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BROTHERS: We have something further to say, though not much. We are small, compared with our great chiefs at Miami. But, though small, we have something to say.
BROTHERS: We think, from your speech, that there is a prospect of our coming together. We, who are the nations at the Westward, are of one mind; and, if we agree with you, as there is a prospect that we shall, it will be binding and lasting.
BROTHERS: Our prospects are the fairer, because all our minds are one: you have not before spoken to us unitedly. Formerly, because you did not speak to us unitedly, what was done was not binding. Now, you have an opportunity of speaking to us together; and we now take you by the hand, to lead you to the place appointed for the meeting. (A white belt of seven rows.)
BROTHERS: This is all we have to say.
Afterwards, Captain Brandt, recollecting that he had not answered our request, respecting the nations and chiefs assembled at the Miami, rose and said:
BROTHERS: One thing more we have to say: yesterday you expressed a wish to be informed of the names of the nations, and numbers of chiefs assembled at Miami. But, as they were daily coming in, we cannot give you exact information. You will see for yourselves in a few days. When we left it, the following nations were there, viz: Five Nations, Munsees,
He then presented the list on paper. The Commissioners then replied:
BROTHERS: Our ears have been open to your speech. It is agreeable to us. We are ready to accompany you to the place of treaty, where, under the direction of the Great Spirit, we hope for a speedy termination to the present war, on terms equally interesting and agreeable to all parties.
N. B. At the Council held at Niagara, on the 7th July, before the arrival of the commissioners from Navy Hall, Captain Brandt, in the name of the deputies, thus addressed the Governor, Colonel Sincoe:
It being agreed at the Rapids that we should come and meet the commissioners in our Father's presence, we return our thanks to the Great Spirit for seeing your Excellency well this day. Our intention and business is peaceable, and our inclination is to do what is right and just. We are all of one mind, and wished your Excellency to be present.—(A belt of wampum.)
His Excellency, in reply, said:
He was happy to see them well, and as the commissioners expressed their wishes* to meet the Indians in his presence, he should be glad to hear what they had to say.—(The belt returned.)
July 30th. In Council at Captain Elliot's, near the mouth of
Present, The Commissioners of the United States,
The Deputation of Indians,
The deputation addressed the commissioners as follows: A Wyandot chief, called Sa-wagh-da-wunk, (whose name signifies Carry-one-about) being their speaker.
BROTHERS, listen: We are glad to see you here in peace, and thank the Great Spirit that has preserved us to meet again.
BROTHERS: We were sent to speak to you sometime ago, at Niagara. Some chiefs are now here, who were then present.
BROTHERS: We did not explain ourselves to each other, and we did not rightly understand each other.
BROTHERS: We desired that we might rightly understand each other. We have thought it best, that what we had to say should be put into writing, and here (presenting a paper to the commissioners) is the meaning of our hearts.
The above speech was interpreted by Simon Girty, a British interpreter.
The commissioner received the papers, and told the deputation they would well consider the subject of it, and return an answer in writing; and give them notice when they were ready to deliver it. The contents of the paper were as follows: To the Commissioners of the United States:
*The commissioners expressed no such thing; they merely consented to the measure, because it was the wish of the Indians. (See the proceedings of July 5th.) (Appearing in original text.)
BROTHERS: The deputies we sent to you, did not fully explain our meaning. We have therefore sent others, to meet you once more, that you may fully understand the great question we have to ask of you, and to which we expect an explicit answer in writing.
BROTHERS: You are sent here by the United States, in order to make peace with us, the confederate Indians.
BROTHERS: You know very well that the boundary line, which was run between the white people and us, at the treaty of fort Stanwix, was the river Ohio.
BROTHERS: If you seriously design to make a firm and lasting peace, you will immediately remove all your people from our side of that river.
BROTHERS: We therefore ask you, are you fully authorized by the United States to continue, and firmly fix on the Ohio river, as the boundary line, between your people and ours?
Done in general council, at the foot of the Miami rapids, 27th
Ottawas. Shawanese, Snake.
Connoys, Turkey. Miamies.
Chippewas. Mingoes, Snipe.
