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"viating, fays he, from the right rale of cfci."ing in Metaphors, Hyperboles, bonks, aar «« even in equivocal speeches, nor £mcks. aor «' poetical f ables, when they are property irirr % f or there is a wide difference between falsmod "and fiction, between that which is realiy rabc, "if I may so speak, and that which has only toe *• appearance of what is false. Right reaibn is u laid as the foundation of just Tropes and Fk"tions. Truth sustains the apparent falsity; "which is so far from destroying, that it adorn? "the truth *."

§ 6. If you make use of mote than one Hyperbole in a sentence, as sometimes there may be gruce and propriety in an assemblage of them, tnke c«rc that they rise and strengthen upon one another \ for otherwise, when you have raised the hearer's expectations, you will disappoint them with a very disgustful defect, and poverty of idea, and this too in a Trope that should be peculiarly strong and animated. Falls are never lb great and dangerous as those from an uncommon height. For instance, how mean had it

been

• Ncc Mctaphoris, Ilypcrbolis, Ironicis, iijio vel æquivocls locutionibua recte ulurpatis, neque etiJm commentis & fabolis poeticis, a recta cogitandi norma aberratur. Inter fallitatem enim & fictionem, inter id quod vere falsum est (sl ita loqui diceat) Sc id quod falsi tantum speciem induit, pel* niultum interest. Tropi« istis & fictionibus recta ratio, tanqiiam furidamentum, substernitur} veritate sustinetur apparena iilafa!sitas; quæ veritatem exornat, non destruit. Tiurfn fraktl. Peetic. vol. i. p. 184. ... . ,u.i t .,,,. .

been in Horace, if he had said that care flew swifter than the winds,- or the stag, or could even keep pace with the horse on full speed? but how do the ideas rife upon the mind, and gradually augment the velocity of that distressing passion which he describes, when he fays!

Care climbs the vessel's brazen prow,

Sits fast upon the racer's steed;
Her flight outstrips the bounding roe,

And leaves behind the whirlwind's speed *«

A like instance" we may meet with in CiCero: "What Charybdis is so devouring? Cha"rybdis, do I say? which, if there was such a "monster, was only a single animal. Even the "ocean itself, believe me, seems scarce eapa"ble in so little a time to ingulph such a «' quantity of riches, so variously dispersed, and "at such distant places, as Antony has *« done f."

* Scaridit aeratas vitioso nave's .

Cora; nee turmas equitum relinquit,
Qcyor cervis, Sc agente nimbos
Ocyor euro.

Horat. Od. lib. ii. od. 16.

•f- Quæ Charybdis tam vorax? Charybdin, dico? qua: si suit, suit animal unum. Oceanus, medius fidius, vix videcur tot res, tam diffipatas, tam distantibus in loci* positas, tam.cito absorbere potuisse. Cicer. PHI. ii. §27.

H CHAPTER

CHAPTER VIII.
The Catachresis considered.

§ I. A Catachresis, its definition. § 2: Upon what accounts Catachreses are used, or the occasions of them. § 3. When they become faulty. § 4. Mr Blackwall'j account of the analogy and relation between the several kinds of Tropes. § 5. Vida'j fine account of the Tropes.

$ 1. ^ Catachresis * is the most: licentious as to language of all the Tropes, as it borrows the name of one thing to express another, which has either no proper name of its own; or if it has, the borrowed name is used ei•ther for surprising by novelty, or for the fake of a bold and daring energy.

§ 2. (1) A Catachresis borrows the name of one thing to express another, which has no proper name of its own. Thus Quintjlian allows us to fay, that we dart a ball or a stake, though darting belongs only to a javelin. In the fame manner he permits us to call that a ------ -" stoning

* From «T«j;{«»i*«', I al use.

[graphic]

stoning or killing a person with stones, though the death was occasioned by clods or tiles *. Thus we often speak of a stiver or iron inkhorn. In the same manner a person may be called a -parricide, who murders his mother, or brother, or sister, though the word parricide properly signifies a person who murders his father, for, as there is no appropriate word to denominate the murderer of other near relations, and as the guilt in all the cafes is most enormous, and somewhat similar, the impropriety vanishes, and readily yields to the force of necessity.

(2) A Catachrests borrows the name of one thing to express another; which thing, though it has a name of its own, yet under a borrowed name surprises us with novelty, or infuses into our discourses a bold and daring energy. Thus Virgil lays,

The goat himself, man of the flock, had stray'd f.

by man, evidently intending the father and leader of the flock. So again,

The Grecian Chiefs, thro' ten revolving years,
Harass'd by war, and by the Fates repuls'd,

H 2 Pallas

• Nafn & qui jaculum emittit, Jaculan dicitur; quia pilam aut sudem appellatione privatim sibi aflignata caret. Et ut lapidare quid sit manisestum est, ita lapidare glebarumque testarumque jaclus non habet nomen. Unde abusio qtix Catachresis dicitur necsssiia. QciNTit. lib. viii. cap. z.

<J- .Vir gregii ipse caper deerraverat

Vircil. Echg. vii. ver. 7.

(pallas inspir'd her wisdom) build an horse, _ .,. That seem'd a mountain for enormous size *.

The same word is used by Juvenal concerning the high head-dress of the ladies at Rome irt his days:

With curls and ribbands high her head she builds f.

Thus Milton, describing the Angel RaPhael's descent from Heaven, says,

— Down thither, prone in flight

He speeds, and thro' the vast etherial sky
Sails between worlds and worlds %

Here the novelty of the word sails infuses that spirit and pleasure into the description which would have been lost, if the Poet had said flies between worlds and worlds.

Horace makes use of the same Trope •,

The east-wind rides the mad Sicilian waves |[.

Where the riding of horsemen is applied to the swift course of the east wind over the stormy deep.

The

* Ductores Danaum, tot jam labentibus annis, Instar montis equum, divina Palladis arte, Ædificant. — Viroiv. Æntid. ft. ver. 14.

f Tot premit ordinibus, tot adhuc compagibus altum Ædificat caput — .. Juvenal. Sat.vi. ver. 5O1.

J Paradise Lost, book v. ver. 166.

I —— Vel eurus

Per Siculas eguitavit undas.

Horat. Od. lib. iv. od. 4;

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