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We shall conclude our observations upon the Bengal Sepoys -with two quotations from the Supplement of Captain Williams's Memoir, which we give, first, as a fair specimen of the style and feeling in which this part of the work is written, and secondly, as memorable examples of what the European officers, who understand this class, can effect; and how possible it is to bring them to the highest state of discipline and yet preserve to the fullest degree their temper and attachment.
4 Proceeding from Culpee,' the author observes, when speaking of the force under Colonel Goddard, ' the detachment lost on the second day's march one of its most valuable officers, Captain James Crawford, commanding the fourth battalion, who died from a stroke of the sun. Connected with this unfortunate event, the following facts will doubtless be read with unfeigned sympathy and admiration. Captain Crawford had acquired the character of an excellent Sepoy officer, and the battalion which he commanded was considered as one of the finest in the service. The appellation of" Crawford," by which the fourth battalion was called by the men of the corps and the natives in general, was an exception to the practice that generally prevailed in former times, of calling corps by the name of the officer by whom they were formed, or that of the place at which they were raised.
'Captain Crawford was considered by the men as a rigid and, perhaps, severe disciplinarian; yet that excellent officer so happily blended with the strictest principles of military discipline and arrangement the practice of the most inflexible integrity and impartial justice, in the general exercise of the influence and powers of authority, combined with considerate and manly indulgence in regard to the religious habits, the customs and prejudices of the men under his command, that of Captain Crawford it may with truth be affirmed, he had the peculiar good fortune of verifying what ought to be the object and emulation of every military man, with regard to those under his command, the enviable distinction of commanding their lives through the medium of their affections. It is a fact no less creditable to Captain Crawford's memory than it is honourable to the character of the men whom he commanded, that during the halt of the detachment at the encampment where he was interred, (which continued for several days, owing to the severity of the weather,) all the corps, native officers and men* went from time to time to render their tribute of grateful attachment and affection, by making their obeisance, after the manner of their country, at the grave of their lamented commander; and on the day that the detachment moved forward from that encampment, the grateful and sorrowing "Crawford," after the battalion had been told off preparatory to the march, requested leave to pile their arms and be permitted, collectively, to go and express their last benedictury farewell over the remains
«f France and Batavia; may be adduced as complete proofs of the truth of tin's assertion. It formed a part of the able administration of the Marquis Wellesley to conciliate and attach the native tfoops by every possible means, and his attention was particularly and successfully directed to encourage them to volunteer for the foreign service. Lord Minto adopted similar measures with equal success.
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of their respected commander, protector, and friend. What soldier,' our author emphatically concludes,' can read this without exclaiming, May my last end be like his!'
The second proof which our author gives of the attachment of the native troops of Bengal force to their commanding officer, when his character is worthy of it, refers to an event nearly forty years subsequent, and we rejoice to see that time has made no alteration in the character of feelings that are honourable not only to those by whom they are entertained, but to human nature.
'Meritorious and indefatigable as were the exertions of all the officers who were employed in raising and forming the new corps, (24th, 25th, 26th, and 27th,) it will be no disparagement to them to declare that the 2d battalion of the 25th, under Captain Christie, surpassed the others by its more early appearance of military efficiency and perfection.
'Captain Christie was blessed with that happy beneficence of disposition which made it his constant practice and delight to blend paternal kindness and conciliation with the requisite authority as an officer. To use the words of an eye-witness, Captain Christie had raised, clothed, and disciplined the corps with all the tenderness of a parent and the pride and solicitude of a soldier; the commander and the men were proud of each other. But he had barely accomplished this first wish of his heart, in bringing the corps to maturity, when he was seized with a violent illness which in a few days deprived the corps and the service of a valuable and exemplary officer.
'Captain Christie died on the 30th of April, 1805, and was buried at Saintree, on the left bank of the Jumna, between Agra and Muttra. The native officers of the corps, so contrary to their customs and religious prejudices, solicited permission to carry the corpse of their beloved commander to the grave. The whole corps followed the mournful procession with a general countenance of affliction and grief, presenting one of the most affecting scenes I ever beheld. After the funeral ceremony, each Sepoy stepped forward to look into the grave, threw a clod of earth on the coffin, and retired in melancholy silence, the whole corps sorrowing in tears.'*
The novelty and interest of this subject have seduced us far beyond those limits which we had prescribed to ourselves in treating it; and we must therefore pass over those observations which we
* Further examples of this feeling are given in the work before us, and we could, from our own knowledge, adduce several proofs of similar attachment in the Sepoys of the other establishments; one will suffice. Major Thomas Little, of the Madras narive infantry, whose great kindness and mildness of manners were only equalled by his firmness and thorough knowledge of his duties as an officer, died last year, when the army was encamped in the ceded districts. His corps, a battalion of light infantry, had been reviewed a few days before his death, and was pronounced by the commander in chief, Sir T. Hislop, to he in the highest state of discipline; yet so well had this admirable Sepoy officer (we chuse the term as denoting peculiar duties) preserved the temper of his men, that not satisfied with mourning him they requested leave to erect a tomb to bit memory.
\ , purposed
purposed to make regarding the means best calculated to secure the continuance of the attachment of our native troops to their officers and to the service. This is however of less consequence, as the lesson is already conveyed through the facts which we have stated. It is by treating the Sepoys with kindness and consideration, by stimulating their pride, and by attending, in the most minute manner, to their feelings and prejudices, that we can command, as has been well observed,' their lives through the medium of their affections and so long as we can, by these means, preserve the fidelity and attachment of that proportion of the population of our immense possessions in the East, which we arm to defend the remainder, our empire may be considered as secure.
