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not displace the system of independent and from a few rich men, who thereby held banks;" or, as a more doubtful remedy for a mortgage upon every candidate they the circulation in the country districts, the helped to elect. The raising of this fund, he exemption of the Federal banks from the ten says, did not have for its object the preservaper cent. tax on circulation. Finally, they tion of Republican ascendency, since that urge all friends of reform “ to sink individual was not in danger; its only object, he alleges, preferences as to details, and insist that Con- was to secure the ascendency in the Repubgress shall enact such legislation as it may be lican party of the men and the corporations possible to agree upon." We wish that the who contributed and handled the funds. Recommittee had definitely proposed some spegarding the outcome he speaks as follows: cific acts of legislation on which its members in the coming Legislature the Manchester and believe agreement could be secured. We Milford Railroad Bill is to be defeated ; so are fear that this report in the form presented is
sented is all bills for electric railroads ; so is the bill to
disentangle the Supreme Court from railroad too tentative and too little dogmatic to be of
contests; any bill effectually prohibiting free practical effect in securing specific results in passes; the bill for electing Railroad Commis. legislation.
sioners by the people and making them the people's agents instead of the agents of the great railroad; and, moreover, the bill preventing fraud
and bribery in party caucuses. To accomplish Senator Chandler's con these objects, the great railroad has already furMoney in New tinued advocacy of bimetal.
nished its money and the Chairman has distrib. Hampshire Politics
uted the funds in order to control the Reprelism against the dominant
sentatives and Senators. sentiment of New Hampshire Republicans has developed a serious conflict between himself and the machine of which he was formerly esteemed the chief engineer. Senator
Senator Morrill's Death In recording the death
scale of Justin S. Morrill, Gallinger, the present head of the Republican “ the Father of the Senate," it is natural to State Committee, not long ago avowed his lay emphasis on the great length of his general opposition to Senator Chandler ; and political service; it is eminently true, howSenator Chandler has taken up the gauntlet ever, that this service was noteworthy for its by publishing two letters in the Manchester quality and patriotic spirit as weil as for its “Union” upon the money power in New duration. Senator Morrill had served in the Hampshire politics. In his first paper Mr. Congress of the United States in all for Chandler recalled that, in 1852, when Frank- forty-three years; from 1855 to 1867 he sat lin Pierce, a citizen of New Hampshire, was in the House of Representatives as a member elected President, the fund raised amounted from Vermont, first as a Whig and then as a to only a few hundred dollars, and nearly all Republican; in 1867 he was chosen to sucof it was contributed in five-dollar subscrip- ceed Senator Poland in the upper branch of tions. In 1860, when the Republican Wide Congress, and was from that time on re-elected awake Clubs made such a vigorous campaign, as each Senatorial term expired, one may say every member paid for his own uniform and almost without opposition; his latest rehis own expenses in going from place to election was in 1896. It cannot be doubted place. Practically this state of things con- that, in an unusually thorough and complete tinued until 1882, when candidates, and rail- sense, he represented the State of Vermont roads back of candidates, began to make during all this period. Senator Morrill's heavy contributions. These contributions, name will perhaps be most closely connected enslaving the parties receiving them, have in legislation with the Morrill Tariff Bill of continued from that time till this, though, as 1861; from his earliest political record until a rule, the amounts raised have not been his death Mr. Morrill was a consistent and large unless the Republican party was thought sincere protectionist of the thoroughgoing 10 be in danger. Last year, however, says and now rather old-fashioned type, caring Senator Chandler, when Senator Gallinger was little for theories of reciprocity or comproat the head of the State Committee, a fund mise, but standing firmly on the basic idea of was raised amounting to more than one dollar encouraging American manufactures by disfor every voter in the State, though there couraging importation; it is true, however, was no danger whatever of Democratic vic- that the bill which bears his name was not tory. Nearly all this money, he says, was in all points as radical or far-reaching as collected from the Boston and Maine Railroad some other bills which have been passed.
