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מַעְיָן שָׁמַיִם

תַּבְנִית

karpia

κράτιστος

spring, Ps. 87.7.

pattern, Ex. 25. 9. fountain, Gen. 7. 11.

likeness, Ezek. 8. 3. heaven, Deut. 4. 11.

form, Ezek. 8. 10. heavens, Dan. 4. 26.

similitude, Deut. 4. 16. air, 2 Sam. 21. 10.

figure, Is. 44. 13.
family, Eph. 3. 15.
lineage, Luke, 2. 4.

μαρτυρειν

" to testify, John, 15. 26.

to bear witness, John 15. 21. kindred, Acts, 3. 25.

διαιρεσεις

diversities, 1 Cor. 12. 4. most excellent, Luke, 1. 3.

differences, 1 Cor. 12. 6. most noble, Acts, 24. 3.

" to abide, Luke, 24. 29. turn upside down, Acts, 17. 6. HEDW

to tarry,

Ibid.
make an uproar, Acts, 21. 38.
trouble, Gal. 5. 12.

ελεω

to pity, Mat. 18. 30.

to have compassion, ILI in due time, 1 Tim. 2. 6. in his times, 1 Tim. 6. 15. αιωνιος

{ everlasting, Mat. 25. 4
eternal,

Ibid
in due tines, Tit. 1. 3.
ruler of the feast, John 2.8.

" weariness, 2 Cor. 11. 2. KOTTOS

labur, 1 Thes. 2. 9.
governor of the feast, Ibid.
comfort, 2 Cor. 1. 4.

μοχθος

a painfulness, 2 Cor. 11. 2. consolation, 2 Cor. 1. 5.

travail, 1 Thes. 2. 9.

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παρακλησις

2.-PHRASES.

mis gina rend. Şthe pride of her power; Ezek. 30.6.

שוּם עִינְיָס עַל

טוּב בְּעֲנַיִם

the . 30. 18
set eyes upon, Gen. 44. 21.
look well to, Jer. 39. 12.
good in the eyes of, Gen. 41. 37.
it pleaseth thee, Gen. 20. 15.
(it liketh him best, Deut. 23. 16.

how old art thou ? Gen. 47. 8.
the days of the years of my life, Gen. 47. 9.

the whole age of, Gen. 47. 28.
to swear, Ex. 6. 8. Num. 14. 30.

to lift up the hand, Deut. 32. 40. επέρ ημών εστίν os Sis on our part, Mark, 9. 40.

is for us, Luke, 9. 50.
το μεν πνεύμα πρόθυμος

the spirit is willing, Mat. 26. 41.
the spirit is ready, Mark, 14. 38.

counted for righteousness, Rom. 4. 3.
ελογίσθη εις δικαιοσύνης accounted for righteousness, Gal. 3.6.

imputed for righteousness, Jas. 2. 23.
ει εισελεοσυνται, &c. they shall not enter into my rest, Heb. 3. 11.

if they shall enter into my rest, Heb. 4. 5.

יְמֵי שְׁנֵי חַיָּיךְ נָשָׂא אָת־יַך

But there are no phrases, in the rendering of which the tranelators have shewn more diversity than in those in which the words 12 ben, son, and 2074 ish, man, make a part. The former of these, which not only signifies a son, but also a descendant of any kind, has in the Oriental dialects a very wide acceptation, and is applied not only to the offspring of the animal creation, but also to productions of every sort ; and what is etill more remarkable, to consequential or concomitant relations. Thus an arrow is called the son of the bow; the morning-star, the son of the morning; threshed-out corn, the son of the floor ; and anointed persons, the sons of oil. In rendering such phrases our translators have, for the most part, softened the Hebraism, but after no uniform manner. Sons of Beliał is surely not more intelligible to an English reader than sons of oil, and much less so than sons of valour, sons of righteousness, sons of iniquity; yet, while they retain the first Hebraism, with all its original harshness, and partly in its original form, they mollify the three last into valiant men, righteous men, wicked men. But even in regard to the first they are not consistent; for if once they adınitted the word Belial, they should have retained it throughout, and said a thing of Belial, a heart of Belial, a witness of Belial, the floods of Belial; which, however, they render an evil disease, a wicked heart, an ungodly witness, the floods of ungodliness. Nay, they have once or twice translated a man of Belial, a wicked mun.

