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other senses. "Tropes, fays Aristotle, arc "to be taken from those things which are agree"able, whether in found, or touch, or sight, of "any other fense *." Cicero will not admit that the commonwealth should be said to be emasculated by the death os African us, nor that another person should be called the dung of the court i . Quintilian by no means approves of the saying of an Orator, that such a person had lanced the biles of the commonwealth %. "I cannot "see Horace's genius, fays the Archbishop of •V Cambray, in this low piece of satire,

Profcfipti reg'n Rupili pus aique venenum;

"and we should be apt to stare at the reading of "it, if we did not know the Author ||.

Longinus's remarks and instructions upon this head are very just: " It by no means, fays


ri) hnajttt, ri rri O\]/ei, I\ aK\i\ Tin ai(&£<7ii, Aristot. Rhetor. lib. iii. cap. 2. § 4.

f Nolo morte oici Asricani castratam esse rempublicam; nolo ilercus curiæ dici Glauciam: quarr.vis sit simile, tamen est in utroque dcformis cogitatio similitudinis. Cicer. de Oral. lib. iii. § 41.

X Non enim probem illud quoque veterij Oratoris: persccuisti reirublica: vomicas. Quintil. lib. viii. cap. 6. J I.

II Letter to the Trench Academy. This line of Horace in plain Eng/ijb may be rendered the filth (the word signifying -the corrupt matter issuing from a sore) and the poison of the profieibed King Rupilius; Horace thereby intending the railing or abusive tongue of Rupilius. Horat. Sat. lib. i. fat. 7. ver. 1." • ' • v "* •

u he, becomes us to sink into sordid and impure "terms, unless we are compelled by an unavoid* "able necessity; but we should make a choice "of words correspondent to the dignity of the "subject; and should imitate nature in her for"mation of the human fabric, who has not "placed the parts of oUf frame which are inde"cent to mention, nor the vents of the body in "open sight, but has concealed them as much "as possible; and, as Zenophon observes,' rd"moved the channels to the greatest distance "from the eyes, thereby to preserve inviolable *< the beauty of her workmanship *."

§ 12. Having given an account of the nature of Tropes in general, I shall conclude the chapter with two observations.

First, If we would have a distinct and full idea of the beauty of a Trope, let us substitute the natural expressions in the room of the tropical, and divest a bright phrase of its ornaments, by reducing it. to plain and simple language, and then observe how much we abate the value of the C 2 discourse.

* Oy yap Set xatatlat it Toi{ v^ttrii ttf ta %wsapa «ai iftitef icr^tta, at /*>) c^oopa viro tit®- atasxr,s o-wJiwxwftiS*" cMxt tut irfayjtalut •afeiroi at xal rat Qutaf eyffit aria's, /*ifAii&ai tr,t Sr,j/.tnfytii7uvat <pvcw tot a>&puir*», i)T>{ •» lf*i» T« ftipu ta atroffrira ax efaxn et •Bfoauwa, «Je ta ta •&a*1&osxn OTsfuiOrjf/.ara' awiy-fv^uTc o«, «; tint, xat, Kara tot 3etolfutta, "Ts( rwrvt on 'aropputalu o^srat avers t-^et," u$apn xaranjfytatra To Oab (os xa?.?*&-. LoNCIN. dt Subli* mitate, $43.

discourse. Of this method Cicero gives us an «xample;

u O live, Uiysses, while you may,
'" Snatch the last glimpses of the golden day.

f* The Poet does not fay, take or seek (for either
." of those words would intimate delay on the
"part of the speaker, as hoping that Ulysses
/** would live some time longer) but snatch. This
." word agrees with what is said before, while ,
"you may *."

Secondly, Tropes and metaphorical expressions are used, according to the observation of Mr Blackwall» " either for necessity, emphasis, or & decency. For necessity, when we have not pro«' per words to declare our thoughts; for empka* sts, when the proper words we have are not so w comprehensive and significant; for decency\ " when plain language would give offence and «* distaste to the Reader f"

'*• ——— Vive, Ulysses, dum licet

Oculis postremum lumen radiatum rape. Non dixit cafe, non fete; haberet enim moram sperantis difltius esse sese victurum, fed rase; hoc verbum est ad id aptatum, quod ante dixerat, — dum licet. Cicer. dt Orat. - lib. iii. § 40.

■f Blac-kwail's Introduction to the C/cJJici, part ii. chap. r.

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The Metaphor considered.

§ i. The definition os a Metaphor. § 2. How distinguished from a Trope, or hew it appears* t$ be only a species of the Trope. % 3. Bow distinguished, from a Comparison. § 4. What necessary to constitute a Metaphor or Comparison. § 5- Which to be preferred, the Metaphor or Comparison, and upon what account. § 6. In*stances of Metaphors from Scripture. § 7, Encomiums upon the Metaphor, by Cicero, AddiSon, Longinus, and Rollin. § 8. The Metaphor requires wisdom and delicacy to manage it. § 9. We should take heed our Metaphors are not inconsistent. §10. The indulgence and privilege in the use of Metaphors considered and confirmed by examples. § 1 r. Method how to avoid inconsistent Metaphors. § 12. Instances of inconsistent Metaphors in Authors of the first reputation, DoDDRiDGE, Young, Tillotson, Ad?Dison, and Cicero. § 13. Examples of beautiful Metaphors from Doddridge, Young, Tillotson, Addison, and Cicero. §14. Metaphors not to be pursued"too far; with instances of faults os this kind. §15. Metaphors C 3 not

not to be strained: this observation supported by instances. § 16. Metaphors most beautiful -when they admit a double or treble resemblance, ivitb examples.

§ i. AMetaphor * is a Trope, by which a word is removed from its proper signification into another meaning upon account of Comparison

§ 2. A Metaphor is distinguishable from a Trope; or rather, stiews itself" to be only a species of the Trope, by this property essential to its nature, that it is used upon account of Comparison. Was it not for this peculiarity, a Metaphor would not differ from the general nature of a Trope; but by this additional article in its definition, it is evidently only a particular fort of Trope: as for instance, the Metaphor differs from the Synecdoche, which, though a Trope, yet is not at all designed for comparison; as when by the word roof, we intend an house, we have no idea of similitude, but only make a part of a thing stand for the whole.

§ 3. Though a Metaphor is a Trope, by which a word is removed from its proper signification upon the account of comparison, yet it is not to


f From fupaftyi, I tratijlate, or transfer.

■f- Metaphors est Tropas, quo verbum a propria significatione in alienam transfertur ob similitudinem. Voss. Rheter. Contrail, lib.iv. cap. 4. $ 1.

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