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After the council was over, Major Littletrates, who represented Governor Simcoe on that occasion, answered the Indians as follows:
BROTHERS: I shall lay before the governor, your requests; and respecting his furnishing you with provisions, &c. I doubt not but he will do it agreeable to your wishes. And also, to procure all records, plans, and documents, which shall be thought necessary, and to do every thing in his power to bring about a peace, so interesting to the United States, as well as to the British Government.
Speech of the Cornplanter and New Arrow to Major General Wayne.'
CHINUCHSHUNGUTHO, 8th December, 1792. BROTHER: We are glad that our friend, whom you send to us with your friendly message, has arrived safe at our towns, and likewise thank this young man, (the Cornplanter's nephew) who left his hunting to accompany him. He informs us that you are desirous to know what conclusions we came to with the Western Indians. We shall now give you an account of our principal proceedings. We thank the Great Spirit, that we, with the rest of our chiefs, who were at council, have again arrived safe at our towns. According to the promise of our chiefs, made last winter in Philadelphia, we have been to council with the hostile Indians, to endeavor to bring them to a peace. After we arrived at their towns, and had acquainted them that it was the wish of General Washington to be at peace with the whole of the Indians, even those from the rising to the setting of the sun: after they had considered, they all, as one, agreed to make a peace; but as General Washington did not let us know the terms on which he would make peace, it was referred to a council the ensuing spring, where they wish he should be present. They wish it to be considered that they were the first people the Great Spirit seated on this island, for which reason we look on the Americans as children, to call them our younger brethren.
In the spring, we expect to meet them in council, where we can determine on what terms peace shall be made.
1American State Papers, Indian Affairs, Vol. I, p. 337.
We are glad a road for peace is made by our brothers the Six Nations; the same road you must come in the spring, with General Washington, and at the same time you will take our brother, the King, by the hand, and lead him to the same council fire; you can come no other road, as only this one is open the road by the Ohio is out of use, being turned; miry and swampy, by the spilling of blood, for which we blame the Americans; on which account, we say, there is only one road for you to come in the Spring.
General Washington must not think hard of the loss of Colonel Harding and others, as we since have understood they were sent with messages of peace; unluckily for them and us, they had taken the bad road; if our spies, whom we kept on that road, saw any of your people, they took them for enemies, and treated them as such; we know your people would have done the same.
BROTHERS AND FRIENDS OF THE FIFTEEN STATES: We now take you by the hand. The Western nations say you always lead us to your fires. It is true, we have a strong hold of each other, so we have undertaken to lead you to their fires. It is true, we have always attended to you, and hope you will this time listen to us, and we will see you safe.
BROTHER: On our arrival at Buffalo creek, we immediately wrote to General Washington an account of the whole of our proceedings; we now let you know only the principal, as we suppose you have, before this, received a particular account from General Washington himself.
We cannot come at present to visit you, as we have so much business to do among ourselves, which we must first attend to. We thank you, and think ourselves happy in your friendship. It is the minds of the Six Nations to listen to the white people, and be friends with them; all our thoughts are how to keep the whole island in peace.
BROTHER: You have a desire to know the nations we were at council with; we cannot tell the names of them. There were present three men from the Gora nations; it took them a whole season to come; and twenty-seven nations from beyond Canada. The whole of them know, that we, the Six Nations, have General Washington by the hand. The twenty-seven nations also say, that after a peace is made with the Americans, and Western Indians, their wishes are for the whole of the Indian nations to declare themselves allies to Great Britain.
The Shawanese say, that if they make peace, it will be on these terms: The Americans to allow them all the lands they held in Sir William Johnston's time; or, at least, that the river Ohio shall be the line, and they be paid for the lands improved on the south side of said river Ohio. These, they say, are the terms, and the only ones, on which they will make peace.
BROTHER: You mention to us a reward for our services, which we are very happy to hear, and hope you will send it by our friend, who will deliver you this. We wish you also to consider the fifteen warriors, who neglected their hunting to accompany us.
These are the words of the Cornplanter and New Arrow, chiefs of the Alleghany.
I do certify, upon oath, that the foregoing speech or message, is a true translation of that delivered viva voce, by the Cornplanter and New Arrow, to me, at Chinuchshungutho, on the 8th instant.
NICHOLAS ROSECRANTZ. Sworn before me, at Legionville, this 25th day of December, 1792.