Many other instances of this variety of phrasing might be adduced, but enougla has been said to shew that our translators were not guided by any uniform rule or fixed principle, especially in rendering the Hebraisms of the Bible; and, moreover, that this want of uniformity must often be productive of great inconvenience to the reader.

On the whole, however, if we except the fault now adverted to, the abatements to be inade from the general excellence of the established version are extremely trivial, and whatever defects may be pointed out, they are chargeable rather upon the age and the circumstances in which it was made than upon the translators themselves, and in our estimate it is but reasonable that the faults of a translation should be viewed as far as possible distinct from the faults of the translators. It is indeed possible that occasional instances of wrong orinadequate rendering may be specified, that grammatical propriety may be sometimes slightly violated, that Greek and Hebrew idioms may not always be the most happily transfused into English, that modes of expression lacking in delicacy, or dignity, or perspicuity, may here and there occur, but they are few and far between, and a thousand-fold outweighed by the evident study of rigid fidelity every where exhibited. In atternpting, therefore, to specify, as we now propose to do, some particulars in which our English version is capable of amendment, we are doing nothing which really reflects upon the course adopted, in respect to these points, by the translators, unless it can be supposed to detract from them thật they did not foresee the changes which in after times would come upon their native tongiie. They employed such words as the usage of their times suggested and sanctioned. The same reasons which made them adopt those words then would, if they were now alive, and revising their own work, induce them to substitute others in their stead. We would be understood, then, merely as intimaring what is in itself desirable, in view of the progress of language and society, rather than what we should deem it expedient to have undertaken.

While the changes effected in the lapse of two or three centuries in our habitudes of thought and modes of expression do doubtless render certain emendations intrinsically a desideratum, yet when it comes to the question of actually innovating upon the established text, under whatever plea, we at once plant ourselves on the ground of strict adherence to its every letter. The advantages of retaining incorrupt a standard harmoniously accepted by 90 large a portion of Christendom, are so signally great, and the evils which would inevitably result from its allowed invasion so manifold and vast, that we trust the day is far, far distant when the first step shall be taken toward supplanting this time-hallowed version in the estimation of the millons by whom it is now so affectionately

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cherished. Incomparably better will it be that any little improvements in the way of explication, modernized diction, euphemism, &c. should be suggested in critical or popular comments, in biblical introductions, in sermons, in fact any how, rather than in the form of direct alterations of a text, as to which our instinctive prayer is 'Esto perpetua.'

The following list of obsolete or antiquated terms, it is proper to advise the reader, is taken from the earlier copies of King James' Version, and contains a considerable number which have been since altered, but by whom, or upon what authority, does not appear. Recurrence to the passages indicated will shew, how. ever, that several of them do not now stand in our current editions, but have given place to their more modern equivalents ranged in the parallel column. In some cases, moreover, it is not the word, but the sense, which has become antiquated.

1.-SINGLE TERMS.

Advisement counsel, 1 Chron. 12. 19. Thief

robber, Mat. 27. 38, 44. Afore

before, 2 Kings, 20. 4. Worship honor, civil respect. Lu. 14. 10. Albeit although, Ezek. 13. 7.

Meat

food, Mal. 3. 4. Aliant alien, Job, 19. 15.

Cunning

skilful, Ex. 38. 23. Anon soon, Mat. 13. 20.

Honest decent, becoming, 2 Cor. 8. 21 Bestead reduced to straits, Is. 8. 21. More

greater, Acts, 19. 32. Bewray expose, Is. 16. 3.

Quick living, Acts, 10. 42. Blains blisters, Ex. 9. 9.

Stablish establish, 1 Pet. 5. 10. Beast

living creature, Rev. 4. 6, 7. Prevent go before, 1 Thes. 4. 15. Chaws jaws, Ezek. 29. 4.

Ensue

pursue, 1 Pet. 3. 11. Cracknels cakes, 1 Kings, 14. 3.

Provoke excite, Heb. 10. 24. Coast

border, limit, Deut. 19. 8 Entreat treat, Luke, 20. 11. Chapiter capital, Ex. 36. 38.

Instantly earnestly, Luke, 7. 4. Daysman umpire, Job, 9. 33.

Hitherto thus far, Job, 38. 11. Deal part, Ex. 29. 40.

