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9. & 136. 6. Prov. 8. 29. Jer. 5. 22.

2 Pet. 3. S.

Ps. 33. 7. & 95. 5. & 104.

9 | And God said, Let the land Earth ; and the gathering waters under the heaven be ga- together of the waters called he thered together unto one place, Seas: and God saw that it was and let the dry land appear: and good. it was so.

11 And God said, Let the earth 10 And God called the dry k Job 26. 10. & 38. 8. it does, include the heavenly bodies. Thou coveredst it (the earth) with the This is confirmed by 2 Pet. 3. 5–7. deep as with a garment: the waters "Whereby the world that then was pe

stood above the mountains. At thy re rished; but the heavens and the earth buke they fled; at the noise of thy which are now, by the same word are thunder they hasted away. They go up kept in store reserved unto fire,' &c. by the mountains, they go down by Here it will be noted that the world the valleys unto the place which thou which then was' is opposed to the hast founded for them. Thou hast set heavens and the earth which now are,' a bound that they may not pass over ; as if they were commensurate terms; that they turn not again to cover the and as it was only the globe with its earth.' This may be considered as an surrounding atmosphere which felt the appropriate comment on the phrase effects of the deluge, so it is to be in one place,' wnich is not to be taken in ferred that if a future physical destruc

strictest import, but merely as imtion be here intended, it will be of the plying that the waters were for the most same extent. Consequently' heaven' is part congregated together in one vast a term for the atmosphere. The phrases, body, instead of being universally diffushosts of heaven,' stars of heaven,' ed over the face of the earth. This is the &c., do indeed frequently occur, but it is state of things which we now contembecause the starry hosts are apparent- plate ; the various great seas and oceans ly placed in the superior regions of that constituting in fact but one budy of which is really and truly 'heaven,' viz. water called in different regions by difthe atmospheric firmament.

ferent names, as the Atlantic, Pacific, 9. Let the watersbe gathered together Indian, Southern, &c. oceans. unto one place. The vast mass of wa- 10. Seas. Heb. Ongga yamim, from ters which had hitherto covered the a word signifying tumultuous agitation en tire surface of the globe was now to and roaring. The term is therefore be bronght within a narrower compass, used in many instances in the symboand large tracts of the submerged earth lical language of the prophets to denote to be reclaimed and rendered habitable a vast body of people in a state of rest. ground. Of the causes or movements | less commotion. See Ps. 65. 8. Is. 57. by which this mighty result was ef- 20. Jer. 51. 42. Rev. 17 15. The word fected no detail is given. It is easy to is sometimes applied to a lesser collecconceive that it must have been attend- tion of waters, as that which one of the ed by a tremendous convulsion of the Evangelists denominates a 'sea,' Matt. exterior portions of the globe, and it is 8. 32, another calls a 'lake,' Luke 8. not unlikely that many of the irregular 33; and it is elsewhere used to denote and broken appearances and traces of not a body of water, but the reservoir violent action which are now visible on which contains it, as the 'brazen sea' the earth's surface are to be referred to of Solomon, 2 Chron. 4. 2, and the sea this event. The language of the Psal- of glass' of the Apocalypse, ch. 4. 6. mist, Ps. 104. 6—9, would indicate that 11. Let the earth bring forth grass. the phenomena must have been strik- Heb. 407 the tender budding grass, a ing and awful beyond description ;| term applicable to every kind of grassy

I bring forth grass, the herb yield- | after his kind : and God saw that ing seed, and the fruit tree yield- it was good. ing fruit after his kind, whose 13 And the evening and the seed is in itself, upon the earth : morning were the third day. and it was so.

14 1 And God said, Let there 12 And the earth brought forth be " lights in the firmament of the grass, and herb yielding seed af- heaven, to divide the day from ter his kind, and the tree yielding the night; and let them be for fruit, whose seed was in itself,

1 Heb. 6.7 m Luke 6. 44.

n Deut. 4. 19.