Apart from his record on the tariff question, manufacture all the liquor which it sells; and Senator Morri!l had to do with much impor if the courts uphold this construction, it will tant legislation. It is to him that the coun- be necessary for the State—which now has try owes the National support of agricultural prohibition—to build distilleries and brewcolleges, and the application of part of the eries before a dispensary can be opened. The proceeds of the sale of public lands for construction, however, seems unnatural, as educational purposes. To Mr. Morrill also, the obvious intent of the amendment was largely, was due the construction of the merely to prevent the private manufacture or new and splendid Congressional Library; sale of liquor within the State. This vicand he had much at heart a somewhat simi- tory in South Dakota, furthermore, accordlar plan, namely, that for the erection of a ing to the New York “Sun," is not the special and worthy building for the use of the only gain which the dispensary system has United States Supreme Court. It is to be recently made. In Georgia, where the plan hoped that this latter plan will sooner or was first tried in the college town of Athens, later take form; and the building might well it has been adopted in a score of towns and be in a way a memorial of the statesman counties. In Alabama also it is gaining a himself. Senator Morrill was a party man foothold, two counties having a dispensary in the better sense of the word; but he bill pending in the Legislature. never allowed his adherence to the Republican party to prevent the forming of an independent judgment on matters of public con
The greatest gain it
The Dispensary System cern. This was seen most notably in his
has made, however,
in South Carolina steadfast opposition to the annexation of
is in South Carolina, Hawaii; and it has been generally under. As our readers will recall, the dispensary stood that he was with equal earnestness, and law first encountered violent resistance from for the same reasons, opposed to anything the liquor-dealers and their sympathizers like permanent ownership of the Philippines. in some of the cities; and when Governor It is quite superfluous to say that Senator Tillman put down the disorders and reduced Morrill's character as a private citizen and the illicit traffic to a minimum unknown in any as a statesman was absolutely without blem- other State, a Federal judge (Judge Simonton) ish; in a career of public usefulness which restored the “blind tigers” by enjoining has rarely been matched in this country as to State officials from preventing the sale of liquor length and conscientious effort, not only did in " original packages "imported from other no breath of scandal ever for a moment at States. This decision was based upon the tach itself to his name, but the possibility of astonishing doctrine that the dispensary law such a thing would seem preposterous to any was not passed under the police powers of the one having the slightest knowledge of the State. Judge Simonton for months almost nu!man.
lified the State law by permitting liquor-dealers to import car-loads of loose packages of liquor,
some of them containing only a half-pint. The official count in His decision did not, however, keep the The Dispensary System South Dakota shows State officers from watching where these Gaining Ground
that the constitutional original packages were sold, and arresting amendment providing for a dispensary system dealers who allowed the contents of the packwas adopted by a majority of 1,613 votes. ages to be drunk on the premises. In this The total vote polled upon it was light; and way the law was kept half alive until last it is possible that its opponents may yet pre- March, when Judge Simonton's decision finally vent a trial of the new system by petitioning reached the Supreme Court, and his usurped for a referendum vote upon any law passed protectorate over the liquor traffic was to carry the amendment into effect. The brought to an end. “At the present time,” newly adopted clause reads as follows: "The says the article in the “Sun," - there is not an manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors original-package shop in the State, there are shall be under exclusive State control, and comparatively few blind tigers, the dispensary shall be conducted by duly authorized agents system has more friends than it ever had of the State, who shall be paid by salary and before, and al declare that it has come to not by commission.” Some of its critics stay. All efforts against it now look, not to insist that this wording requires the State to more whisky, but to prohibition." All the
liquor furnished to the million and more construct an underground railway to be run people of the State is bought at one of the in connection with its surface lines. Every. ninety-five dispensaries, and even there cannot thing seems now to be moving toward that outbe drunk on the premises. Citizens can still come. Last week the Rapid Transit Commisdrink what they want in their own homes, but sion appointed Comptroller Coler and one of tippling, treating, and loafing-places are prac- its old members, Mr. Reeves, a committee to tically things of the past.
