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hymns and prayers arranged so that processions may be definite acts of prayer and worship, after the manner of the Prayer Book Litany and the older processions upon which it is based; the second contains other hymns that are suitable for use in processions. The Metrical Litanies in Part XI are similarly arranged, so that they form complete acts of prayer. Part XII consists of liturgical prose pieces, which are arranged in their natural order.
The heading 'OFFICE HYMN' shows that the original was the Office Hymn for the corresponding service in the Salisbury servicebooks, except in the case of No. 175, which is taken from those of York. The letters E.' and 'M.' stand for Evensong and Mattins, the first Evensong being that on the day before the festival. When these letters occur twice for the same festival or season (E.' and 'M.,' 'M.' and 'E.'), the first 'E.' denotes the hymn for the first Evensong, and the second E.' the Evensong on the day itself; while the first 'M.' shows that the hymn anciently belonged to Mattins only, and the second 'M.' stands over the hymn that belonged to Lauds: as our present Mattins occupies the place of the older Mattins and Lauds, either hymn is equally suitable.
The names and dates of all authors are given, in so far as they are known. Initials only are provided in the case of living translators, whose names are given in the Index of Authors, and in the case of a few living authors. The letters Tr.' are prefixed to the names of all translators. The number of the Psalm (Ps.) is given in the case of paraphrases, though it must be remembered that some paraphrases are extremely free, while others are based upon one or two verses only of a Psalm.
Where the author's or translator's name has no mark, the hymn is unaltered or has been revised by the author himself. The sign '+' shows that an alteration has been made in one line only; the sign' denotes alterations in two or three lines. To hymns that are the work of more than one writer a second name is given, or the words and others' are added. Translations which have no one special source are marked 'Tr. cento.' Alterations in spelling are ot marked, nor is any note made of the omission of verses, nor the statements as to authorship refer to the doxologies.
In the case of long hymns and of hymns with slow tunes, the sign* is prefixed to those verses which may be most conveniently omitted. It does not follow that verses so marked are considered in any way inferior, but only that they can be omitted without doing violence to the context.
Choruses and refrains are printed once for all in italic. 'Amen' is only printed with doxologies. In the case of other hymns its use is sometimes appropriate and sometimes not; but in the Musical Edition it is given with its musical setting in every case except that of sequences, so that it can be sung when desired. The verses
are numbered, and in order to show when the last verse of a hymn is reached at the bottom of a page, a full point is in every case printed after the number of the last verse.
The Introits are given in Part XII, and as in some churches other Scriptural passages from the older Liturgy are occasionally used, these also are for convenience given in full. They follow the Introit, and are marked by letters which are explained in a note at the head of this Part.
We desire to express our warmest thanks to the authors who have aided us by writing or translating hymns specially for this Hymnal, i. e. Rev. Maurice F. Bell; Rev. Dr. C. Bigg, Professor of Ecclesiastical History, Oxford; Mr. F. C. Burkitt, Norrisian Professor of Divinity, Cambridge; Mr. G. K. Chesterton; Rev. G. Gillett; Mr. Laurence Housman; Miss H. Packer; Rev. E. S. Palmer; Rev. Canon Rawnsley; Mr. R. Ellis Roberts. Our thanks are also due to the following authors for their kind permission to include their hymns in the book:-Mr. A. C. Ainger; Rev. S. Baring-Gould; Mr. A. C. Benson; Rev. Father Benson; Rev. G. H. Bourne; Rev. H. R. Bramley; Rev. John Brownlie; Miss Christian Burke; Rev. Dr. Butler, Master of Trinity College, Cambridge; Mr. W. Canton; Rev. R. R. Chope; Rev. V. S. S. Coles; Rev. Father Collins; Mrs. Coote; Mr. R. F. Davis; Mrs. Gurney; Miss K. Hankey; Rev. Canon H. Scott Holland; Rev. F. L. Hosmer ; Mr. C. W. Humphreys; Rev. J. S. Jones; Rev. Dr. Julian; Mr.
Rudyard Kipling; Rev. S. C. Lowry; the Archbishop of York; Mrs. Maude; Mr. A. Midlane; Mrs. Miller; Mr. L. B. C. L. Muirhead; Rev. E. J. Newell; Mr. F. S. Pierpoint; Rev. Martin R. Pope; Rev. F. Pott; Rev. Canon Rawnsley; Very Rev. J. Armitage Robinson, Dean of Westminster; Rev. R. Hayes Robinson; Rev. I. G. Smith; Rev. Dr. W. Chalmers Smith; Rev. W. B. Trevelyan ; Lieut. Col. Turton. While the hymn book was going through the press three authors who had given their permission passed away; Bishop Bickersteth; Rev. L. Hensley; Mrs. Luke.
