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cricked. But if the Antonomosta has neither the .advantage of ease and familiarity, nor t>f emphasis nor strength, plain expression is to be preferred; at least I fee not any benefit that can arise from the .use .of this Trope: but we may, be-, fore we are .aware, deserve the lash of our great Satirists who has reckoned up several Antonomafias of this kind; but which are too ludicrous to be inserted in graver compositions than that of his Art of Sinking in Poetry f.
§ 8. The value of the Synecdoche appears to lie in the bold and manly freedom it gives to our discourses, by which we shew that we are so full tof our ideas, and so powerfully impressed with them, that we disdain to attend to little accura, eies, and nice adjustments of expression. Language also acquires a vast variety by ihe assist-' ance of -the Synecdoche; and variety prevents fatigue, and is the source of perpetual entertainment. And it may be added, that the Syntodoche more especially compliments the understanding, by leaving it to investigate and determine the whole of our meaning from only a part of it, or ascertain and fix our precise meaning, when only couched under a general expression.
f Pope's Workt, vol. vi. p. 191, 192.
C H4P..T E R VI.
§ I.. The definition of an Irony. § 2. How known to be an Irony. § 3. Instances of the Irony from the sacred Writings. § 4. Examples of the Irons from Cicero, Horace, DRYDEN,Æ»iTiLLOTSon. § 5. T'fo definition of a Sarcasm, with instances, § 6.. 7*Æ£ «/«<?/ Ironies and Sarcasms, § 7. Cautions to be observed concerning them, §.8- 'the foundation in nature for the Irony and Sarcasm,
§ 1. A N Irony* is a Trope, in which one con1jf"\. trary is signified by another; or, in> which we speak, one thing, and design, another, in* order to give the greater force and vehemence tx> our meaning. ■ •
§ 2. The way o£ distinguishing.an Irony froft* the real, sentiments of the speaker or writer, are by the accenty the air, the extravagance of the praise,, the character of the person, the nature of the thing, or the vein of the discourse: for if in any of these respects there is any disagreement
* From sigfc'Kvofi«v / »/« * dijjimulation in mj/frecb.
from the common fense of the words, it plainly appears- that one thing is spoken, and another is designed f.
§ 3. Innumerable instances of this Trope might be produced, but the following shall suffice. In the sacred Writings we have frequent instances of the Irony. Thus the Prophet EliJah,. 1 Kings xviii. 27. speaks in Irony to the Priests of Baal, "Cry aloud, for he is a God; "either he is talking, or he is pursuing, or he is"on a journey, or peradventure he sleeps, and * must be awaked.*1 So the Prophet Micajah,. 1 Kings xxii. 15. bids Ahab "go to battle against B Ramoth-Gilead, and prosper." We meet with an Irony in Job xii. 2. "No doubt but ye are the « People, and wisdom shall die with you." That passage may be considered as an Irony, Eccles. xi. 9. "Rejoice, O young man, in thy youth, a and let thine heart chear thee in the days of "thy youth, and walk in the way of thine heart, f and in the sight of thine eyes." Nay, the Almighty himself appears to speak ironically, Gen. iii. 22. "And the Lord God said, The man is » become as one of us to know good and evil." And in the fane manner we may apprehend our Lord's rebuke to the Jewish Doctors, when he
■j- In eo vero genere quo contrarla ostenduntur, Ironia est. Illusionem vocant; qua? aut pronuntiatione intelligitur, aut persona, aut rei natura. Nam si qua earum verbis diuentit, apparet diversam esse orationi volunutem. Qujntil. lib.viii. cap. 6. § 2»
says, Mark vii. 9. "Full well ye reject the com!S mandment of God, that ye may keep your "own tradition :" where, by the word ***»*, which our Translators render full well, it is evident our Lord intends quite the contrary of what his language seems Jo import.
§ 4. Cicero, representing the forces of CatiLine as mean and contemptible, fays, "O war, "most terrible indeed! since Catiline is to "march out with such a Praetorian band of de"bauchees *." Horace, after he has described the tumults, hurries, and dangers of Rome, concludes,
Go now, and study tuneful verse at Rome f.
Mr Dryden finely ridicules the Egyptian worship in a laughing, ironical commendation of their Leek and Onion Deities:
Th' Egyptian rites the Jebujites embraced,
That is a very poignant Irony in Archbishop ,tillo'tson, who, speaking of the Papists, fays,
* O bellum magnopere pertimescendum! cum hanc $t habiturns Catilina scortorum cohortem prætoriam. Cicer, in Catil. Orat. 2. $11.
•J- I nunc, & versus tecum medicare canoros!
Horat. Epiji. lib. ii, epist. 2. ver. 76,
% Bryden's Absalom and Achitofhel.
« If it seem good to us to put our necks oncd "more under that yoke which our Fathers were "m>t able to bear; if it be really a preferment "to a Prince to hold the Pope's stirrup, and a f privilege to be disposed of him at pleasure, rt and a courtesy to be killed* at his command; "if to pray without understanding, to obey "without reason, and to believe against sense; "if Ignorance, and implicit Faith, and an In** quisition be in good earnest such charming and «* desirable things; then welcome Popery,which, "wherever thou comest, dost infallibly bring all "these wonderful privileges and blessings along "with thee *."
§ 5. tJnder the Irony we may include the Sarcasm f, which may be defined to be an Irony in , its superlative keenness and asperity. As instances of this kind we may consider the speech of the Soldiers to our blessed Lord, when, after they had clothed him in mock majesty, they bowed the knee before him, and said, 1! Hail King of "the Jews," Matt, xxvii. 29. So again, when our Lord was upon the cross, there were some that thus derided him,Markxv.22. "LetCHRisT, * the king of Israel, descend now from the cross, "that we may see and believe." By the way it fliay be observed, that custom has so much prevailed that not only excessively keen Ironies are called Sarcasms, but any severe sayings with an
• Tillotson's Workt, vol. Hi. page 392. Octavo edit.
f From <r«fx»£«, Islripoffthe f.ejb.