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and consequently we may hope the deeper impressions by the means will be made upon our readers or auditors.
(2) The Epiphonema may be very serviceable as a kind of moral, or general improvement and use of the subject we have been discoursing upon; and thus our hearers or readers may receive instruction, and substantial and durable benefit.
(3) The genius or skill of the writer or speaker may be shewn by a pertinent and useful Epiphonema, which, though it may naturally be deduced from our subject, yet might not be obvious to all, and so may be an evidence of our wisdom in deriving it from our preceding discourse'.
§ 5. As to directions' concerning the Epiphonema, it may not be improper to observe,
(i) That it should not be toO frequent. Should this be the cafe, our discourses might be liable to be censured as formal and affected, and too frequently checked in what should be a strong impetuous current, for the fake of sage and moral reflexions. Though the Epiphonema may diversify our speeches Or compositions, yet, by being too often used, we may abate our force, and restrain that fire, which after all is the orator's or writer's best recommendation, and supreme glory.'
(2) Our reflexions should not only contain some plain and evident truths but should also naturally spring from the discourse from whence we
derive them from, otherwise we may render our design in making them abortive and vain.
(3) Let our Epipbonemas, in general at least, be short. Let them be like massy, weighty bullion, instead of being expanded into a vast amplification, while their ideas by the means become jejune and languid. Remarks upon what we have said, should, like an arrow or thunderbolts strike at once; and success is to be expected from compacted force, rather than a weak and subtile diffusion.
THE VARIOUS KINDS OF
t: b; U: R E S
hv.-: ' > ..j <••>:'. . ...: c v. ; . .. ■ V E R S I F I E n,: .
• •• i ...
THO' Figures no new fense on words impose,
Figures sometimes o'er Words extend their sway,
But, founded upon fense, they endless life enjoy. *
■ 11 x \ si t i
An Ecphonesis strong commotion feels, Exclaims, and our impatient fense reveals. « Welcome, sweet hour, (the dying Christian cries, ** While pleasure sparkles from his swimming eyes) ** Period at once of sorrow, and of sin, "Corporeal anguish, and the war within.
« O what *' O what bleit objects open to my sight,
"My God, my Saviour, and the realms of night!
"O what perfection! what divine employ!
** What an eternity of love and joy!" '..
Not so the sinner. Death uplifts his dart, And aims the point impoison'd at his heart: How his lips quiver! how his eye-balls glare! How his foul labours with intense despair? "Ah wretched creature! whither shall I fly, *' Clinging to life, and yet compell'd to die? "To die — O! what is that ? — I must appear "Before that God whom I refus'd to hear, "To love, to honour; whose avenging ire "Will plunge me down into the lake of fire, "For ever — O ! for ever, there to dwell; .." Ah! there's the horror, there's the hell of hell: "And'that's my doom —" Convulsions seize his breath, His accents faulter, and he sinks in death. , • •
An Aporia agitates the mind, And now to this, and now to that inclin'd. "Me miserable! which way shall I flee? "If to the capitol, there I must fee tl The pavement swimming with my brother's gore, "My brother, who must bless my eyes no more: *' Or should I home return, there there appears "My mother bow'd with age, and drown'd in tears *,"
Epanorthosis our too languid words
H h 3 Apo»
* Cicero. Seppage 135.
Aposiopesis half our sense reveals, And smother'd with our passions half conceals. "Rebels whom I — but that I'll first assuage "These dang'rous storms, and quell the ocean's rage *.
Apophasis, while feigning to impose Strict silence, will our fullest sense disclose. "I might have mention'd, but I choose to spare, "How like a tyger, or a raging bear, «' You rusti'd upon me, and had shed my blood, "Had not this arm your curs'd attempt withstood.
Anacoenosis will to others trust Our cause, and ask them if it is not just.
- Judge, men of Isrel; I to you appeal,
*• If my kind labours for my vineyard's weal
- Could be furpass'd. I chose the richest ground,
- Gave it the noblest vine, then fenc'd it round,
"And with my rains and rays the young plantation crown'd
Anastrophe will the attention stay . By an irregular and bold delay. "The matchless songs of two contending swains, "The heifers, ravish'd with their charming strains, "Forbore to graze, and lynxes, gath'ring round, *« Forgot their rage, astonish'd at the sound, "While rivers stood suspended with delight, "The songs of these two swains we will recite J."
An Erotesis, while it questions, throws
• Virgil. See page 151. iTa. v. 2, 3,4.
X Virgil. £f/^. viii. ver.l. ,'