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Namque aliqui exercent vim duram, & rebus iniqui
1 ;Vh>. Pxticl lib.fii. line 44.
THE VARIOUS KINDS OF *
[V R O P E S
SUITABLE EXAMPLES under each of them.
A Trope a sov'reign pow'r o'er language shows,
A Metaphor compares without the sign:
An Allegory in a length of chain Will the reiterated Trope detain. "A vine from Egypt, by Jehovah's hand, ** Was rescu'd and remov'd to Canaan's land. *' To give the stranger room the noxious thorn, "And baleful hemlock from the foil were torn: "Fenc'd round by Heav'n the plant in safety grew, «' Blest the full beam, and drank th'enliv'ning dew: « Deep in the earth it struck its thriving root, *« Enlarg'd with foliage, and enrkh'd with fruit:
** The wide-extended shade the hills admir'd,
A Metonymy will, for kindred's fake,
Gay giddy youth, and blasts its blooming joys
Subjects for adjuncts Jland. Friends, take the cup,
', . .r* ■• IT ': .'•.". i ■ "•■ "'■
A Metalepsis tbrong'd with Tropes appears.
Synecdoche our stile diversifies,
, I Genus
Genus for species stands. New life proclaim
Antottomasia for a common name
. :.. - v: ..--.-Arr
• Mark xvi. 15. f Ctcbro. J Cæsak.
II The story here referred to is thus related |by Dr Ward,, in his Latin Oration prefixed to his System of Oratory, which I fliall take the liberty to tranflate. "Bnt I cannot, fays the "Doctor, restrain myself from mentioning how this most err,; •« nent man (cicero) obtained the liberty of his friend, ac"cuied of a capital offence; an occasion in which, if ever,
- the utmost strength of his ekxjaence exerted itself. The « civil war between Cæsar and Pompey being ended, and
— the sovereignty of Ram being now in the hands of Cæsar, «' Quinttjs Ligarius was accused by Q^tubero of being ■< in arms against Cæsar in Afrite, Cicero undertook Li•* Gar rus's defence. Upon C.tjar-'s being made acquainted *■ with it, he cries, ff^j jZ-iali star what Cicero has to • fry? The man h gnitlj «J»/fr tmafe I* pleads, and is unquef. "tionahlf a tvitieJ *mm against at. But when Cicero be«« gan to speak, his oration appeared so admirable for its pa* «< thos and. various elegance, that it wonder fusty wrought "upon Cæsar, which he at first discovered by a confused ** countenance, and :he frequent change of colour; but » a "while he was thrown into fiich perturbation, that his whole
body trembled, and he dropped some parchments out of hi* "hand. In the end Cicero carried his caase, and Liga'* Mws was set free. Thus th^Sovereign of so mans nations
An Iront in smooth mellifluent phrase Its poison moots, and Wounds with deep disgrace. *' Ye are the men of all rhankifsd most wise, *' And when ye die, no doubt all wisdom dies*."
Sarcasm is troriy Jn its excess. u King of the Jews, thee humbly we addresi j "Low at thy feet we bend submissive down, «• Revere thy reed, arid hail thy thorny crown f."
Hyperboie the truth will oft' neglect By bold excess, arid by as bold defect. Mark how it rises. M Yon tall mountain sbrowds '« Its height in heav'n, and tow'rs above the clouds.*? Again it finks. "Shall man his grandeur boast? "An atom of an atom-World at most!"
A Catachresis thro* the want of Wordsj, Or fond of charms which novelty affords^ Boldly bounds o'er expression's wonted fence, And makes the Reader tremble for the sense.
"How swift those cranes, exulting in the gale,
"Thro' the cerulean gulphs of Æther fail?
"For me the wheat's fat kidneys croWn the plains*
"And mine's the blood the mellow grape contains %,**
"was overcome by the force of Eloquence; and he who had "carried his victorious arms to almost every part of the globe, «' was himself at length vanquished by more powerful weapons. «• An illostrioas victory indeed! in which Cicero might well - boast, that arms had yielded to the gown,"
• Job xii. 2. t Matt- xTM'; %
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