Ps. 74. 16. & 136. 7.

or verdant vegetable in a state of ble from its being said, 'Let the dry sprouting, and pointing more especially land appear (Heb. be seen),' when as to such as are propagated rather from yet there was no eye to see it—then we the root than the seed.--1 Herb yield-may reasonably conclude that the sun ing seed.

Heb. yg nota seeding was formed on the first day, or perhaps seed. Gr. Ore 1pov otsqua; by which is had been created even before our earth, meant such wild or cultivable plants and was in fact the cause of the vicissias were to propagate themselves by tude of the three first days and nights. yielding, shedding or scattering their But as the globe of the earth was during seeds. The word 'herb' embraces the that time surrounded by a dense mass whole department of the vegetable of mingled air and water, the rays of world between grasses and trees, the the sun would be intercepted; only a three grand divisions which are recog- dim glimmering light, even in the day nised in this verse. -4 Fruit tree time, would appear; and the bodies of yielding fruit. Heb. 1707 ma- the heavenly luminaries would be enking fruit. For a view of the scriptu- tirely hidden, just as they now are in a ral usage in respect to the word make very cloudy day. Let it be supposed in the sense of increase, multiplication, then that on the fourth day the clouds, accumulation, see note on Gen. 12. 5. mists, and vapors were all cleared away, As trees by their height rise superior and the atmosphere made pure and seto the rest of the vegetable tribes, they rene; the sun of course would shine are, in prophetic style, a symbol of per- forth in all his splendor, and to the eye sons of rank, eminence and authority. of our imagined spectator would seem The grass, on the other hand, denotes to have been just created ; and so at the mass of the common people. See night of the moon and stars. This efthis confirmed Ezek. 17. 24.–31. 5. Is. fect of the divine power, according to 14. 8. Rev. 8. 7.

the usual analogy of the Scriptures, is 14. Let there be lights, f-c. It is un- described from its appearance, and the questionable that the Scriptures gene- language employed--' let there be lights rally describe the phenomena of the in the firmament-and-' he made two natural world as they appear, rather great lights and set them in the firmathan according to strict scientific truth. ment-is to be interpreted on the prinThus the sun and moon ate said to ciple above stated. They might then rise and set-the stars to fall—and the be said to be made,' because they then moon to be turned into blood. Conse- first began to be visible, and to perform quently, if this history of the creation the office for which they were designed. were designed to describe the effects of The original word for 'made' is not the six days' work as they would have the same as that which is rendered appeared to a spectator, had one been create.' It is a term frequently empresent,-a supposition rendered proba- ' ployed to signify constituted, appointeb. signs, and • for seasons, and for days, and years.

15 And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth : and it

o Ps. 74. 17. & 104. 19.

was so.

