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Mnemotechny now taught in the United States, will soon be known

Everywhere. The Electro-magnetic Telegraph was completed, to carry news on the lightning's

Fire Arrow. The Philadelphia riots between the Americans and Irish, made

A Fire and a War. Postage was reduced to five and ten cents, by Congress, the members acting their own

Free Will. Texas was annexed to the United States, bidding Mexico a final

Farewell General Jackson at his death, bade the world

Farewell The United States declared war against Mexico, and

there the army collected provisions and Forage. The Mexicans under Santa Anna, were defeated at

Buena Vista by Gen. Taylor's skilful Firing. Old Vera Cruz was taken by Scott ; who took their Castle of

Heavy Rock The City of Mexico was taken by Gen. Scott, who shook their buildings with a constant


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Discoveries, Inventions and Improvements.

1. Paper first made of cotton rags,

A. D. 1000 Musical notes invented, by Guido Aretino,

1025 Curfew bell established, by William the Conqueror, 1068 Doomsday book compiled in Eng., by Wm. the Conqueror, 1086 Sur-names first used, by the nobility in England,

1086 Furnaces first invented,

1086 Heraldry had its rise,

1100 Banks first established in Europe, at Venice,

1157 Glass windows first used in England,

1180 Chimnies first used in England,

1200 Colleges first established in Europe, at Paris,

1215 Astronomy and Geometry first introduced into England, . 1220 Coal first discovered in England, near Newcastle,

1234 Leaden pipes for conveying water, invented,

1236 Tin mines discovered in Gerinany,

1241 Mirrors and Magnifying Glasses, invented, by R. Bacon, Eng., 1260 Mariner's compass first known in Europe,

1269 Spectacles first invented, by Roger Bacon,

1280 Wind-mills invented,

1299 Gold first coined in modern times,

1320 Gunpowder first made, by Schwartz, Hol.,

1320 Musical notes as now used, invented,

1330 Weaving cloth first practiced in England,

1331 Cannons first made, by the French,

1340 Copper money first used, in Scotland and Ireland,

1340 Painting in oil, first practiced,

1340 Patent-rights first granted to inventors, in England,

1344 Wire-drawing invented, at Nuremburg,

1351 Law pleading changed from French into English, in Eng., 1362 Bible first translated into English, by Wicliffe,

1369 Theatrical performances first given in England,

1378 Playing cards invented, for the amusement of the Fr. King, 1390 Algebra introduced into Europe, by the Saracens,

1412 Paper first made of linen rags,

1417 Muskets invented, and first used in England,

1421 Pumps invented,

1425 Printing invented, by Faust, Ger.,

1441 Engraving on copper invented, by Finniguerre, It.,



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Discoveries, Inventions and Improvements.

2. Engraving on wood invented,

A. D. 1460 Post-office first established in Europe, in France,

1464 Almanacs first published, at Buda,

1470 Casts in plaster first invented, at Florence, by Verichio, 1470 Printing introduced into England, by Caxton,

1474 Violins invented,

1477 Watches first made, at Nuremburg,

1477 Canals in Modern style first made in Europe, It.,

1481 Diamonds first polished and cut,

1489 Maps and Charts first brought to England,

1489 Greek Language introduced into England, by Grocyn, 1491 Fortifications first built in the present style,

1500 Sugar refining first practiced, by a Venetian,

1503 Hats first made in Europe, at Paris,

1504 Shillings first coined in England,

1505 Gardening first introduced into England, from Netherlands, 1509 Camera Obscura invented,

1515 Gun-locks invented, at Nuremburg,

1517 Chocolate introduced into England, from Mexico,

1520 Turkies introduced into England, from America,

1520 Stops and pauses in literature, first used,

1520 City streets first lighted in Modern Europe ; Paris, 1522 Roses first planted in England,

1522 Soap first made, at London and Bristol,

1524 Spinning wheel invented, at Brunswick, by Jurgen, Ger., 1530 Copernicus discovered the true theory of the Solar System, 1532 Hemp and flax first raised in England,

1533 Padlocks invented, at Nuremburg,

1540 Pins first used in England,

1543 Needles first made in England,

1545 Silver mines of Potosi, first discovered, by an Indian, 1545 Bullets of iron, first made,

1550 Sextant invented, by Tycho Brahe, Swede,

1550 Knitting stockings invented, in Spain,

1550 Grape-vines first planted in England,

1552 Sealing-wax first made,

1556 Glass bottles and window-glass, first made in England, 1557 Tobacco first introduced into Europe, by T. Nicot, Fr., 1560


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Discoveries, Inventions and Improvements.

