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him, verse 18. of his Epistle: "If he hath wronged "thee, or owes thee aught, put that to my ac"count; I Paul have written it With my own i! hand, I will repay jt: albeit I do not fay to "thee, how thou owest to me, even thine own "self besides." Was there ever a more delicate, striking, and persuasive Apophasts?
§ 4. The use of this Figure in my opinion may be various.
(1) By the aid of the Apophasts, the speaker introduces, without any difficulty, and without any suspicion of being ill-natured of ungenerous, some criminal charges against a person, which may be foreign indeed frOm the matter under immediate consideration, and therefore may require art to mention them, but yet may be of such a nature as may considerably assist his general argument and cause *.
(2) By this Figure we may crowd abundance of sentiment into a small compass, and arm our discourses as with an invincible strength, by collecting and compacting our ideas; and how much is such a method to be preferred to a tedious and minute detail of circumstances, which grows languid upon the hearer by a weak and subtil diffusion?
* Hæc utilis est exornatio, fi aut rem quam non pertineat ab aliis ostendere occulta admonuisse prodest. Cicer. atHi&Rf.n. lib. \v. n. 47.
(3) The Apophafis may be a grateful surprise to our audience, and powerfully operate upon their minds. "While they hear us saying, We omit such and such things, or we Jhall not touch upon them, or we Jhall not mention them, we appear to them as if we thought the things which we pretend to wave were light and inconsiderable; when, to their astonishment (and astonishment will always be attended with a strong impression) they are evidently very weighty and momentous. Arguments delivered in this unexpected manner, fall like accidental fire from heaven, which strikes much more powerfully than "the regular expanded lustres of the day.
I shall only add, that I have somewhere found it observed concerning the Apophafis, that it is principally used on the following occasions; either when things are small, but yet necessary to be mentioned; or well known, and need no enlargement-, or ungrateful, and therefore should \>e introduced with caution, and not set in too strong a light: though I might add, that the very caution with which we employ the Apophajis, may give it the speedier passage into the foul, and ensure and augment its influence over the person to whom it is directed, as may be easily observed in the above-cited instance from the Apostle Paul, in his Epistle to Philemon.
j 1. The definition of the Anacoenosis. § 2. Instances of it from Qujntilian, Cicero, and Virgil. § 3. Examples of this Figure from the sacred Writings. § 4. The various use of the Anacoinosis.
§ I. jf Nacoenqsis * is a Figure by which <*3f the speaker applies to his hearers or opponents for their opinion upon the point in .debate; or when a person excuses his conduct, gives reasons for it, and appeals to those about him whether they are not satisfactory.
§ 2. Quintilian both describes this Figure, and furnishes us with some very suitable examples. "That Figure, fays he, is called commu"*' nication, when we either consult our adversa"ries, as Domitius Afer pleading for Cloan"Tilla: But she being timorous, is ignorant what "liberty a woman may take, or what may be be' *' coming in a wife; perhaps in that solitude forM 2 « tune
* From uiuiiu, I communicate*
"tune has cast you in the way of that miserable f* woman: but you, brother, and you, paternal il friends, what advice do you give? or when we, "as it were, deliberate with our judges, which is "very frequent: What do you persuade? and I "ajk you, what then ought to be done? As when "Cato fays, Tell me, if you were in my place, "what would you have done? and elsewhere, "Suppose it was a common affair, and that the "management was intrusted to you *."
Cicero makes use of the same Figure in his Oration for Cæcina: "For suppose, Piso, that "any person had driven you from your house by "violence, and with an armed force, how would "you have behaved +?" Another example may be produced from the same Orator: "But "what.could you have done in such a case, and '" at such a juncture? when to have sat still, "or to have withdrawn, had been cowardice; "when the wickedness and fury of Saturninus
* A quo fchemate non procul abed ilia quæ djcitur communicatio, cum aut ipsos adversarios consulimus, ut Domitius Afer pro Cloantilla: At ilia nescit trepida quod liceat fœminæ, qnod conjugem deceat; forte vos in ilia folitudine obvios casus miferai'mulieri obtulit. Tu, frater, vos patemi amici, quod consilium datis? aut cum judicibus quasi deliberamus, quo! est frequentisiimum; Quid fuadetis? & vos in» terrogo; Quid tandem fieri oportuit? Ut Cato; cedo, si vos In eo loco essetis, quid aliud fecissetis? & alibi; communem rem agi putatote; ac vos huic rei proposals esse. Quintil. lib.ix. cap. 2. § 1.
■\ Etenim, Piso, si quis te ex ædibus tuis vi, hominibus armatis dejecerit^ quid ageres? Cicer. pro Cæcina, n. 31.
"had sent for you into the capitol, and the Con** suls had called you to protect the safety and "liberty of your country, whose authority, "whose voice, which party would you have "followed, and whose orders would you have "chosen to obey *?" «
Nor has Oratory only adopted this Figure, but we shall find it also in Poetry; as where Virgil, in his Pastoral, introduces Tityrus as saying,
What could I do? No other way appear'd
§ 3. Examples of the Anacoenosis might be furnished in great variety from the sacred Writings. As in Isaiah v. 3, 4. "And now, Oinha"bitants of Jerusalem, and men of Judah, judge, "I pray you, betwixt me and my vineyard: "What could have been done more to my vine"yard, that I have not done?" So J er. xxiii. 23. "Am I a God at hand, faith the Lord, and '* am I not a God afar off? Can any hide himM 3 "self
? Tu deniquc quid faceres tali in re, ac tempore? cum ignaviæ ratio te in fugam, atque in latebras impelleret: improbitas & furor L. Saturnini yi capitolium arcesseret; Consulea ad patriæ salutem & libertatem vocarent; quam tandem auctoritatem, quam vocem, cujus sectam sequi, cujus inip'erio parere potiffimum velles? Cicer. fro C. Raeiiuo, n. 8.
f Quid facerem? Neque servitjo me exire licebat; Nee tam præsentes alibi cognoscere Deos. '•
Vit.QW, Edq&0» yer, j. 1, ,.