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Xing," that is, the picture of our King. "There's the Hero," that is, the bust of the Hero.
(4) Another kind of Metonymy is, when the adjunct is put for the subject. Gefi. xxxi. 53.
* Jacob sware by the fear of his father Isaac," that is, by the God whom- Isaac feared. 2 Kings xx. 1. " Set thine house in order," that is, the affairs of thine house. Phil. iii. 3. u For*
* we are the circumcision,5/ that is, the persons who are circumcised. Such passages as follow belong also to this division- of the Metonymy. "We slight living virtue," that is, men alive who are virtuous. ** No age shall be silent in thy praise," that is,, men in no age shall be si*lent in thy praise. And what charming Metonymies have we of this kind, since the virtues and vices mentioned evidently denote the persons ia whom they are- found, in that animated passage ef Cicero, where, comparing the forces of the Roman republic with the profligate army of CaTiline, he fays, "On this side modesty is en"gaged, on that impudence -r on this side chaf"tity, on that leudness •, on this integrity, on "that deceit ;< on this side piety,, on that pro
_** faneness-, on this side constancy, on that fury;
"on this side honour, on that baseness •, on this'
"side moderation, on that ungoverned passion:
"in a word, equity,, temperance, fortitude, pru
*« dence, and all virtues contend against injus
"tice, luxury, effeminacy, rashness, and all
a manner of vices *."
* Ex hac enim parte pudor pugnat, illinc pctalantia,; bine
pudicitit,. '§ 3. Under the Metonymy we may consider the *Metalepsis, of which it may frequently either more or less consist-, but it has this circumstance peculiar to it, that it is very far-fetched ,and uncommonly multiplied, or, as Dr Ward defines it, ** two or more Tropes, and those "of a different kind, are .contained under ofcfc *' word, so that gradations or intervening fenses *' come between the word.that is expressed, and "the thing designed by it. The contests, fays ".the learned Professor, between Sylla and "Marius proved very fatal to the Roman state. "Julius Cæsar was then a young man. ■ But '*' Sylla, observing his aspiring genius, said of « hrm, In one Cæsar the.fe' are many Marius^: ■** (rtamCiefati multosMarios inejse, Sue*, in Vit. ■* c.t.) .Now in this expression there is a Meid** leffis, for she word Mar his, by a Synecdoche •** or Antonomasia, .is put for any ambitious dr *' turbulent person--, and this again by a Metou nymy of the cause for the Ml effects of such a «' temper to the Public. So that Sylla's mean*' ing, divested of these Tropes', Was, that Cæs A£ *' would prove the most dangerous person to the "Roman state that ever was bred in it: which "afterwards .proved true in the event fj'
F 3 As
.pudicitia, illine stupruni; hinc fides, illinc fraudatio.; hinc pietas, illinc seelus; hinc conltantia, illinc furor; hinchonestas, illinc turpitudo; hinc continentia, illinc libido; denique æ
.quitas, temperantia, fortitudo, prudentia, virtutes omnes ccrtant cum iniquitate, cum luxuria, cum ignavia, cum temerU ttte, cum vitiis omnibus. Cicer. in Catil. Qrat. ii. J 11.
..$ Ward's Oratory, vel ii. page 25, 26.
As another instance of this kind, we may con* sider the following line of Virgil,
Ah! may I not with wond'ring eyes review,
Where by the beards, that is, of corn, we may understand the ears of corn; by the ears of corn, corn itself; by corn, the summer that produces it; and by the summer, the whole year: so that the fense is the fame as if it had been said,
Ah'1 may I not with wond'ring eyes review,
This Trope is something like an echo in some spacious winding dome, which returns again and again upon us before it ceases its found j or may be resembled to the kernels of some fruits involved in manifold rinds, which must be all stripped off before we can come at the substance.
§ 4. Though a Metonymy may not he so necessary as the Metaphor, nor take such a wide compass, yet it is a Trope of very great use and extent. It gives a vast scope and liberty to the fancy: ir. both adorns and invigorates our stile; or, as Dr Ward describes it, "enriches a disr ." course with an agreeable variety, and gives "both force and beauty to an expression f."
• Post aliquot rnea regna videns mirabor aristas?
Eclog. i. ver. 70.
■\ Ward's Oratory, vol. i. page 414.
§ i. The definition of a Synecdoche. §2. (i) A Synecdoche puts the whole for a part; (2) A ■part for the whole \ (3) Uses a general name for a particular of the fame kind; (4) Uses a particular name fcr a general. % 3. That a certain number is put for an uncertain, is to be ascribed to the Synecdoche. § 4. That the plural number shall stand for the singular, and the singular for the plural, is owing to the Synecdoche. § 5. The definition of an Antonomasia. § 6. An Antonomasia, (1) Puts a proper for a common name ; * (2) Puts a common name for:a proper. 4 7. Rule to be observed .as to the Antonomasia. § 8. The va\ue and use of the Synecdoche.
§ 1. A Synecdoche * is a Trope, which puts the <«** name of the whole for a part, or the .name of a part for the whole; a general name •for a particular under that general, or a particular for the general.
F 4 §2
• From <rvn*.hx°P*h I comprehend, Of receivt ttge