Imágenes de páginas

its pKj into tW ioad *

Our Lord commands his Apostles. Mkrk .15. to 0 go into afl. the world, and traca. the gospel to every- creature,1 dnr is, to asl. mankind.. dfeu«iL3^

The Synecdoche puts 3, gUliudajt tarry fiy

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§ 2. (i) The Synecdoche puts the whole for a gart. Thus.YiE.Gii. fays,

Parthia shall drink the Gallic Ar ar first,
And 77fm sooner quench G~ermania's thirst *.

So the sea may be put for the waves of the sea. In like manner man shall sometimes mean the foul of a man, as Lazarus, Lukexvi. 23. is said to be " in Abraham's bosom and at other times man shall signify the body, Gen. iii. 19." • Till thou return to the ground," that is, till thy body return to the ground. Thus we fay, sometimes intending only the body, and sometimes only the soul, that man is mortal, or that he is immortal..

(2) A Synecdoche puts a part for the whole. The head shall signify the man, the pole the heavens, the point the sword, the winter the whole year, and the general shall include both himself and his army. We have instances of this kind in Scripture •, Jsa.vii. 2. " the tribe of Ephraim" is put for the whole people of Israel: and Matt. viii. 8, the Centurion tells our Lord, that he was not worthy that he should come " under his roofy' that is, into his house.

(3) The Synecdoche uses the general name for a particular of the fame kind. Put up your we/bpont that is, your sword. So a bird is used by Virgil for an eagle:


• Aut Ararim Patthus libet, aut Germania Tigrim.

Eclog. i. ver. 63.


"The bird,' ungrasping his fierce talons, drops His prey into the flood *

Our Lord commands his Apostles, Mark xvi. 15". to "go into all the world, and preach "the gospel to every creature," that is, to all mankind..

(4) The Synecdoche puts 3 particular; name fpf A general. Thus the Cretan sea signifies in HoRace the sea in general;

I, in the muses favour blefs'd,
Neither with grief nor fear deprefs'd,
Will bid the vagrant winds convey
Those troublers to the. Cretan sea f«

fa like manner the acorns ofChaonia are use.d. for acorns in general by Virgil,

Ye pow'rs divine, who gave mankind to chang«
Cbaoniem acorns for the fruitful ear H.

In Psal. xlvi. 9. the Almighty is laid to " break "the bow, and cut the spear in sunder, and. to * burn the chariot in the fire -," that is, God destroys all the weapons- of war, and blesses the


* -—T Prædamque ex unguibus alas

Projecit fluvio Æneid. lib. xii, vex. 255, 256.

f, Musis amicus tristitiam & metus
Tradam protervis in mare Creticum
Portare ventis — Horat. Qd. lib. i, od. z6.

I) Veflro si munere tellos

Chaoniam pingui glandem mutavit arista.

Vjiuciu Gurg* Kk ii ver. f.

world with peace. In Dan. xii. 14. by many we are to understand all. "Many of them that a sleep in the dust shall awake, some to ever"lasting life, and some to shame and everlasting 0 contempt."

§ 3. It may be observed farther, that to the Synecdoche the usage of a certain number for an uncertain is to be ascribed:

AcHiJ-LEs' wide-destroying wrath that pour'd Ten thousand woes on Greece, O Goddess, sing *.

§ 4. To the fame Trope we may refer the liberty of using the plural number for the singular, and the singular number for the plural; as when Cicero tells Brutus, "We misled the «« People, and gained the reputation of Ora"tors -f, when he intends only himself: and when, oh the contrary, Livy often says, " that "the Roman was Conqueror in the battle J," whereas he designs that the Remans were Conquerors.

§ 5. Under the Synecdoche we may also range the Antonomasia [|, which is a Trope by which we put a proper for a common name, or a common pame for a proper.


\ Populus imposuimus, & oratores visi sumus.
J Romanus prælio victor.

|} From atfi and nopa^-j, the putting one name in the recm <f another.


- § .6. (I-); An Antonomasia puts a proper for a common name. Thus, that man is an Hercukst that is,, an uncommonly strong man. Or he is a Job, that is, a remarkably patient man. Or he is a Nero,, that is, a monstrously cruel man. Or he is a Croefus, that is, an immensely rich man.

(2) An Antonomasia puts a common for a proper name. Thus, he is gone to the City, or he is come from the City, meaning London. In like manner the Poet shall intend Homer, the Orator, Cicero, and the Apostle, St Paul. Thus Christ is called "the son.of-man," Matt Ax. 6. and ,.° the master," "John xi. 28.

§ 7. When we use the Antonomasia, we should take care that whatever epithet, title, or denomination stands in the room of the usual name, should be such as is either easy and familiar, or such as is more emphatical and striking; for there is no small excellency in an Antonomasia, when properly conceived and applied according to these directions: as when I call a good Orator a Demosthenes, or a good Poet a Virgil, I am bestowing upon the person the highest praise, and leading the mind to a comparison of his talents with the peculiar and transcendent endowments of those famous Writers; and when, on the other hand, I fay such a man is a Catiline, or a CaLigula, I thereby call up the ideas pf the most detestable characters, and brand the person with much deeper infamy, than if I was only in plain language to fay, that he was very worthless or


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