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they possess a fair right to any of those lands, they shall receive a liberal compensation for the same.
It is presumed, if these sentiments could be fully impressed on the minds of the hostile Indians, (and measures are taking for that purpose) that the establishment of tranquillity on the frontiers, would be the probable consequence.
But if the hostile Indians should, after having these intentions of the government laid fully before them, still persist in their depredations on the frontiers, it will be considered as the dictates of humanity, to endeavor to punish, with exemplary severity, so incorrigible a race of men, in order to deter other tribes, in future, from a like conduct.
In pursuance of these friendly sentiments, the United States have stipulated with the Five Nations the following article, and have thereon made the arrangements contained in your special instructions of this date:
“GEORGE WASHINGTON, President of the United States of America, To all who shall see these presents, greeting:
Whereas an article has been stipulated with the Five Nations of Indians, by, and with the advice and consent of the Senate of the United States, which article is in the words following, to wit:
'The President of the United States, by Henry Knox, Secretary for the Department of War, stipulates, in behalf of the United States, the following article, with the Five Nations of Indians, so called, being the Senecas, Oneidas, and the Stockbridge Indians, incorporated with them the Tuscaroras, Cayugas, and Onondagas, to wit: the United States, in order to promote the happiness of the Five Nations of Indians, will cause to be expended, annually, the amount of one thousand five hundred dollars, in purchasing for them clothing, domestic animals, and implements of husbandry, and for encouraging useful artificers to reside in their villages. In behalf of the United States:
(L. S.) H. KNOX,
Secretary for the Department of War. Done in the presence of Tobias Lear,
Nathan Jones.' Now, know ye, That I, having seen and considered the said article, do accept, ratify, and confirm the same.
In testimony whereof, I have caused the seal of the United States to be hereunto affixed, and signed the same with my hand. Given at the City of Philadelphia, the twenty-third day of April, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and ninetytwo, and in the sixteenth year of the sovereignty and independence of the United States. (L. S.)
GEO. WASHINGTON. By the President:
You will clearly understand, that the United States have, under the constitution, the sole regulation of Indian affairs, in all matters whatsoever. You will, therefore, receive no orders but from me, in the name of the President, and from the superintendent.
In all your transactions, your conduct must be marked with economy, and due regard to the public interests. Your permanent appointment and your reputation, will materially depend on your attention to this order.
It will, therefore, be your duty, not only to guard the public property from waste or embezzlement, but to prevent any other person from doing the same. Your accounts will be rigidly examined, and any deviations from this order will be in your own wrong
You are to understand, that any improper assembling of the Indians, will be considered as a violation of your orders, and will be severely censured, besides the expenses disallowed.
It will be proper, that you establish some certain mode of communicating with me, by confiding your letters to some persons of reputation, on the route from Canandaigua to Philadelphia.
Colonel Pickering is of opinion that Matthias Hollenback, of Wilkesbarre, Guy Maxwell, Esquire, at Tioga Point, and Mr. John Morris, at Newtown Point, would be proper persons for this purpose; I shall, accordingly, direct my letters to you through them, until I receive your further communications on the subject. Given, &c.
The Secretary of War to Captain Joseph Brandt.'
27th June, 1792. SIR: You have been invited to the seat of the General Government as a chief of the Six Nations, and one who has a general interest in the soil and the welfare of the Western Indians.
The main purpose of the invitation is to explain to you the humane disposition of the President of the United States, as well in regard to the hostile Indians as to the Indian tribes generally; hoping from your general character for intelligence and attachment to the Indian interest, that you will fully and truly unfold to them those things which may conduce to their happiness.
There are many circumstances which induce the opinion, that some of the hostile Indians are entirely mistaken as to the object of the war, and that they have joined therein from an apprehension and belief that the United States have formed the design of wresting their lands from them. As you have been fully informed on this subject, and as you have agreed to repair to the assembled nations at the Miami river of lake Erie, you may be able to convince them of the contrary.