Akt. VII.—An Essay on the Principles and Construction of Military Bridges, and the Passage of Rivers in Military Operations. By Colonel Sir Howard Douglas, Bt. F.R.S. Inspector General of the Royal Military College. 8vo. London.
'I ""O ensure a lasting peace it is well that the nation should be prepared for a war—a preparation best made by scientific and timely investigations of the principles and character of those grand military movements which have, within the course of the last quarter of a century, so often agitated nations and subverted thrones. The common soldier, in time of need, is soon trained to his art. He needs but bring courage and strength, the heart and the hand, iu which Britons are seldom deficient. But the military art itself depends upon abstruse principles of science, which, though mechanically acted upon with success by many who are not even sensible of their existence, can only be perfectly understood by those who have traced them to their source. It is the duty of every man whose habits and talents may have rendered these researches familiar to him, to place the result within the reach and at the disposal of his country, that in the day of need she may avail herself of them;' in fact, great service is rendered to the world in general whenever the' use of military art can be brought to supersede that of brute force and violence, since it leads to the decision of campaigns rather by the superiority of intellect than by the amount of human slaughter. A skilful and gallant officer has here given us the result of his experience in accomplishing the passage of rivers, a manoeuvre which'is frequently decisive of the campaign; and to make good the proposition with which we started, we have only to contrast his ingenious and scientific application of pontoons, rafts, boats, piles, or tressels, with the summary proceeding of a barbarian general encountermg si similar obstacle. Mahomet, at the storm of Constantinople,
D n 3 found found a substitute in the bodies of his leading division for all the scientific expedients of the engineering art. His ideas on the principle and construction of military bridges are well explained by Joanna Baillie; they are somewhat rude and savage, it must be confessed, but they proved effectual; and, as Gibbon says,' the death of the devoted vanguard was more serviceable than the life.'
'Some thousand carcasses, living and dead, Of those who first shall glut the enemy's rage, Push'd in, pell-mell, by those who press behind, Will rear for us a bridge to mount the breach, Where ablest engineers had work'd in vain.' A work useful in itself comes with peculiar grace before the the subject and the duties of the author; and from an officer of Sir
Eublic when there is an especial propriety and connection between toward Douglas's rank and character, selected as he is to superintend the Royal Military College, we receive, with peculiar satisfaction, a practical manual, founded upon scientific principles, for facilitating some of the most important operations of war.
An invaded country may be protected either by a line of artificial fortifications, or by the natural barriers of mountains and rivers. It is against the last obstacles that invaders are usually obliged to contend; and the generals whose names stand highest in military annals have gained their fame as frequently by surmounting the natural difficulties opposed to their progress by rivers, and the defensive lines which they cover, as by victory in the open field. In these cases the necessity of forcing a passage, or establishing communications by military bridges, is so obvious, that the first hostile invader upon record, whom we take to have been no less a person than Milton's Satan, immediately proceeded to secure the advantages which he had gained, by establishing a military bridge extending from the gates of his own fiery dominions, through Chaos, to our own terrestrial globe. Sin and Death formed on this occasion the corps of pontooners, and their formidable operations are thus recorded.
'Deep to the roots of hell the gathered beach
They fastened, and the mole immense brought on,
Over the foaming deep, high-arched, a bridge
Of length prodigious, joining to the wall
Immoveable of this now fenceless world.'
The importance of Sir Howard Douglas's subject, in a military point of view, did not, indeed, require to be enhanced by quoting the example of the author of ' war and fighting' amongst us; but the case appears so strictly in point that we could not suppress it, especially as it seems to have escaped the gallant author's extensive researches. . .
To treat more gravely what is certainly of grave importance, we may remark, that until the Chevalier Du Buat published his treatises on Les Principes d'Hydraulique, the theory of running water (without an accurate knowledge of which the success of the engineer must be a mere matter of chance) was very ill understood. And the erroneous principles previously adopted by Gulielmini and others being still unfortunately enforced in several popular works, are likely to mislead such military men as have not made this branch of natural philosophy their particular study. These errors are happily exposed, and the principles of Du Buat applied and explained in the work before us. Sir Howard Douglas has traced with great accuracy, from the joint operations of sinuosities in the course of a river, combined with the hydraulic impulse of the stream, the effects of running water in forming depositions, and in altering or modifying the bed in which it flows, as well as upon any obstacle opposed to the progress of the current.
The following note contains a perspicuous and accurate statement of Du Buat's fundamental theorem, with a commentary by Sir Howard Douglas.
'M. Du Buat (vol. i. p. 63) gives the following expression for the velocity of running water.
V= S97fVr-0-0 _0 . 3 Wr_Q . ,}
»yb—hyp. log. >y b + 1 * 6'' Where V denotes the velocity of the water in inches, per second of time. r= the mean radius, which is the area of the transverse section of the
stream divided by its perimeter, both taken in inches. b = the distance in which the fall or descent of the running water is
-i: thus if the fall of a river is one foot per mile, or 1 inch in the
distance of 5280 inches, then -r is the fall, and b = 5280 inches. If
g = the velocity acquired by the perpendicular descent of a heavy body at the end of the first second of time; then, the motion of the
water being supposed uniform, g x r or -y will denote the accelerating force, relative to the slope -r (that force being as the velocity); and puttmg — for the resistance, we have — = ° , whence V=-^^,
where m is some function of «/r to be determined. This is Du Buat's fundamental theorem.
From many experiments with water running through different pipes, he finds the mean value of m to be 243 • 7 (Vr—0' 1) nearly, or is 243 • 7 r nearly, by neglecting 0 - 1: now g = 386 inches English
measure, whence m g = 386 x 243 " 7 r, and the equation V=^~
, 306 • 7 Jr Vb
becomes V= — •
n D 4 Du