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CHAPTER I. The general Nature of Figures considered.

§ \. The definition of a Figure. % 4. Figures how distinguished from Tropes, and firm common language. § 3. Figures of t<m kinds; those of language, and those of sentiment. § 4. The neceffity and use of Figures. § 5. Directions as to the ■proper management of Figures t

■ (1) When Figures are to be introduced % (2) W*t are to he sparing in the use of Figures; (3) Our Figures are mt to be too much adorned and refined. § 6. Passages from Cicero and Longwus.

§ I., jf Figure * is the fashioning or dress of a

•*■*■ Composition, or an emphatical manner

of speaking different from what is plain and common.

* ¥xomsing»,IfaJhicn. "Th* term Figures, says Dr Ward, ** seems to have been borrowed from the stage; where the "different habits and gestures of the actors, suitable to the se"veral characters they sustained, were by the Greeks called «* Z^ufutTa, and by the Latins. Figura. And k is not unusual "' with us to say of a person, both with respect to his dress and «* action, that he makes a very bad, or a very graceful figure. "And as language is the dress as it were of our thoughts, in « which they appear and are represented to others; so any « particular manner of speaking may, in a large sense of the 1 word, be called its Figure, in which Ia.kude Writers somex " times use it; but Rhetoricians have restrained the fense of

I 4 "the

§ 2. A Figure essentially differs from a Tropg, &s in a Figure there is no translation of a word from its proper into an improper fense; and it is distinguishable from ordinary language, as it casts a new form upon speech, arid by that mean enr

noble? .and adorns our discourses, js*-^, „.,„*r

,;:y!i.;;-'-i'- ;. Ivjo; 1 • • —

§ 3. Figures are divided into two kinds. Figures of language, , and Figures of sentiment K Figures of language are such fort of Figures as only regard our words which are repeated in some new and uncommon order, or with elegance and beauty fall, into an harmony of found. Figures of sentiment are such as consist not only in^words, but ideas j and by these means infuse a strength and vigour into our discourses. The real difference between Figures of language and Figures of sentiment plainly appears from hence, that if in Figures of language you alter the order of the words, or make a change in them, the Fi

■ ,.: -J,"..,'- "gures

*• the word {q such forms of speech, as differ from the more

*' common and ordinary ways of expression, as the theatrical

"habits of actors, and their deportment on the stage, are efif

ferenf from their usual garb and behaviour at other times.'* •

Wakd-'s Oratory, vql. ii. p. 33, 34.

. . ...

f Figure, sicut nomine ipfp patet, est eonformatio quædam

orationis remota I communi & primum fe offerente rations. ■

Quare in Tropis ponuntur verba alia pro aliis. Horum nihij, .

in Figuris cadit. Nam & propriis verbls k ordine collocatis,

fieri Figure potest. Quintil. lib. ix. cap. 1. J 1. ^ ,-....^

•* Duæ sunt ejus partesj iuuuft, id est, septentianjm» tn r Xeiju?, id est, Verbprum.' Quare sicut omnem orationem its -A Figures quoque ve'rsari necesse est in sensu k in verbj*. Quintil; lib. Ix. cap. 1. J 2. ^ t

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