set for a particular purpose or use. therefore, whenever the judgments of Thus it is said that God 'made Joseph God or extraordinary events are sige a father to Pharaoh'-'made him lord nified by remarkable appearances in of Egypt'-' made the Jordan a border them. In this way eclipses of the between the tribes' —made David the sun and moon, comets, meteors, fallhead of the heathen;' and so in innu-ing stars, &c., serve as signs, i. e. as merable other instances. As therefore preternatural tokens or monitions of the rainbow was made or constituted a the divine agency in the sight of men. sign, though might have existed be- This is the genuine force of the original, fore, so the sun, moon, and stars, may which very often conveys the idea of a be said to have been made and set as miraculous interference or manifesta. lights in the firmament, on the fourth tion. Ps. 65. 8. "They also that dwell day, though actually called into exist in the uttermost parts are afraid at thy ence on the first, or previously. The tokens (6967* signs). That they same result had indeed been really ef- may have been designed also to subfected by the same means during the serve important purposes in the variprevious three days and nights, but ous economy of human life, as in afthese luminaries were henceforth by fording signs to the mariner to aid him their rising and setting, to be the visible in navigation, and to the husbandman means of producing this separation or to guide him in regard to the proper guccession.- -T Lights. Heb. 67har seasons for ploughing, sowing, plantlighters, instruments of illumination, ing, pruning, reaping, is not improblight-bearers, light-dispensers. The ori- able, though we think this not so ginal word is different from that render- strictly the true import of the origed 'light, (978) v. 3.- To divide nal. But it is certain they have anthe day, foc Heb. "To separate between swered for this end, and perhaps, were the day and between the night.'- so designed.-- IT And for seasons. Heb. 1 Let them be for signs. That is, let 27792 set or appointed times; from a signs be observed by means of them. root (799) signifying to fix by previous The manner in which the heavenly bo- appointment. The phrase points not dies were destined to serve for 'signs,' only to the seasons of the year, which in the sense in which that term gene- are regulated by the course of the sun, rally occurs in the Scriptures, may be and to the computation of months and learned from such passages as the fol- years, but also to fasts, feasts, and lowing ; Luke 21. 25. 'And there shall other religious solemnities, such as were be signs in the sun, and in the moon, appointed to be observed by the people and in the stars; and upon the earth of Israel. Compare Is. 66. 23. 1 Chron. distress of nations with perplexity; the 23. 31. Ps. 104. 19.- - And for days sea and the waves roaring.' Acts 2. and years. As the word 'for is here 19, 20. “And I will show wonders in omitted before 'years,' though occurthe heavens above, and signs in the ring before each of the other terms, the earth beneath; blood and fire and va- sense of the phrase is undoubtedly 'for por of smoke; The sun shall be turned days even years;' implying that a day into darkness and the moon into blood is often to be taken for a year, as is the before that great and notable day of the case in prophetical computation. See Lord come. They answer this end, | Ezck. 4.6. Dan. 9. 24, 25. Of two words

16 And God P made two great 18 And to rule over the day, lights; the greater light to rule and over the night, and to divide the day, and the lesser light to the light from the darkness: and rule the night: he made r the stars God saw that it was good. also.

19 And the evening and the 17 And God set them in the morning were the fourth day. firmament of the heaven to give 20 And God said, Let the walight upon the earth.

ters bring forth abundantly the

p Ps.136. 7, 8, 9. & 148. 3. 5. q Ps. 8. 3. r Job,38. 7.

s Jer. 31. 35,

connected by the copulative 'and'the God had made. This we offer, however, last is very frequently merely exegeti- merely as a suggestion on a point ical or explanatory of the first; as which deserves perhaps a more strict Eph. 4. 11. 'And he gave (i. e. appoint- investigation.- The greater light. ed) some pastors and teachers,' i. e. That is, the sun, usually termed in the pastors even teachers. 2 Cor. 1. 3. (Gr.) Hebrew pou shemesh, i. e. minister "Blessed be God and the Father of our

or servant, from its ministering light Lord Jesus Christ,' i. e. as rightly ren- and heat to the earth with its inhabidered in our common translation, 'God tants and productions. The name was even the Father, &c.' The original well adapted, as perhaps it was designword for year () has the imported, to prevent the sun from becoming of change or reiteration from the cir- an object of religious worship, a species cuit or revolution involved in the idea. of idolatry which crept into the world

16. God made two great lights. The at a very early period. To rule sun and moon are alike called great the day. To regulate the day as to its luminaries from their apparently equal, commencement by its rising and as to or nearly equal size, not from the de- its close by its setting; to be, as it were, gree of light which they give. Every a presiding power over the day and its thing in this narrative is described with various transactions and events. reference to its appearance to the eye of 20. The moving creature. Heb. you a supposed spectator. It would seem sheretz. It is remarkable that there that the words, ‘And it was so,' in the are two distinct words, of very different preceding verse were designed to inform origin, which the English translators us of the actual execution of the crea- have rendered promiscuously 'creeping ting command in respect to the lumin- creatures' or 'creeping things,' and also aries; if so, we see no serious objection moving creatures,' following no doubt to supposing that this and the two en- the authority of the Septuagint, which suing verses are to be taken parenthet- gives {pmetu reptiles for both; thus maically, the writer's scope being to inform king the order of the successive creaus, that God had previously created tions much less clear and perspicuous these bodies for the purpose here men- in our version than it is in the Hetioned, but that they had not hitherto brew text. The first of these words been able to answer the ends of their is that here employed you sheretz, renformation on account of the turbid state dered in the margin 'creeping creatures.' of the atmosphere. Otherwise the pas- It comes from a

y sharatz sage must be considered as a mere re- signifying to bring forth, increase, or petition, in more expanded particulars, mulliply abundantly; and is in fact the of what is affirmed in the preceding very verb which in this same verse is

