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gures vanish •, but let never so much alteration be rnade as to the words- in Figures of sentiment, the Figures will still continue; for as the Figures rest upon the ideas, it is impossible that they should be destroyed by a mutation of language *. . The first class of Figures is only the body, the. last is the very foul of our compositions f,

§ 4.'As to the necessity and use of Figures, filial} only for the present transiently observe, that tfiev, are of great service to animate, adorn, entertain^ and illustrate. "It is of great importances'fays '* the ingenious Mr.RoLLiN, to make, youth ob"serve, in reading good Authors, the" use'which M true eloquence makes of Figure's,, and the as^ "sistance it draws from them, not only tqpjease,' "but to persuade, and move the' affections; "and that without them expression is weak, and "falls into a kind of monotony, and is almost ** like a body without a foul X^uintilian gives a Very just idea of the power of Figures by a very natural comparison; "The Statuary's art, "fays he, is very little seen in an upright body, 'v .' . * " when

* Formantur autem & verba & sententiæ pœne lnnumerabiles, quod satis scio notum esse vobis j fed inter cbnformatfonem verborum & sententiarum hoc interest, quod verborum tollkur, fi verba mutaris; sententiarum perroanet^quibusconque verbis uti velis . Cicer. t/e Oral. lib. iii. p. 52.

f Sunt igitur Schemata feu Figuræ duplicis generis, ut i' plerisijue statuuntur, dictionis, & sententiæ. Ilia; ad materiam, ac veluti corpus orationio pertinent; hæ vero ad sormam U quasi animam, hoc est, ad sententiam. Glassii Pbilalog. Sacra, p. 1422« . , :: ^«i^fr^UsfeW^lr^

% Roll In on the Btllet Lttirti, vol. ii. p. 141.^^" «*f

** when the face is made direct, when the hands 4t hang down, when the feet are set close toge"ther, and when a"stiff--air prevails over the *' whole image from head to foot. The grace** ful bending, and, as I may call it, the motion' «* of a statue, gives life to it. The hands are "formed in different postures, and the counte"nance is infinitely varied. And the fame beauty "and pleasure which strike us in the works of •« the Statuary, strike us also in the Figures of «* the Rhetorician +." . ..... .' :I

'•"' • c.'A "* 1

§ 5. Before I finish rny 'discourse on the general nature of Pigures, I shall give a few directions as to the proper management of them, s (1) Let our discourses be founded upon reason, and let us establish every thing we. advance with solid and convincing arguments. Wfi are/first to labour to enlighten die understanding, ^and jinforrri the judgment, and then introduce jour Figures to affect and engage the passions,- and thereby secure a complete triumph over our au-, dience. It h a kind of insult to the reason Of a man to endeavour to excite his passions, before he is fowsfied of the truth and justice of our

,..i,-l..if •-" • - •' '■' ..run.--cause;

+ Nam recti qutdem corporb vel minima gratia tst.'" Ncque enim adverse fit facies, Si demissa brachia, & juncti'pedej,' & a siuftmi* ad ima rig ens cotpu»: Flexua iHc, &, ut sic dii'eihn, motus dat actsm quendam effectis. Ideo nee ad imoin' jnodum formate manus, & tn vultu mine sperfeSJ-Qjianj qaidem gratiam ic datectatienem afferent Figatar, ifjmeqne- in' •sensibus, quasque in verbis sunt. Quihtij.. lfb. H. cap1, i^, .}*, \ :» ..»!•'. • .«u .::•:><!;

cause i but when he is once thoroughly convinced by the clear light of argument, he is prepared to catch the flame, and our eloquence and pathetis address, which consist so much in the use of Figures, will scarce fail to have a commanding efficacy and prevalence over his foul, ar least this is the proper place for employing them, . . \, . t:/, <-'

