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"ther will they be persuaded, though one rose 11 from the dead."
Examples of the Prosopopeia, making inanimate beings assume the powers and properties, and express the emotions of living, and sometimes even of reasonable creatures, frequently occur in the sacred writings. The holy Prophets, kindled into a just .indignation against a people ungrateful and disobedient to their God, address themselves to inanimate nature, and as it were command it to silence, while they deliver their message. Isaiah i. 2. 11 Hear, O heavens, "and give ear, O earth', for the Lord hath "spoken : I have nourished and brought up chil"dren, and they have rebelled against me." So Mkah vi. 1. " Hear ye now what the Lord faith, "Arise, contend thou before the mountains, and "let the hills hear thy voice. Hear ye, O moun"tains, the Lord's controversy, and ye strong "foundations of the earth •, for the Lord hath a "controversy with his people, and, he will plead "with Israel." See how all things are at once n endowed with life, spirit, and affection in the following passages of sacred Writ. Psalm xcvi. Xl. 5 Let the heavens rejoice, and let the earth « be glad let the sea roar, and the fulness there"of: let the field be joyful, and all that is 11 therein: then shall all the trees of the wood "rejoice before the Lord, for he comes to judge "the earth. He shall judge the world with "righteousness, and the people with his truth." And again, Psalm xcviii. 7. " Let the sea roar, "and the fulness thereof; the world, and they ■ that dwell therein. Let the floods clap their "hands •, let the earth be joyful together before "the Lord; for he comes to judge the earth: *» with righteousness shall he judge the world,
* and the people with equity." In like manner it is said, Psalm lxxvii. 16. "The waters saw "thee, O God, the waters saw thee: they were "afraid; the depths also were troubled." So Hab. iii. 10. "The mountains saw thee, and they
* trembled the overflowing of the water passed » by: the deep uttered his voice, and lifted up f his hands on high." The like animated Prosopopeias we also meet with in Jojh. xxiv. 26, 27. "And Joshua wrote these words in the book of » the law of God, and took a great stone, and » set it up there, under an oak that was by the
* sanctuary of the Lord. And Joshua said,
* Behold, this stone shall be a witness unto us •, » for it hath heard all the words of the Lord, "which he spake unto us: it shall be there for
* a witness unto you, lest ye deny your God." In Isaiah xxxv. 1. it is said, that " the wilder» derness and the solitary place shall be glad for «* them •, and the desert shall rejoice, and blos
* som as the rose.JI In Isa. lv. 12. it is promised to the people of God, that " they should » go out with joy, and be led forth with peace, ■ and that the mountains and the hills should « break forth before them into Tinging, and that 55 all the trees of the field should clap their "hands." In Jer. xlvii. 6. the sword is address
ed as a person. "O thou sword of the Lord, "how long will it be. ere thou be quiet? Put "up thyself into thy scabbard, rest, and be still. ss How can it be quiet, seeing the Lord hath "given it a charge against Alhkelon, and against "the sea-shore? There he. hath appointed it." And Hah. ii. 11. it is said, that" the stone shall "cry out of the wall, and that the beam out of "the timber shall answer.it."
But I must prescribe some bounds to mysclf? and therefore I shall conclude the examples of the Prosopopeia from Scripture with a most beautiful and variegated instance) from Isaiah xiv. 3—27.
After the Prophet had foretold the deliverance of the Jews from their hard captivity at Babylon, and their return to their own land, he immediately introduces them as singing a kind of triumphal ode upon the excision of the King of Babylon, filled with the brightest images, and continued in an uninterrupted series of the most beautiful Prosopopeias. The song begins with a sudden exclamation of the Jews, expressing their joy and surprise on account of the unexpected revolution of their affairs, and the destruction of the tyrant that oppressed them. Ver. 3. "And it "shall come to pass in the day that the Lord shall "give thee rest from thy sorrow, and from thy "fear, and from the hard bondage wherein thou ?S wast made to serve, that thou shalt take up this "proverb against the King of Babylon, How hath "the oppressor ceased! The golden city ceased!
M The Lord hath broken the staff of the wicked, "and the sceptre of the rulers. He who smote "the people in wrath with a continual stroke; "he that ruled the nations in anger is persc
* cuted, and none hinders." Upon this event the earth is at peace, and its inhabitants triumph. The fir-trees, and the cedars of Lebanon, by which images, according to the frequent language of parable, Kings and Princes may be designed, exult with joy, and glory over the broken power of their most cruel enemy. Ver. 7, 8.
* The whole earth is at rest, and is quiet •, they
* break forth into singing: yea, the fir-trees re
* joice at thee, and the cedars of Lebanon, fay"ing, Since thou art laid down, no feller is
* come up against us."
Next follows a most bold Prosopopeia of the grave, or the infernal region: Ver. 9. " Hell "from beneath is moved for thee, to meet thee *' at thy coming it stirreth up the dead for thee, "even all the chief ones of the earth: it hath
* raised up from their thrones all the kings of
* the nations." These royal shades, thus rising to meet the Babylonijh tyrant, insult and mock him, upon being sunk into the same degradation with them, ver. 10, II. " All they shall speak « and say unto thee, Art thou also become weak "as we? Art thou become like unto us? Thy f pomp is brought down to the grave, and the
* noise of thy viols: the worm is spread under
* thee, and the worms cover thee."
And And the poor worm insults th' immortal man. 9
The people of God then resume their song, and beautifully exaggerate the remarkable end os' the King of Babylon, in an exclamation after the manner of funeral dirges, according to the model of which fort of compositions indeed almost the whole ode is constructed: Ver. 12." How art "thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of
* the morning? How art thou cut down to the" 51 ground, which didst weaken the nations?" The ode next introduces the Babylonijh Monarch as giving the unbounded reins to his ambition in the views of his supremacy in glory and power, that Monarch upon whom are come the foulest shame, and the most miserable ruip: Ver. 13. * For thou hast said in thine heart, I "will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne «' above the stars of God t I will sit also upon
* the mount of the congregation, in the sides "of the north: I will ascend above the heights "of the clouds; I will be like the most High." New Prosvpopeias are introduced. They who have found the dead body of the King of Babylotti which has been cast out unburied, and attentively and nearly survey it, can scarce believe if to. be. the corps of so great and powerful a Monarch;- Vtr. 16. " They that fee thee mall::narS! rowly look upon thee, and consider thee, say51 ing, Is this the man that made the earth to "tremble, that did make kingdoms? that made