draft a memorial to the Legislature explaining the present situation and outlining the
best and quickest way of obtaining the money Tbe Rapid Transit Com- necessary to build the tunnel. The CompThe Rapid Transit mission of New York City troller has definitely announced that he will
seems at last to have given not recede from his opposition to the issuLose Heart
up hope that the powers ance of public bonds. If, therefore, this that be in New York City politics will permit committee is to come to an agreement, it it to execute the order of the people to must be on the basis that the public, instead construct a municipal rapid-transit system. of paying three per cent directly upon the It will be recalled that the work of the bonds actually required for the construction Commission was at first blocked by a of the underground system, shall for an indecision of the courts that the route planned definite period pay something like five per would cost more than $50,000,000 and cause cent, upon all the bonds and stocks at which the city to exceed its constitutional debt. a private corporation can capitalize the enWhen the Commission modified its plan so terprise. Under the circumstances we can that the estimated cost came far within the hardly criticise the Commission ; but the attilimit set, and the plan received the assent tude of the city government, in its flagrant of the court, the work was blocked again violation of the will of the people in order to by the astonishing estimate of the new Tam. promote the interests of a corporation, forces many administration that the cost of every every one to question the supremacy of depublic work which the city had contracted to mocracy. do in the future was already a part of the city's indebtedness. The Commission denied the justice of this estimate, and also called
The most significant point in
New York public attention to the fact that New York
the first report of the New County had no indebtedness, and might
York Board of Education since under the Constitution issue bonds sufficient the consolidation is that the buying of school to construct the railway system. But, strong sites and the building and enlarging of schoolas the Commission's position was in the houses do not keep pace with the demands eyes of the general public, and mandatory of the children of school age, in spite of the as were its orders from the people, it has liberal expenditures of the past three years found that the hostility of the Tammany and the far-sighted plans of a most intellimachine to municipal construction involved gent Board of Education, whose plans have perpetual impediments. It will be recalled been defeated. This report clearly indicates that in the campaign in which Mr. Van Wyck what could be accomplished in the city of was elected over Mr. Low and Mr. Tracy, New York by sympathetic co-operation of
Tammany Hall, with hardly any men of wealth the Department of Education and the city among its avowed supporters, seemed to have government in the educational interests of the largest campaign fund of all the factions, the great metropolis. The report reveals No sooner was Mr. Van Wyck installed than the lack of uniformity in the methods, both the hostility of his administration to the work business and educational, in the five boroughs. of the Rapid Transit Commission seemed to The uniformity lies in the need for more point pretty definitely to the source of these school-houses, more teachers—the eligible campaign funds. These indications have supply is not equal to the demand-increase simply multiplied as time has gone on. A of salaries, more money for the kindergartens, few weeks ago Mr. Croker announced that manual training and night schools, and a the administration would support a rapid- free use of the buildings and grounds outside transit system built by private capital. Since of school hours. The report shows progress then it has been reported that the Metro- in every direction, and indirectly reveals an politan Street Railway system was willing to increasing knowledge of the whole department of education on the part of the people. tions which we tacitly assumed when we The future is promising because of past undertook to destroy Spanish authority in progress and the wrenching of the schools Cuba and at Manila. The moment we defrom political control—at least enough to stroyed the existing government in the islands arouse public feeling against their connection. under Spanish rule, we became morally bound
to provide the inhabitants with a government The recent brilliant military
at least as good; by this treaty we recognize A Great Railway
this obligation to them ay successes of the English in
and to the world. in Africa
Whether they add to our trade or not, they Africa are overshadowed
add to our duties-duties from which there by the magnitude and importance of their
is no escape except by a faithful and efficient colonizing and commercial activities. Eng.
performance of them. land is not only to have a highway from
It must be pretty clear, by this time, to all Cairo to the Cape of Good Hope, but she is
who dare look the facts fairly in the face, also to have a great railroad system-one of
that this duty cannot be performed by simply the most magnificent in its extent and its
leaving the government to the people of the possibilities yet devised. The success at Omdurman has removed many obstacles
islands. We cannot call them together in a
general election, based on universal suffrage, which stood in the way of the completion of
and ask them to frame their own constitution, the northern end of the line, and the work
organize their own government, elect their on the Tanganyika division is being pushed
own officers, and proceed to administer their with great energy. Within the next decade
own affairs. It would be quite unreasonable the completion of the road may be looked
to suppose that centuries of Spanish misrule for. This road will be only the main line of
would fit a people for so difficult a task. a great system which will ramify into all parts
The experience of the Spanish-American of the Dark Continent. When it is completed, this road will represent skill and daring on
Republics, and our own experience with the their highest levels of practical achievement;
negro race, furnish adequate demonstration
of the total inadequacy of such a method. for it is to pierce mountain-ranges and pene
Even if the people were both intelligent and trate dense and deadly swamps. Nearly 250
homogeneous, the difficulties would be great; miles of the road have already been built
but they are neither. They have been withfrom Mombasa through a desolate country.