(2) kef us be sparing in the use of Figures. We should not needlessly multiply them, and leem in our discourses over-wrought, and, as I might fay, encumbered with Figures, as if we J»adj set ourselves in the vain-glory of our hearts fO-display all die riches of our jmaginatic*i,while w« stiould be instructing our hearers, iand making a sational progress towards the conquest of their passions. 'Never let our Figures have place in our arguments, except for illustration. Let ©ur reasoning b$ clear and concise, and as void of rhetorical embellishment as possible. Neves let us hide Or disguise the chain of truth by the pomp of Rhetoric, or varnish our discourses with fueiticrod of ornaments as we fee in the windows ipf Gothic cathedrals, whose gaudy paintings figure the pure light of the day, which would otherwise be traalinitted in a gentle and unsullied lustre. And Figures, even in their proper situation, as a reinsiweemeat to reason and evidence, should ti&t in. general be lavishly expended,, but disereetljr. and moderately used •, "for, as Mr Blackwaix «' well observes, a passion described in a mulcts' tude of words, and carried on to a dispropor

*« tidnate **' tiohate length, fails of the end proposed, and "tires instead of pleasing. Contract your force, **-fays'- that ingenious Writer, into a moderate «-compass, :and be - nervous rather than to'frpious. But-' if at any time there be occasion

for you to indulge a copioiisness of stile, be^ warq. itdoe% -not- jun into looseness and luxu"riance *." "An Author, fays the Arch

bistiop of Oambray, is not satisfied with plain

reason, ''natiVei;gi:aces, and:-lively sentiments^ i' "which are ;ihe; friie*'perfection of- a discourse: «ftvS'*lf4ov,e m^es^-Hirh overffibot the mark,«3 ttnOBHey who h"aVfcj[: jrust taste,: avoid excelrifi ~ y'.idve.ry. things''even1 in wit■ kfeif. He Skm ^'moi't wit rWhcf-knows when to check its sallies,

(feaThe^ mayiadapt himself, to peoples eapsUft* ^jaiqsr and smooth the way for" them.— I'wbilltf %Jave a i sublime so familiar,bT6 sweet, 3nd stj Sitfimple,' that tat first every Reader wbllicVbe apt ^tfcvfhink he could easily have hit on it himself/ tfrlfhpugh few are capable of attaining it +.*' ih'fa)"Let not our Figures be too much adorned aadlrefmed into too nice an exactness. The less art; the better. I And it becomes an Orator, even when he employs it, to conceal it as muoh as possible, that he may not appear ambitious to make a parade of his abilities, when he mould inflame the passions; and may hot be neglected a^iÆ traduced- as a trifler, when he is treating Jja>••».-' • upon

Black Wall's JntroduSikn to the Clajsscs, page 187,
Letter to the French Academy, p. 247, 248.

upon momentous,and; interesting, subjects; :,-&et us feel our subject -in- allr-its.'jmfpoFtance :• let it glow, like, a giving coal, at-ouj! ;hearts •, aijdvle* ttic Figures we; make use of be as it were the powerful and spontaneous flames of this internal firs. Naturcand vehement sensation will admic of no affectation or artifice; and there is as much difference between the Orator who nicely adjusts his sentences, and delicately contrives and polishes his Figures, and the Orator who speaks in the pathos and transport of his foul, as there is between a painted flame and a real conflagration, or between an artificial fountain spouting up its little streams into the air, and the strong majestic, current of a river hastening ,to pour its ample trea^ stires into the ocean. When a person is powerfully possessed with the passion he would inspire into others, he, delivers himself with spirit and energy; he, ;naturally breaks out into lively and bold figure^ and all the suitable expressions of a.strong and commanding eloquence. I have admired that. paragraph (not wholly foreign to our purpose) in Mr Pope's Preface to his translation of Homer's Iliad; though perhaps the characters of the several great Writers he instances are not perfectly just. In the passage we may both observe the great excellency of a Writer, I mean this internal.ardor, and how Mr Popæ^ in his various descriptions of several t Author's, has beautifully .exemplified the .very, excellency ..he describes,,, .". I? js remarkable, fays., he, 'that ¥ HoM^aV fancy, 'which is "every where vigo

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