, would continue to give us trouble; that it could not be expected to be borne with much longer; that they would be driven out of the country, and then it would be claimed and held by the United States, by right of conquest; they farther added, that, if the Shawanese continued their depredations, they would themselves drive them off. They also proposed that a post should be taken by the United States, at the Miami village, as the surest means to overawe the nations on the Wabash. It is certainly well situated for that purpose, and would command the greatest part of the Indian trade. As it was very uncertain whether Congress might approve of such a measure, as a post so far inland, would with difficulty be supported, and were in no readiness to carry it into execution, if it should be approved, I desired them to consider well, whether it could be done without a contest with the Indians who live there; and whether, in that case, there was not danger of they themselves being involved, through the ungovernableness of their young men. They acknowledged they thought there was danger of both, but promised to send some of their principal men to the Miamies, and prepare them for receiving a garrison peaceably, and are to give me notice in the spring.

The reason why the treaties were made separately with the Six Nations, and the Wyandots, and more westerly tribes, was, a jealousy that subsisted between them, which I was not willing to lessen, by appearing to consider them as one people—they do not so consider themselves; and I am persuaded their general confederacy is entirely broken: indeed, it would not be very difficult, if circumstances required it, to set them at deadly variance.

The great length of time that elapsed between the appointed period for the meeting, and that at which the Indians assembled, during which, numbers of them were constantly going and coming, has increased the expense in the article of provisions considerably; the utmost possible economy, however, was used through the whole of the business, and, in transacting it, I flatter myself with meeting the approbation of Congress. With the utmost respect, I have the honor to be, &c.



An Ordinance for the Regulation of Indian Affairs.

August 7, 1786.


Whereas the safety and tranquility of the frontiers of the United States do, in some measure, depend on the maintaining a good correspondence between their citizens and the several nations of Indians in amity with them: And whereas the United States, in Congress assembled, under the ninth of the articles of confederation and perpetual union, have the sole and exclusive right and power of regulating the trade, and managing all affairs with the Indians not members of any of the States; provided that the legislative right of any State within its own limits be not infringed or violated:

Be it ordained by the United States, in Congress assembled, That, from and after the passing of this ordinance, the Indian department be divided into two districts, viz. The southern, which shall comprehend within its limits all the nations in the territory of the United States who reside southward of the river Ohio; and the northern, which shall comprehend all the other Indian nations within the said territory, and westward of Hudson river: Provided, That all councils, treaties, communications, and official transactions between the superintendent hereafter mentioned for the northern district and the Indian nations, be held, transacted, and done at the outpost occupied by the troops of the United States in the said district. That a superintendent be appointed for each of the said districts, who shall continue in office for two years, unless sooner removed by Congress, and shall reside within, or as near the district for which he shall be so appointed as may be convenient for the management of its concerns. The said superintendents shall attend to the execution of such regulations as Congress shall from time to time establish, respecting Indian affairs. The superintendent for the northern district shall have authority to appoint two deputies, to reside in such places as shall best facilitate the regulations of the Indian trade, and to remove them for misbehavior. There shall be a communication

American State Papers, Indian Affairs, Vol. I, p. 14.

of all matters relative to the business of the Indian department kept up between the said superintendents, who shall regularly correspond with the Secretary of War, through whom all communications respecting the Indian department shall be made to Congress; and the superintendents are hereby directed to obey all instructions which they shall from time to time receive from the said Secretary of War. And whenever they shall have reason to suspect any tribe or tribes of Indians of hostile intentions they shall communicate the same to the Executive of the State or States whose territories are subject to the effect of such hostilities. All stores, provisions, or other property, which Congress may think necessary for presents to the Indians, shall be in the custody and under the care of the said superintendents, who shall render an annual account of the expenditures of the same to the board of treasury.

And be it further ordained, That none but citizens of the United States shall be suffered to reside among the Indian nations, or be allowed to trade with any nation of Indians within the territory of the United States. That no person, citizen or other, under the penalty of five hundred dollars, shall reside among, or trade with any Indian, or Indian nation, within the territory of the United States, without a licence for that purpose first obtained from the superintendent of the district, or one of the deputies, who are hereby directed to give such licence to every person who shall produce from the supreme Executive of any State a certificate, under the seal of the State, that he is of good character, and suitably qualified and provided for that employment, for which licence he shall pay the sum of fifty dollars to the said superintendent, for the use of the United States.

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And be it further ordained, That in all cases where transactions with any nation or tribe of Indians shall become necessary to the purposes of this ordinance, which cannot be done without interfering with the legislative rights of a State, the superintendent in whose district the same shall happen, shall act in conjunction with the authority of such State. Done, &c.

CHAS. THOMSON, Secretary.


Resolution on the message of the President.'

The Six Nations, the Wyandots, and Others. Communicated to the Senate August 12, 1789.

The committee to whom was referred the message of the President of the United States, of the 25th of May, 1789, with the Indian treaties, and papers accompanying the same, report:


That the Governor of the Western territory, on the 9th day of January, 1789, at fort Harmar, entered into two treaties; one with the sachems and warriors of the Six Nations, the Mohawks excepted, the other with the sachems and warriors of the Wyandot, Delaware, Ottawa, Chippewa, Pattawatima, and Sac Nations; that those treaties were made in pursuance of the powers and instructions heretofore given to the said Governor by the late Congress, and are a confirmation of the treaties of fort Stanwix, in October, 1784, and of fort McIntosh, in January, 1785, and contain a more formal and regular conveyance to the United States of the Indian claims to the lands yielded to these States by the said treaties of 1784 and 1785.

Your committee, therefore, submit the following resolution, to wit:

That the treaties concluded at fort Harmar, on the 9th day of January, 1789, between Arthur St. Clair, Esq. Governor of the Western territory, on the part of the United States and the sachems and warriors of the Six Nations, (the Mohawks excepted) and the sachems and warriors of the Wyandot, Delaware, Ottawa, Chippewa, Pattawatima, and Sac Nations, be accepted, and that the President of the United States be advised to execute and enjoin an observance of the same.


"American State Papers, Indian Affairs, Vol. I, p. 54.

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