out schools, and without that schooling which independence gives. They are divided by race lines into classes bitterly hostile to one
another. The riotings in Havana during these There is very little doubt that the treaty last two weeks, while Spanish rule has been with Spain will be ratified. It is hardly weakening and American rule not yet estabpossible that any amendments will be made, lished, indicate what a reign of terror would since an amendment would involve reopening be initiated if all external authority were at negotiations with Spain. It is conceivable once withdrawn from Cuba. Reports f:om the that the Cortes may refuse to ratify, but it is Philippines must be received with caution ; not conceivable that Spain should attempt to but it may at least be assumed as true that recover by war what she has reluctantly the Filipinos are divided into factions and abandoned by executive act, so that the only are quite unable to agree on any common practical effect of such a refusal by the Cortes policy, that the foreign residents in Manila would be to relieve us of the obligation of would have no security under any government paying her the $20,000,000 promised. It is which the Filipinos are at present able to probable that the Cortes will be wise enough establish, and that the Spanish prisoners in to see this, and, after some protest, will accept the camp of the Filipinos are being held as the terms which the Spanish Commissioners hostages in order to secure either a cash have so reluctantly conceded. What next? ransom or political concessions. It is clear,
This treaty will clearly make us responsi- under these circumstances, that America, ble for law and order in the Philippines; and after the treaty with Spain has been signed, the responsibility for Cuba will be as clear, cannot, if she would, escape the responsibility though not as distinctly avowed. The treaty, for protecting life and property in Manila, when ratified, will be our public and solemn preventing, if possible, any peril to the Spag. recognition, before all the world, of obliga. ish prisoners in the hands of our late allies,
After the Treaty, What?
and generally securing in both Cuba and the their subsequent exclusion will be a matter Philippines a substantial government where of the greatest difficulty. No person should hitherto the community has had to choose sign a petition for the appointment of any man between despotism and anarchy.
to public service unless such person would be It is of the first importance that this point willing to assume the responsibility for the of view of National honor, involved in the appointment if he had the power to make it. manner in which we fulfill our new National Every man should resist in his own locality obligations, should be recognized by the press the attempt to use the government service, and the pulpit and be by them urged upon the by means of such petitions, for the lame, the people. For in America public men neces- halt, and the blind. sarily reflect public opinion; and whether Nor is it enough to be innocent of office. our administration of government in Cuba, seeking for one's self or for others. More is Porto Rico, or the Philippines is one of demanded. Political indifference is responplunder or of justice will depend upon the sible for a larger proportion of America's question whether in the Nation the greed political sins than is any other culprit. One of the few is given a free rein by the indiffer- may argue with some degree of plausibility ence of the many, or whether the conscience in New York City that, if he prefers to suffer of the Nation is aroused and takes control the evils of a bad government rather than of our foreign policy. If it is to be aroused, assume the burdens involved in making it a the press and the pulpit have a serious work good one, he may do so—the argument is before them.
not sound, but it is sufficiently specious, unThe first thing for this conscience to de. fortunately, to satisfy, or at least to pacify, mand is a pure, capable, and trained civil a good many sleepy consciences. But no service for foreign administration. The American who has any conscience, or, indeed, counsel of Jethro to Moses is the counsel any sense of National honor, will argue that which America should give to its executive it is none of his business how the Nation, of department: “Thou shall provide out of all which he is a part, treats a dependent people. the people able men, such as fear God, men Whoever by his lazy indifference contributes of truth, hating covetousness, and place such to the continuance of Spanish methods in to be rulers." America has plenty of men the Spanish colonies, after they have passed who answer this description. From them under the American flag, will be particeps President McKinley appears to be making criminis. It was not the Spanish people, it his selections for Cuba and Porto Rico. But was the Spanish officeholders who robbed the pressure for place will soon become very the Cubans and the Filipinos, Spain is no strong. This pressure will come from the richer because her colonies were plundered; people, and from the people must come the but the world holds Spain responsible; and pressure which alone makes resistance to the the world is right. To abet a thief and not spoilsmen possible. It is now difficult to get eren share in his plunder is a folly as well as able and honest men in our home civil a crime. service. So many of a very different type We do not believe that government in have been pressed into this service that the either Cuba or the Philippines is to be perterm politician, which should be one of honor, manently administered by Americans. We has become one of reproach. The financial do not believe that it is, even in these first rewards are not large; promotion for efficient few months of occupation, to be exclusively service is rare; instead of honors are dis administered by Americans. How the cohonors. Young men train themselves for operation of the natives can be secured in a a mercantile, a legal, a medical, a minis. joint administration, and how thus gradually terial career, but not for a governmental a system of true self-government can be career, not only because they cannot be sure developed, are questions we may recur to of permanence of tenure, but because they are hereafter. Here we lay stress on the one sure that their tenure will be dependent on the phase which ever since the forerunners of war chances of politics and there are few games sounded the alarm last spring we have been in which chance plays so large a part. The emphasizing in successive issues of The same causes which have produced corruption Outlook : our National problem is not, How in our home civil service will produce it in can we escape National responsibilities ?--our foreign service, if they are allowed to that is cowardice; nor, How can we use other operate. If once admitted into that service, communities to build up our own ? — that is