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» cause it i to take deep root, and. it filled the "land.. The hills were covered with the shadow 4 of it, and the boughs thereof were like the "goodly cedars. She sent out her boughs unto "the sea, and her branches unto the river. Why u hast thou broken down her hedges, so that all ;1 they which pass by the way do pluck her? rt The boar out of the wood doth waste it, and "the wild beast of the field doth devour it. Re"turn, we beseech thee, O God of hosts; look "down from heaven, and behold, and visit this SJ vine: and the vineyard which thy right hand "hath planted, and the branch that thou madest « strong for thyself. It is burnt with fire \ it is a cut down. They perish at the rebuke of thy ° countenance," : ,. ;. ' . . . ,
§ 3. Allegories are of two forts, pure and mixed.
Pure Allegories are such as preserve the Trope from the beginning to the end of them without any opening, if I may so call it, of the literal sense. Such an Allegory is that Ode of Horace which we have but now recited so that " many *' learned Commentators, fays Mr Francis, in "a note upon his translation of the Ode, under«' stand it in a plain historical manner i though "Quintilian, whose judgment we scruple not «* to prefer, quotes- the Ode as an example of « the Allegory, and tells us, that throughout « the whole passage, the Foei; means by the "ship the commonwealth.;.by. the waves and ; . .;/».., « tempests,
*' tempests, civil wars j and by the haven, pQace "and concord -f\" The danger arising from a sure Allegory is that of obscurity; and whoever frequently uses it, should take particular care that he does not involve the fense in hard and difficult riddles, which ought to mine out clear and perspicuous, as it may do even from under the veil of Tropes themselves, according to the very just account of Metaphors, which will alike extend to Allegories, by Lord Lansdowne, in his EJfay upon unnatural Flights in Poetry:
As veils transparent cover but not hide,
§ 4. Mixed Allegories are such Allegories as are not intire, but admit of spaces in which the literal fense appears: or, in other words, proper and allegorical expressions are alternately used in the same sentence or paragraph. Of this kind js that Allegory in the speech of Philip King of Macedon,
+ AKKtye^t*, quam invcrsionem interpretamur, aliud versus, aliud scnsu ostcndit, ac etiam interim contrarium. Prills, ut O navis, referent in mare tc nstvi Fluctus. O quid agis? fortiter occupa
/ . .»
Tot usque Use Horatii locus, quo navim, pro republics; flue. tuum tempestates, pro bellis civilibui; portum pro pace atque concordia dicet. Quintil. lib. viii. esp. 6. $ z.
in which he says, "I fee that cloud of a cruet "and bloody war rising in Italy. I perceive "a storm, big with thunder and lightning, "gathering in the west; which, wherever the *' hurricane of; victory shall carry it, will fill "all places with a shower of blood *." The proper words war, blood, and victory, connected with the Tropes cloud, Jhower, and tempest, fender the several parts of the Allegory clear and evident. "I always thought," fays Tully, in his defence of Milo, "that as to other storms "and tempests, they were only to be sustained "by Milo in the commotions of our public as"semblies If the Orator had not used the words public assemblies, the passage had been a complete Allegory, but by its insertion there is an evident mixture of literal and allegorical language. In this kind of Allegories, as QuintiLian" well observes, "beauty arises from theTro"pical, and an easy apprehension of the mean"ing from the proper expressions ||."
But there cannot methinks be a more pleasing example of literal and allegorical meaning, than in' f "' '• the
* Videre fe itaque, ait, consurgentem in Italia nubem illam trucis & crQEnti belli: videre tonantem ac fulminantem ab occasu procella-m quam in quascunque terrarum partes victoriæ tempestas detulerit magno cruoris imbre omnia fœdaturum. Justin, lib. xxix. cap. 31 » .
. -J- Equidem ceteras tempestates, & procellas in illis duntaxat fluctibusconcionum semper putavi Miloni esse subeundas, t$c. Orat. fro Milo. § 2. »- •> ■
II Quo in genere & species ex arceflitis verbis venir, & intellectus ex propriis. Quintil. lib. viii. cap. 16.
the four first verses of the twenty third Psalm;
* The Lord is my shepherd, I shall not want. "He makes me to lie down in green pastures:
* He leads me beside the still waters. He re
* stores my foul. He leads me in the paths of righteousness for his name's fake. Yea, though
* I walk through the valley of the shadow of f death, yet will I fear, no evilj for thou art "with me, thy rod and staff they comfort me." Lcrd — my soul— righteousness — name's fake, are words used in their proper sense; while there is evidently an Allegory in the other expressions, taken from a shepherd, and his kind and faithful protection and care over his flock..
Scripture will affxyd us also another instance of mixed Allegory in Epbes. vi. from the ioth to the 19th verse: "Finally, my brethren, be strong in 51 the Lord, and in the power of his might. Put ,! on the whole armour of God, that ye may be "able to stand against the wiles of the Devil. 51 For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but "against principalities, against powers, against J! the rulers of the darkness of this world, against "spiritual wickedness in high places. Where"fore take unto you the whole armour of God, a that ye may be able to withstand in the evil f day, and having done all, to stand. Stand "therefore, having your loins girt about with » truth, and having on the breast-plate of righ- teousness, and your feet shod with the preparation of the gospel of peace; above all, taking \ fajth, wherewith ye shall be able
*» tts quench all the fiery darts of the wicked: ■ and take the helmet of salvation, and the sword
* of the Spirit, which is the Word of God. Praya ing always, with all prayer and supplication in u the Spirit, and watching thereunto with all per
* severance and supplication sot all saints." Upon a careful review of this passage it will evidently appear, that there is a mixture of allegorical and literal fense, and that they alternately appear and disappear throughout the whole description.
§ 5. If it mould be suggested, that if our sentences should be thus made up of literal and allegorical language we shall hereby violate a rule that has been given, natntly, to'Continue and carry on a Metaphor in the fame manner it begat*, there is art easy answer to such an objection by observing that there is a very great and essential difference between the mixture of literal and allegorical expression, and the confusion £ffeihg from heterogeneous Metaphors. The :HSfeetitre of literal and allegorical language is not ithe clustering of discordant Metaphors together, But the insertion of one and the fame Metaphor in some parts of a sentence or paragraph, while plain expression makes up the remainder': whereas a confusion of Metaphors is the heaping such Metaphors together as are absolutely dissimilar, and contrary to one another j or ah attempt to "make a coalescence where an impossibility in nature abhors the union. A conjunction of common and metaphorical expressions, ora sentence