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"'patilan people, the city Capua, the fields, the ** temples of the Gods, and all' that we have, "both human Or divine, into the hands of the ** Roman people. Consider that whatever we "shall hereafter suffer, that we, who have "surrendered ourselves to you, are the suf"ferers f." If it be said, that this speech was an actual surrender, and so may not be proper to be produced as an instance of the Synchoresis as a Figure in Rhetoric, I grant indeed the justice of the remark •, but yet may observe from this piuiage, how well adapted concession, though different from the view in which we have been considering it, is to excite compassion.
§ 3. Scripture affords us several instances of this Figure. Solomon, being desirous to impress the minds of young persons with the fense of the future judgment, addresses them in a Synchoresis, and thus surprises them with the awful truth he would inculcate, and arms it with an amazing force. Eccles. xi. g. " Rejoice, O ss O young man, in thy youth, and let thine "heart chear thee in the days of thy youth, and s' walk in the ways of thine heart, and in the
+ Ad ea princeps legationis (sic enim domo mandatum attulerat.) Quandoquidem, inquit, nostra tneri adversus vim atque injuriatn justa vi non vultis, vestra certe defended*. Itaque populum Campanum, urbemque Capuam, agros, delubra Deum, divina humanaque omnia in vestram, PatTes conseripti, populique Romani ditionem dedimus; qaicquid deiwdc patiemur, dedititii vestri pafl'uri. Livii Hist. lib. vii. §31.
-S-.sight, .of.-.thine eyes." "Can any advices-;b© «' more agreeable," fays the^ypung Libertine, ««.than these -,adyices of Solomon £ His- name '* shall he ever .endeared to me, on-the account! ? I will ever join in his .general pcarse, that he^ "was ind^ed;the. wisest of,.me^". ." But know *f thou, that^prall these^things^God will bring H thee into judgment."..The^asing concessions end in.a voice,rr^eyter£i^;;thjLn that of, thunder,: the .fond expe£tattons,Qf an:uncontrolled licence for.sensual pleasures,are at,once dissolved, and the apprehensiqns,pf assure judgment spoil all the promised sweetys,of,^in,4nd embitter themwith worse than galLand-w^rrnwood.; I am sensible that this passage of Solomon may be understood as a ■permission, under such restraints as are mentioned at .the end of the verse; but why should it not, be taken in the.sense I have given, as the expressions of walking in. the ways of our, hearts, and in the sight of our. eyes, seem, not fa well adapted to describe lawful and innocent-enjoyments? i -,.,..., ,.i. r
The Apostle James seta himself to evince the, insufficiency of faith without, works ■, and how forcibly does he do, this by the following concession? James ii. 19. !S Thou believest that there "is one God-, thou dost well: the Devils, also "believe, and tremble." , ,
l.fhall conclude with a remarkable instance of the' Synchoresis from' Jojh'uaxxiv. 14,15. "Now 0 therefore fear the Lord, and serve him in sin"cerity and in truth, and put away the Gods
.-re-:; ■. c-»f 3 .■'*•.;.::- •■•, .*« «• which » which your fathers served on the other side oh * the flood, alnd in Egypt-, and serve ye the "Lord. And if it seem evil unto you to serve "the Lord, choose you this day whom you will "serve; whether the Gods which your fathers a served, that were on the other side of the flood, ° or the Gods of the Amorites, in whose land "you dwelL" "To give the greater weight and ** force," fays Archbishop Tillotson, "to the "exhortation that they should serve the Lord, "he does by a very eloquent kind of insinua«* tion, as it were,'once more set the Israelites at tt liberty, and leave them to their own election: «* it being the nature of man to stick more sted"fastly to that which is hot violently imposed, «* but is our own free and deliberate choice *."
Allow me to observe, that there may be another beauty in the passage, which might not occur to that ingenious Writer. After Joshua had been recording the wonderful appearances of Got) for Israel, of which we nave an account in the former part of the chapter, it was enough to kindle the people with a kind of holy indignation to hear their hoary victorious Leader and DeFiverer faying, 15 If it'seern evil unto you to serve
the Lord and consequently, by this manner &f speaking, he may be considered as engaging them to fall in the more eagerly arid readily with the duty he is recommending, that of their serving their Lord. . The ideas of its seeming evil to
si<>?'^¥J*LI'0TS0N*S ^erme"'i v°l- P« 365- Octavo edition.
fifve the Lord, at the close of the recapitulation of such signal and astonistiing mercies as God had wrought for Israel, appear by the virtue of contrast to be a most odious and intolerable ingratitude: and what foul is there but what must abhor and execrate the thought of its being evil to serve the Lord, that but just before has heard a distinct and full recital of the wonders of power and goodness on its behalf? May not such a kjnd of address be justly stiled, " Drawing us "with the cords of a man, and with the "bands "of lovei" Hoseax\>4. •.••' ,
§ i. The definition of an Epanaphora. § %. Instances from Prior, Virgil, and Cicero. § 3. Examples from Scripture. § 4. The Epanaphora adapted to express lively and violent passions, with instances. § 5. • This Figure of . service in insisting upon any topic. % 6: Caution in the use of the Epanaphora. '.
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'§ !• T?Panaphora * is a Figure, in which the Ut fame word is gracefully and emphatically *• From t<itsci*.p£a, I repeat.
cally repeated; or in which distinct sentences, ot the several members of the fame sentence, are begun with the same word.
§ 2. We have a beautiful instance of this Figure in the following lines of Mr Prior's Poem, intitled, Henry and Emma.
Are there not poisons, racks, and flames, and swords,
.virgin, furnifhei us. with an example of this Figure, when he fays,
Here are cool fountains, here are velvet meads;
Here the young groves are twisted into bow'rs: Here, here, O how could I enjoy with thee
My life, delighted to its latest hour \!
We have an Epanaphcra in the following passage from Cicero: " What is so popular as "peace? in which not only beings endowed "with fense, but even our dwellings and fields «* seem to rejoice. What is so popular as li« berty? It is hot only the desire of men, but H even of brutes; and is preferred by them to « all things beside. What is so popular as ease « and leisure? for the sake of whose enjoyment,
f Hie gelidi sontes, hie mollia prata, Lycori; .
Hie nemus, hie ipso tecum consumerer xvo.
Virgil. Echg. x. ver, 4Z.