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news, so mixes with the sorrows that are passed, that we cannot express our gladness, nor conceal the remembrance of our affilictions. We will speak of them at another time.

FATHER: We are ashamed that we have listened to the lies of Livingston, or been influenced by threats of war by Phelps, and would hide that whole transaction from the world, and from ourselves, by quietly receiving what Phelps promised to give us for the lands they cheated us of. But as Phelps will not pay us even according to that fraudulent bargain, we will lay the whole proceedings before your court. When the evidence which we can produce is heard, we think it will appear that the whole bargain was founded on lies, which he placed one upon another; that the goods which he charges to us as part payment were plundered from us; that, if Phelps was not directly concerned in the theft, he knew of it at the time, and concealed it from us; and that the persons we confided in were bribed by him to deceive us in the bargain. And if these facts appear, that your court will not say that such bargains are just, but will set the whole aside.

FATHER: We apprehend that our evidence might be called for, as Phelps was here, and knew what we have said concerning him; and as Ebenezer Allen knew something of the matter, we desired him to continue here. Nicholson, the interpreter, is very sick, and we request that Allen may remain a few days longer, as he speaks our language.

FATHER: The blood which was spilled near Pine creek is covered, and we shall never look where it lies. We know that Pennsylvania will satisfy us for that which we spoke of to them before we spoke to you. The chain of friendship will now, we hope, be made strong as you desire it to be. We will hold it fast; and our end of it shall never rust in our hands.

FATHER: We told you what advice we gave the people you are now at war with, and we now tell you that they have promised to come again to our towns next spring. We shall not wait for their coming, but will set out very early, and show to them what you have done for us, which must convince them that you will do for them every thing which they ought to ask. We think they will hear and follow our advice.

FATHER: You give us leave to speak our minds concerning the tilling of the ground. We ask you to teach us to plough and to grind corn; to assist us in building saw mills, and to supply us with broad axes, saws, augers, and other tools, so as that we may make our houses more comfortable and more durable; that you will send smiths among us, and, above all, that you will teach our children to read and write, and our women to spin and to weave The manner of your doing these things for us we leave to you who understand them; but we assure you that we will follow your advice as far as we are able.

CORNPLANTER, his X mark.
HALF-Town, his X mark.

GREAT-TREE, his X mark.
Present at signing,

JOSEPH NICHOLSON, Interpreter.
TY. MATLACK.
JOHN DECHART, his X mark.

JEM HUDSON, his X mark.
PHILADELPHIA, 1 oth January, 1791.

(Enclosure 4.]

The speech of the President of the United States to the Cornplanter,

Half-Town, and Big-Tree, chiefs of the Seneca nation or

Indians. BROTHERS: I have maturely considered your second written speech.

You say your nation complain that, at the treaty of fort Stanwix, you were compelled to give up too much of your lands; that you confess your nation is bound by what was there done, and acknowledging the power of the United States; that you have now appealed to ourselves against that treaty, as made while we were angry against you, and that the said treaty was, therefore, unreasonable and unjust.

But, while you complain of the treaty of fort Stanwix, in 1784, you seem entirely to forget that you, yourselves, the Cornplanter, Half-Town, and Great-Tree, with others of your nation, confirmed, by the treaty of fort Harmar, upon the Muskingum, so late as the ninth of January, 1789, the boundary marked at the treaty of fort Stanwix, and that, in consideration thereof, you then received goods to a considerable amount.

1 American State Papers, Indian Affairs, Vol. I, p. 144.

Although it is my sincere desire, in looking forward, to endeavor to promote your happiness, by all just and humane arrangements, yet I cannot disannul treaties formed by the United States, before my administration, especially, as the boundaries mentioned therein have been twice confirmed by yourselves. The lines fixed at fort Stanwix and fort Harmar, must, therefore, remain established. But Half-Town, and the others, who reside on the land you desire may be relinquished, have not been disturbed in their possession, and I should hope, while he and they continue to demean themselves peacefully, and to manifest their friendly dispositions to the people of the United States, that they will be suffered to remain where they are.

The agent who will be appointed by the United States, will be your friend and protector. He will not be suffered to defraud you, or to assist in defrauding you of your lands, or of any other thing, as all his proceedings must be reported in writing, so as to be submitted to the President of the United States.