Ravin

prey, Gen. 49. 27. Fet fetched, Acts, 28. 13.

Bruit

rumor, Nah. 3. 19. Fray frighten, Zech. 1. 21.

Marvel wonder, Eccl. 5. 8. Fenced fortified, Deut. 3. 5.

Eschew avoid, Job, 2. 3. Habergeon armor, breastplate, Ex. 28. 32. To skill to be knowing in, 1 Kings, 5. & Holpen helped, Ps. 38. 8.

Wax

become, Is. 51. 6. Hosen stockings, Dan. 3. 21.

Lack

to be wanting, Gen. 18. 28. Hough hamstring, Josh. 11. 9.

Trow

think, Luke, 17. 9. Kerchiefs caps, Ezek. 13. 18.

Twain

two, 1 Sam. 18. 21. Kine Cows, Gen. 32. 15.

Clean

entirely, Josh. 3. 17. Lad youth, Gen. 21. 12.

Sore

severe, very much, occ. oft. Leasing lies, Ps. 4. 2.

Μο

more, Deut. 1. 11. Leese lose, 1 Kings, 18. 5.

Straitly strictly, Gen. 43. 7. List, listed please, Mat. 17. 12.

Dureth endureth, Mat. 13. 21. hinder, Rom. 1. 13.

Camp

encamp, Is. 29. 3. Magnifical stately, i Chron. 22. 5.

Minish diminish, Ps. 107. 39. Marishes marshes, Ezek. 47. 11. An hungered hungry, Mat. 4. 2. Mufflers thin vails, Is. 3. 19.

Garner

granary,

Mat. 3. 12. Munition fortification, Nah. 3. 1. Sith

since, Jer. 15. 7. Molten melted, Ezek. 24. 11.

Ensample

sample, 1 Cor. 10. 11. Peeled smoothed, Is. 18. 2.

Mids

midst, Luke, 23. 45. Poll and polled cut the hair off, Ezek. 14. 20 Graffed

grafted, Rom. 11. 17-24 Partenance inward parts, Ex. 12. 9. Backslidings deserting, Jer. 2. 19. Carriage baggage, 1 Sarn. 17. 22. Unto

for, John, 15. 7. Conversation behavior, 1 Tim. 4. 12, &c. Of

by, Mat. 1. 18.

Let

Of

from, Mat. 7. 16. Passion suffering, Acts, 1. 3. Oweth owneth, Acts, 21. 11. Harness

armor, Ex. 13. 18. Ear

till, 1 Sam. 8. 12. Wist, wit, wot know, Ex. 16. 15. Tache button, Ex. 26. 6. Tale

number, Ex. 5. 8. Straw

scatter, Mat. 25. 26. Seethe boil, 2 Kings, 4. 38.

Servitor
Silverlings
Sod, sodden
Stature
Swollen
Tablets
Terrises
Unwittingly
Wastness
Wench

servant, 2 Kinga, 4. 48.
pieces of silver, 1s. 7. 2
boil, Gen. 25. 29.
height, Num. 13. 32.
swelled, Acts, 28. 6.
tippets, Ex. 35. 22
balustrades, 2 Chron. 9. IL
unawares, Lev. 22. 14.
wasting, Zeph. 1. 16.
girl, 2 Sam. 17. 17.

2.-PHRASES.

Good man of the house master of the family, Mat. 20. 11.
Uppermost rooms

chief places at table, Mat. 23. 6.
Hunger-bitten

weakened with hunger, Job, 18. 12 Take no thought

be not anxious, Mat. 6. 25.
Laughed to scorn

derided, Mat. 9. 24.
Cast the same in his teeth reproved him, Mat. 27. 44.
Chode with

quarrelled or disputed with, Gen. 31. 36.
We do you to wit

we inform you, 2 Cor. 8. 1. It repented him

he repented, Gen. 6. 6.
He repented himself the same, Mat. 27.3.
Stricken in age

advanced in age, Gen. 18. 11.
Know, any thing by myself know any thing against myself 1 Cor. 4. 4.
Sat at meat

sat at table, Mat. 9. 10.