The present Indian war commenced with the Miamies and Wabash Indians, and the Shawanese. With the two former nations the United States have never been able to form any treaties. Partial hostilities seem to have existed, without intermission from the year 1776 to the present time.
You may truly assure the hostile Indians
Ist. That the United States are willing to bury the red hatchet forever, and to forget all past evils.
2d. That the United States require no Indian lands but those which have been ceded by treaties, made with the full understanding and full consent of the chiefs, and will restrain the whites from settling upon them.
3d. That we have thus estimated the treaty of Muskingum, herewith delivered to you, made and concluded on the 9th day of January, 1789, agreeably to the map herewith delivered to you.
4th. That if, however, it should hereafter be made to appear, either that the compensation then given was inadequate, or that other than the parties who made it have any just claims on the lands ceded thereby, that we shall be willing to give them a just compensation.
1American State Papers, Indian Affairs, Vol. I, p. 236.
5th. That any compensations which shall be agreed upon shall be furnished annually, in such goods as shall be most for the comfort of the Indian families.
6th. That the United States will make arrangements to teach the Indians, if agreeable to them, to raise their own bread and cattle, as the white people do.
But it will be necessary to have a treaty, at some place to be agreed upon, where these points, and all others, shall be examined and amicably adjusted. As Major Trueman and Brigadier General Putnam will probably repair to the assembled council of Indians at the Miami river, it is probable some place suitable will be agreed upon by the Indians.
But it is conceived that it would be more satisfactory to the Indians were the chiefs to repair to this city, and here conclude a treaty: provided they could be convinced of their safety while upon the business. On this point we shall be ready to afford them the most solid satisfaction, either by giving them hostages or any escorts necessary for their safety.
If the treaty should be had at the seat of the General Government, all claims or points of dispute could be adjusted as they arise. But if commissioners should be appointed to go a considerable distance, their authority must be limited, and, of course, claims which may arise from the Indians, either could not be granted, or much time must be expended in obtaining new instructions from the Government. Besides, if a treaty should be made in Philadelphia, the President would have the satisfaction of forming an acquaintance with the chiefs, and of knowing that the treaty should be adjusted exactly according to his wishes.
But, in case of agreeing upon a place of treaty, either at any spot northwest of the Ohio, or in this city, it will be indispensably necessary that there be a complete representation of all the parties, so that whatever shall be then concluded, shall be binding upon all concerned.
If the hostile Indians listen, and agree to a treaty, then they must call in all their war parties. We have restrained our warriors until the effect of our pacific overtures be known, and they must do so likewise.
To you, who possess the information, it would be unnecessary to say, that these overtures are the offspring of pure humanity, and not from any apprehension for the consequences of the war. Your own observation of our numbers will have convinced you, that, in a long and continued contest with the United States, the Indians must be utterly ruined.
But the President of the United States is anxiously desirous, for the sake of humanity, of avoiding so great an evil. He cannot but hope, that, when the Indians fully understand that all their lands not fairly ceded are their own, and that they cannot be dispossessed thereof, excepting by a fair and voluntary sale, made under the authority of the United States, they will accede to a treaty which will secure them the blessings of the earth.
I am well aware of the labor and trouble the request herein contained will create. But it is fairly inferred, from the interest you discovered in the year 1786, and at subsequent periods, for the welfare of the Western Indians, and from your being impressed that their happiness is materially involved in making peace with the United States, that you will zealously concur in accomplishing so just and so benevolent an object.
The Secretary of War to General Chapin.'
June 27th, 1792. SIR: I have received your letter of the second instant, by your son, who, with Doctor Allen and Captain Joseph Brandt, arrived in this city on the 20th instant.
Captain Brandt's visit will, I flatter myself, be productive of great satisfaction to himself, by being made acquainted with the humane views of the President of the United States.
It was well judged to deliver Captain Brandt's son the horse you mentioned.
Doctor Allen's account will be settled and paid here. For the sums you advanced him you will be credited.
No horses have been purchased on the way to this city, as the journey was mostly performed by water.
1 American State Papers, Indian Affairs, Vol. I, p. 237.