3. Astronomical Observatory first built in Europe, at Cassel, A. D. 1561 Newspapers first published in Europe, at Venice,

1562 Knives first made in England,

1563 Coaches first made in England, by Rippon,

1564 Lotteries first drawn in England,

1563 Fans, muffs and false hair brought to England, from France, 1572 Post-office first established in England,

1581 New Style created, by Pope Gregory XIII.,

1582 Diamond mines of Golconda first discovered,

1584 Potatoes introduced into Eng. and Ireland, from S. America, 1586 Bombs and mortars invented, at Venloo,

1588 Fire-ships invented,

1588 Newspapers first published in England,

1588 Mail first carried in England, in stage coaches,

1589 Telescope first invented, by Porta and Jansen, Hol., 1590 Jupiter's satellites discovered, by Jansen,

1590 Tea first introduced into Europe from China, by the Dutch, 1601 Theatre first established in England, by Shakspeare, 1603 Asparagus first introduced into England, from Italy, 1608 Table forks first introduced into England, from Italy, 1608 Mulberry trees first planted in England,

1609 Thermometer invented, by Sanctorius,

1610 Galileo constructed his first telescope,

1610 Theory of the Rainbow first explained,

1611 Logarithms invented by Napier, Scot.,

1614 Circulation of the blood discovered by Harvey, Eng., 1619 Microscope invented, by Jansen, Hol.,

1619 Bricks first made of any required size,

1625 Printing in colors invented,

1626 Shoe-buckles first made,

1630 Wine from grapes, first made in England,

1635 Micrometer invented, in England,

1640 Sugar-cane first cultivated in the West Indies,

1641 Coffee first brought to England,

1641 Barometer invented, by Torricelli and Pascal, It. 8. Fr.,

1643 Air-guns invented,

1646 Engraving in mezzotint invented, by Prince Eugene, 1648 Pendulum clocks invented,



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Discoveries, Inventions and Improvements.

4. Bread first made with yeast, by the English,

A. D. 1650 Speaking trumpet invented, by Kircher, a Jesuit,

1652 Air-pump invented, by Othon Guerrick, Magdeburg, 1654 Breeches first introduced into England,

1654 Saturn's ring discovered by Huygens, Hol.,

1659 Steam Engine invented, by the Marquis of Worcester, 1659 Literary periodicals first published in Europe,

1660 Fire Engine invented,

1663 Chain-shot invented, by Admiral Do Witt,

1666 Electricity first discovered, by Othon Guerrick, Magdeburg, 1667 Differential and Integral Calculus invented, by Newton, 1669 Bayonets first made at Bayonne, France,

1670 Orrery invented,

1670 Calico printing first practiced in England,

1676 Ruins of Palmyra first discovered, in the deserts of Syria, 1678 Diving-bell invented,

1683 Telegraph first invented,

1687 Banks first established in England,

1694 Rice introduced into the United States,

1695 Frogs introduced into Ireland, by Fellows of Tr. College, 1696 Phosphorus first discovered,

1699 Auction sales first established in England,

1700 Threshing machine invented,

1700 Cotton first raised in the United States,

1702 Newspaper first published in the United States, at Boston, 1704 Wafers first made, at Nuremburg,

1705 Post-office first established in the U. States, at New York, 1710 Copy-right of books secured to authors, by Parliament, 1713 Aurora Borealis ; first discovery of, on record, March 6th. 1716 Potatoes first cultivated in the United States,

1719 Thread first made in Great Britain, at Paisley, Scotland, 1722 Ste type printing invented, by Ged, Scot.,

1725 Diamond mines of Brazil, discovered,

1730 Quadrant invented, by Thomas Godfrey, Am.,

1740 Chain-bridges first constructed,

1741 Bank notes first issued,

1745 Handkerchiefs first made, at Paisley, Scotland,

1748 China-ware first made in England,


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