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Learned Terms.-In the following list of learned terms retained in the common version, it is readily admitted that several may be specified which through long use have become both familiar and intelligible, and that in regard to others it would be difficult to express their meaning well, without a tedious or clumsy eircumlocution. But a simple diction is more accordant with the general style of the version, which is remarkable for its use of pure English words in preference to those of Roman origin. Thus the translators almost invariably adopt keep back for suppress; call upon for invoke; bow down for incline ; lift up for exalt; stretch out for extend; put out for extinguish ; cry out for exclaim; put away for divorce; put asunder for separate ; cut off for reject ; let go for dismise, &c. We cite the following instances therefore, rather as exceptions to the general practice of the translators.

Tetrarch
Synagogue
Proselyte
Centurion
Quarternion
Legion
Easter
Scribe
Infidel
Matrix
Occurrcnt
Vocation
Consolation
Remission

Roman Governor.
assembly.
convert.
Roman officer.
party of four soldiers.
body of Roman soldiers.
passover.
writer.
unbeliever.
womb.
incident.
calling
confort.
forgiveness.

Omnipotent
Illuminated
Delectable
Immutable
Celestial
Terrestrial
Partition
Divination
Diversity
Importunity
Inquisition
Prognosticator
Ambassage
Cogitation

almighty.
enlightened.
delightful.
unchangeable.
heavenly.
earthly.
division,
foretelling.
variety.
earnest entreaty.
inquiry.
foreteller.
embassy.
thought.

Exaction
Barbed
Inordinate
Laud
Adjure
Implead
Disannul

demand, tribute.
bearded.
irregular.
praise.
put on oath.
go to law.
make void.

Predestinate
Consurt
Amerce
Incensed
Mullified
Exorcist

decree beforehand.
partner.
fine.
enraged.
softened.
one who drives out

evil spirits.

Want of uniformity in Proper Names.Our translators have, in many instances, rendered from the Greek, Hebrew names with Greek terminations; and those names, thus Græcized, they have given in our translation without, if we may so say, Hebraizing them again ; insomuch that it is not to be doubled, that many unlearned readers are ignorant that some of the persons spoken of by one name in the New Testament, are the same with those spoken of by another in the Old Testament. The following are examples.

Agar Azotus Charran Cis Elias Eliseus Esaias Jeremy Jeremias Jesus Jonas Joram

Hagar, Gal. 4. 24, 25.

Josaphat
Ashdod, Acts, 8. 40.

Judas
Haran, Acts, 7.2, 4.

Messias
Kish, Acts, 13 21.

Noe
Elijah, Mat. 11. 14.

Osee
Elisha, Luke, 4. 27.

Phaleg
Isaiah, Rom. 9. 27.

Roboam
Jeremiah, Mat. 2. 17.

Sem
Jeremiah, Mat. 16. 14. Tyrus
Joshua, Acts, 7. 45. Heb. 4. 8. Urias
Jonah, Mai, 12. 39.

Zacharias
Jehoram, Mat. 1. 8.

Jehosaphat, Mat. 1. 8.
Judah, Mat. 13. 55.
Messiah, John, 1. 41. 4. 25.
Noah, Mat. 24. 37.
Ilosea, Roin. 9. 26.
Peleg, Luke, 3. 35.
Rehoboam, Mat. 1. 7.
Shem, Luke, 3. 36.
Tyre, Jer. 25. 22.
Uriah, Mat. 1. 6.
Zechariah, Mat. 23. 55.

Where a word ends in iah, it is peculiarly wrong thus to transform it, because in nearly every case those names have a reference to Jah or Jehovah and are compounded with it, as are those that end in el with Elohim, God.-Upon the same principles of simplicity, uniformity, and information, the words Thomas Didymus, Lucas, Marcus, and Timotheus, would be more intelligible to a common English reader, and tend more to the identifying of the persons spoken of, if they were translated Thomas the Twin, Mark, Luke, and Timothy.

Various Peculiarities.

For the sake of the English reader it may be well to group together, in tabular form, a few supplementary items tending to illustrate several points which are less obvious in a version, but which are still important to the intelligent study of the Scriptures.

Hebraisms.-The Hebrew language is distinguished for the use of certain nouns which in connection with other words, form an idiomatical expression and acquire a sense that could not be collected from the known meaning of the separate terms. Of these the most remarkable are 39. Baal, 13 son, and 2nd man, which in their various connections express the relations of possession, dominion, addictedness, &c. in a manner which will best be gathered from the following examples.

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