The following copyright hymns have been inserted by permission of the owners, to whom we tender our sincere gratitude:-119, Rev. H. L. Alderson; the late Dean Alford's hymns, Rev. H. L. Cruso; 580, Mr. W. K. Doane; St. Patrick's Breastplate, and other copyright hymns of the late Mrs. Alexander, the Archbishop of Armagh and the Association for Promoting Christian Knowledge; the three hymns 29, 225, 539, by Rev. H. R. Bramley, the late C. S. Calverley, and Mr. A. C. Benson, Messrs. Novello & Co., Ltd.; 10, 636, Mrs. Blacker; 577, Mr. J. E. Bode; the late Dr. Bright's hymns, Rev. Dr. Lock; 15, Mr. Ernest Nister; 77, Mr. Kyrle Chatfield ; 567, 584, Miss A. J. D. Clephane; 347, Mrs. Creighton; hymns by the late Mr. W. Chatterton Dix, Mrs. Dix; the late Canon Ellerton's hymns, Rev. F. J. Ellerton; 585, Mrs. A. M. Monro; the late Rt. Hon. W. E. Gladstone's hymn, Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons; 612, the John Church Co. and Mrs. Hanby; the late Miss Havergal's hymns, Rev. A. Havergal Shaw; 54, 155, 613, Messrs. Dent & Co.; 548, the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge; the late Bishop Walsham How's hymns, Rev. H. Walsham How; 308, 328, 335, Rev. J. B. Croft; hymns by the late Dr. Littledale, Rev. J. E. Vaux; 530, the Mothers' Union; hymns by the late Rev. G. Moultrie, Rev. B. Moultrie; the late Cardinal Newman's hymns, Mr. E. Bellasis and Messrs. Longmans; 368, Mrs. Jacob; the late Dean Plumptre's hymns, the Bishop of Gloucester and Mrs. Parsons; the late Rev. T. B. Pollock's litanies, Lt. Col. Pollock; 232, 272, Rev. W. F. J. Romanis; 25, 203, Mr. William M. Rossetti and Messrs. Macmillan ; 528, Mrs. Shuttleworth; the late Dean Stanley's hymns, the Dean's representatives, through Mr. John Murray and Messrs. Macmillan
the late Rev. S. J. Stone's hymns, Mrs. Boyd; the late Canon Thring's hymns, Mrs. Thring; 266, Mrs. Twells; 331, Rev. Canon Evans; hymns of the late Bishop Christopher Wordsworth, Rev. Christopher Wordsworth; 573, the Proprietors of Sacred Songs and Solos; 415, Mr. G. H. Fellowes Prynne; 430, Rev. J. A. Owen; 179, Mrs. Mason; 576, Rev. F. W. G. Whitfield; 517, Rev. R. R. Chope. Special thanks are due to the Rev. G. H. Palmer for permission to use his version of the Introits, and to Mr. E. W. Goldsmith for his revision of the Grails, &c.; and we are under a very great obligation to Mr. Robert Bridges, for permission to use no fewer than thirteen hymns from the Yattendon Hymnal.
We have spared no effort to discover the owners of all copyright hymns; but if through inadvertence any should have been overlooked, we desire to offer our apologies, and to promise that the omitted acknowledgement shall be inserted at the earliest opportunity. We cannot exaggerate our indebtedness to Dr. Julian's Dictionary of Hymnology, a monumental work, without which we could not have reached the high standard of accuracy, as to both texts and authorship, which we set before us when entering upon our labours. We are also exceedingly grateful to Dr. Julian personally, and to the sub-editor of the Dictionary, the Rev. J. Mearns, for their most valuable assistance and information on many doubtful points.
Amidst a very large number of scholars, experts, and other friends who have materially lightened our labours, we must make special mention of the Very Rev. Dr. Furneaux, Dean of Winchester, and Mr. Arthur Reynolds, on whose taste and judgement we have often relied.
One member of the Committee, the late Rev. W. H. H. Jervois, was called to his rest shortly after the printing of the book was begun. We cannot therefore place his name among our own, but we dedicate to the memory of our friend the work in which he bore so large a share.
W. J. BIRKBECK.
Ascension Day, 1906.
T. A. LACEY.
D. C. LATHBURY.
THE music of this hymnal is divided into two main sections; the plainsong melodies and the comparatively modern music. The modern music only is dealt with here. The plainsong is discussed separately.
THE CHOICE OF MATERIAL.
The music is intended to be essentially congregational in character, and this end has been kept in view both in the choice of tunes and in the manner of setting them out. Fine melody rather than the exploitation of a trained choir has been the criterion of selection: the pitch of each tune has been kept as low as is consistent with the character of the melody.
Where there is congregational singing it is important that familiar melodies should be employed, or at least those which have stood the test of time: therefore the 'specially composed tune'-that bane of many a hymnal-has been avoided as far as possible. There are already many hundreds of fine tunes in existence, so many indeed that it is impossible to include more than a small part of them in any one collection.
The task of providing congregations with familiar tunes is difficult; for, unfortunately, many of the tunes of the present day which have become familiar and, probably merely from association, popular with congregations are quite unsuitable to their purpose. More often than not they are positively harmful to those who sing and hear them. The committee were therefore placed in the hard position of having to decide whether they should risk momentary unpopularity by discarding certain tunes, or whether they should sacrifice the greater ultimate good for the lesser and more immediate advantage. The problem, however, solved itself in a happy and unforeseen manner because the insertion of several of the tunes in question was not allowed by the owners of the copyright. Thus the committee, while regretting that they are not able for a few years to