You mention your design of going to the Miami Indians, to endeavor to persuade them to peace. By this humane measure you will render those mistaken people a great service, and, probably, prevent them from being swept from off the face of the earth. The United States require, only, that those people should demean themselves peaceably; but they may be assured, that the United States are able, and will, most certainly punish them severely for all their robberies and murders. You may, when you return from this city to your own country, mention to your nation my desire to promote their prosperity, by teaching them the use of domestic animals, and the manner that the white people plough, and raise so much corn. And if, upon consideration, it would be agreeable to the nation at large to learn these valuable arts, I will find some means of teaching them, at such places within your country as shall be agreed upon.

I have nothing more to add, but to refer you to my former speech, and to repeat my wishes for the happiness of the Seneca nation.

Given under my hand, and seal of the United States, at Philadelphia, this nineteenth day of January, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-one. (L. S.]

GEO. WASHINGTON.

(Enclosure 5.)

Speech of Cornplanter, Half-Town, and the Big-Tree, Seneca Chiefs,

to the Great Councillor of the Thirteen Fires.

FATHER: No Seneca ever goes from the fire of his friend, until he has said to him, “I am going.” We therefore tell you, that we are now setting out for our own country.

FATHER: We thank you, from our hearts, that we now know there is a country we may call our own, and on which we may lie down in peace. We see that there will be peace between your children and our children; and our hearts are very glad. We will persuade the Wyandots, and other Western nations, to open their eyes, and look towards the bed which you have made for us, and to . ask of you a bed for themselves, and their children, that will not slide from under them.

We thank you for your presents to us, and rely on your promise to instruct us in raising corn, as the white people do; the sooner you do this, the better for us. And we thank

you

for the care you have taken to prevent bad men from coming to trade among us: if any come without your license, we will turn them back; and we hope our nation will determine to spill all the rum which shall, hereafter, be brought to our towns.

FATHER: We are glad to hear that you determine to appoint an agent that will do us justice, in taking care that bad men do not come to trade amongst us; but we earnestly intreat you that you will let us have an interpreter in whom we can confide, to reside at Pittsburgh: to that place our people, and other nations, will long continue to resort; there we must send what news we hear, when we go among the Western nations, which, we are determined, shall be early in the spring. We know Joseph Nicholson, and he speaks our language so that we clearly understand what you say to us, and we rely on what he says. If we were able to pay him for his services, we would do it; but, when we meant to pay him, by giving him land, it has not been confirmed to him; and he will not serve us any longer unless you will pay

him. Let him stand between, to intreat you. FATHER: You have not asked any security for peace on our part, but we have agreed to send nine Seneca boys, to be under

1 American State Papers, Indian Affairs, Vol. I, p. 144.

your care for education. Tell us at what time you will receive them, and they shall be sent at the time you shall appoint. This will assure you that we are, indeed, at peace with you, and determined to continue so. If you can teach them to become wise and good men, we will take care that our nation shall be willing to receive instruction from them.

CORNPLANTER, his X mark.
HALF-Town, his X mark.

BIG-TREE, his X mark.
Signed at Philadelphia, 7th February, 1791, in presence of

JOSEPH NICHOLSON, Interpreter,
THOMAS PROCTER,
Ty. MATLACK.

[Three enclosures not printed.]

(Enclosure 6.]

Instructions to Colonel Thomas Procter.1

Sır: Having offered to you the execution of a mission, on the part of the United States, to the Miami and Wabash Indians, and you having accepted of the same, you are to receive these instructions as the rule of your conduct.

The great object of your long journey is, to impress the said Miami and Wabash Indians with the candor and justice of the General Government. That the United States require only that they would demean themselves peaceably.

That, if they should refuse to listen to this invitation, they only will be liable for the evil which will fall upon and crush them.

This invitation is not made in consequence of any principles of fear, but from a desire to pluck them, if possible, out of the fire, which is already enkindled.

The message which is herewith delivered you, will show you the sentiments expressed to them, and you; and the Indians who may accompany you, are to say all that may be proper to enforce said sentiments.

You have been informed of the measures taken with the Cornplanter, Big-Tree, and Half-Town, and other Senecas, who were in this city lately, to go to the said Miami and Wabash Indians, with messages from their own nation, of similar import with the one with which you are charged.

"American State Papers, Indian Affairs, Vol. I, p. 145.

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