July 31st. At the close of the afternoon, the commissioners delivered the following answer to the deputation:
Speech of the Commissioners of the United States to the Deputies of the
Confederated Indian nations, assembled at the rapids of the
BROTHERS: You yesterday addressed us, mentioning a former deputation, who met us at Niagara. At that meeting you said we did not come to a right understanding; that your deputies did not fully explain your meaning to us, nor we ours to them: that you desired we might rightly understand each other, and therefore
thought it best that what you had to say should be put into writing. Then, handing us a paper, you said, “here is the meaning of our hearts."
BROTHERS: That paper is directed to the commissioners of the United States, and speaks to them these words, viz: (here is repeated their written address, as transcribed in the preceding pages.)
BROTHERS, THE DEPUTIES HERE PRESENT: We have now repeated the words contained in the paper which you delivered to us; and those words are interpreted to you. We presume the interpretation agrees with your idea of the contents of the paper. It is expressed to be signed by the Wyandots, Delawares, Shawanese, Miamies, Mingoes, Pattawatamies, Ottawas, Connoys, Chippewas, and Munsees, in behalf of themselves and the whole confederacy, and agreed to in full council.
BROTHERS: We are a little surprised at the suggestion, that, in the conference at Niagara, we did not come to a right understanding, and that your deputies did not fully explain your meaning. Those deputies appeared to be men of good understanding, and when we saw them they were perfectly sober; in short, we never saw men in public council more attentive, or behave with more propriety. We could not, therefore, suppose they could mistake your meaning or ours. Certainly we were sufficiently explicit, for, in plain terms, we declared, “That, in order to establish a just and permanent peace, some concessions would be necessary, on your part as well as on ours." These words, Brothers, are a part of our speech to your deputies; and that speech, they assured us, they fully understood. What those concessions should be, on both sides, and where the boundary line should be fixed, were proper subjects of discussion, at the treaty, when we should speak face to face. This, we are certain, would be the best way to remove all difficulties. But your nations have adopted another mode, which, by keeping us at a distance, prevents our knowing each other, and keeps alive those jealousies, which are the greatest obstacles to a peace. We are, therefore, desirous of meeting your nations in full council, without more delay.
We have already waited in this province sixty days beyond the time appointed for opening the treaty.
BROTHERS: We have now expressed our opinion of the proper mode of settling the differences between you and the United States; but, as your nations have desired answers to certain questions, previous to our meeting, and we are disposed to act with frankness and sincerity, we will give you an explicit answer to the great question you have now proposed to us. But, before we do this, we think it necessary to look back to some former transactions, and we desire you patiently to hear us.
BROTHERS: We do know very well, that, at the treaty of fort Stanwix, twenty-five years ago, the river Ohio was agreed on, as the boundary line between you and the white people, of the British colonies; and we all know, that, about seven years after that boundary was fixed, a quarrel broke out between your Father the King of Great Britain, and the people of those colonies, which are now the United States. This quarrel was ended by the Treaty of Peace made with the King about ten years ago, by which the great lakes, and the waters which unite them, were, by him, declared to be the boundaries of the United States.
BROTHERS: Peace having been thus made, between the King of Great Britain and the United States, it remained to make peace between them and the Indian nations, who had taken part with the King; for this purpose, commissioners were appointed, who sent messages to all those Indian nations, inviting them to come and make peace. The first treaty was held about nine years ago, at fort Stanwix, with the Six Nations, which has stood firm and unviolated to this day. The next treaty was made about ninety days after, at fort M’Intosh, with the half king of the Wyandots, Captain Pipe, and other chiefs, in behalf of the Wyandot, Delaware, Ottawa, and Chippewa nations. Afterwards treaties were made with divers Indian nations, south of the Ohio river; and the next treaty was made with Kakiapilathy, here present, and other Shawanese chiefs in behalf of the Shawanese nation, at the mouth of the Great Miami, which runs into the Ohio.
BROTHERS: The commissioners who conducted these treaties in behalf of the United States, sent the papers containing them to the great council of the States, who, supposing them satisfactory to the nations treated with, proceeded to dispose of large tracts of land thereby ceded, and a great number of people removed from other parts of the United States, and settled upon