The phrase, therefore, 'And rendered 'bring forth abundantly.' God made' would be better read “For Thus too Gen. 8. 17, That they may

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uch. 6. 20. &7. 14. & 8. 19. Ps. 104. 28.

moving creature that hath life, whales, and every living creature and fowl that may fly above the that moveth, which the waters earth in the open firmament of brought forth abundantly after heaven.

their kind, and every winged fowl 21 And God created great after his kind: and God saw that

it was good. breed abundantly (1270-) in the earth, dering the Heb. 979 oph by 'fowľ our and be fruitful and multiply in the earth. translators have 'limited its meaning Ex. 1.7. And the children of Israel the term includes also winged insects,

so as to include only the birds. But were fruitful and increased abundantly, (787077) and multiplied, and waxed as is evident from Lev. 11. 20, Al exceeding mighty, and the land was

fouls (9799) that creep, going upon four.'

The proper rendering is not filled with them. Ex. 8. 3, 'And the river shall bring forth frogs abundantly forch, but Aying thing, including the

tribes of all kinds that can raise (490").' From this it appears that the themselves up into the air; as is in. proper translation of the noun yow is deed made obvious by the expression not the creeping, but the rapidly mul- in the next verse 932 973 33 every fly tiplying or suarming creature. It is ing thing that hath wings. From the applied not only to the smaller kinds letter of this clause it would appear that of fishes, but to various species of land the fowls, as well as the fishes, were animals, as mice, snails, lizards, &c. formed out of the water, but in ch. 2. Lev. 11. 29, and even to fowls, Lev. 11. 19, it is said that 'out of the ground the 23; in short, to all kinds of living crea. tures inhabiting either land or water, earth and every fowl of the air.' To

Lord God formed every beast of the which are oviparous and remarkable

reconcile the apparent discrepancy for fecundity, as we know is pre-eminently the case with the finny tribes. some have proposed to interpret the Ps. 104. 24. 25, 'The earth is full of thy word 'ground' in a large sense, as sy. riches; so is this great and wide sea,

nonymous with 'earth,' including both

land and water. A better mode is to wherein are things creeping innumerable. The other word translated creep- vary slightly the translation in the pre

sent passage, which the original will ing things' is 27 remes, and the crea

well admit, and read, 'and let the forol tures expressed by this name were created during the sixth day or period. Writer here seems to be to specify the re

fly above the earth.' The object of the We shall afterwards show (see note on spective elements assigned as the habi v.24) that it has a very different meaning tation of the fishes and the flying things. from you here applied to a part of the In the other passage the design is to animate creations of the fifth day.

acquaini us with the source from whence T Thathath life. Heb. 1777 wby living the beasts and birds originated. They soul. The original word implies 'breath,' are probably here mentioned together and so denotes an animal which lives from the similarity of the elements in by breathing. It is chiefly applied in which they live, and of the motions by the Scriptures to creatures capable of which they pass through them.- -TIn sensation, and thus distinguished from the open firmament. Heb. Do 39 inanimate matter. Though spoken of on the face of the firmament. To an man, it does not by itself denote the in- eye looking upwards the flight or sail. tellectual or rational faculty, which en-ing motion of a bird appears to be on the ters into our ideas of the human soul. face of the sky, which, as Job says, is See note on ch.2. v. 7.- TAnd fowl that f" spread out as a molten looking glass.' may fly. Heb. 50799 9797. By ren- 21. God created great whales. Heb.

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