Instructions to Benjamin Lincoln, of Massachusetts, Beverly Ran
dolph, of Virginia, and Timothy Pickering, of Pennsylvania, Commissioners appointed for treating with the Indians Northwest of the Ohio.1
GENTLEMEN: You, having been appointed Commissioners to negotiate with the hostile Indians, northwest of the Ohio, are to regard the following instructions as the general principles of your conduct, and as delivered by the President of the United States.
You must be well aware of the extreme dislike of the great majority of the citizens of the United States to an Indian war, in almost any event; and with how much satisfaction they would embrace a peace upon terms of justice and humanity. To you, therefore, this negotiation is entrusted, with the hope that you
American State Papers, Indian Affairs, Vol. I, p. 340.
will, by your intelligence and perseverance, be able to close a scene of hostilities, which, on the part of the United States, have been dictated by the protection due their frontier citizens.
In order that you may possess all the knowledge in the power of the Executive to give, you have herewith furnished the several papers upon this subject, enumerated in the schedule annexed, which contains information, from the peace between Great Britain and France, in the year 1763, until the present time.
With respect to the treaties made between the United States and the several hostile tribes, since the peace with Great Britain, in 1783, it is to be observed, that the treaty of fort Harmar, made in January, 1789, is regarded as having been formed on solid grounds—the principle being that of a fair purchase and sale.
The Government considers the Six Nations, who claimed the lands by virtue of former conquests, lying between the Ohio and Lake Erie, which were ceded and confirmed to the United States by the said treaty, with the said Six Nations, together with the Wyandots and Delawares, and Ottawas, and other Western Indians, who were the actual occupants of the lands, as the proper owners thereof; that they had a right to convey the said lands to the United States; and that they did accordingly make the said conveyance, with their free consent and full understanding. Parties, however, who were not at the treaty of fort Harmar, may have been either at the treaty of fort McIntosh or the Miami. Puchonchehelas, a chief of the Delawares, was at the latter.
But, if it shall appear, upon a further investigation of the subject, at the place of conference, that there were other tribes interested in the lands then ceded to the United States, than those who subscribed the said treaty, or that the consideration given was inadequate, it may be proper, in either or both cases, that a liberal compensation be made to the just claimants.
It will, therefore, be one of the first objects of the proposed treaty, to ascertain from the Indians, what tribes are the allowed proprietors of the country lying to the northward of the Ohio, and to the southward of the lakes.
You will perceive by Hutchin's map, herewith delivered, the boundaries confirmed by the said treaty of fort Harmar to the United States; and, also, the tracts which have been granted by the Unites States to the late army, and to particular companies of men.
You will endeavor, to the utmost of your power, to induce the tribes claiming a right to the said lands, to confirm the boundary established by the said treaty of fort Harmar, with the Six Nations, and Wyandots, Delawares, &c.; for which purpose you will, among other considerations, offer:
ist. The guarantee of the United States of the right of soil, to all the remaining Indian lands in that quarter, against the citizens or inhabitants of the United States.
2dly. That the United States will relinquish the places mentioned in the said treaty as trading posts, to the northward of the general boundary; accepting, however, the grounds upon which the forts are erected, now occupied by the British troops; and which, by the treaty of peace of 1783, were ceded to the United States, together with the portions of land in the vicinity of said forts, in possession of the white inhabitants; and which have been purchased of the Indians.
3dly. The United States will relinquish any of the military posts, which shall appear to be established, without the boundaries of the treaty of fort Harmar, or the boundaries which you may agree upon.
4thly. That the United States will pay to the several tribes, in the proportions which shall be agreed upon, the sum of fifty thousand dollars, in goods, according to a tariff of articles, to be settled at the treaty. The tariff shall include the prime cost of the goods in Philadelphia or New York, together with the charge of the transportation to the place which shall be fixed for the delivery, and no more.
5thly. That, in addition to the above sum, to be paid immediately, the United States will also pay, annually, the sum of ten thousand dollars, in goods, to such tribes, and to be delivered at such places, as shall be agreed upon.
You will observe that the space between the tracts of land granted to the particular companies, and the Indian boundary, established by the treaty of fort Harmar, will render it extremely difficult, if not impracticable, to relinquish any lands in the said space, without establishing a cause of perpetual discussions and hostilities between the whites and Indians. But, if the relinquishment of any lands, in the said space, should be an ultimatum with the said Indians, and a line could be agreed upon which would