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Americans in the Philippines misunderstandings and cause a great deal of To the Editors of The Outlook :

friction. Will it not, therefore, be wise for I have been and am a constant reader of our missionaries to make it an important The Outlook, and am much interested in part of their work to persuade as many as your several editorials on matters concern- possible of the people to learn and adopt the ing our newly acquired possessions, and English language? Spanish is now the offiespecially on the Philippines, while at the cial language in all these islands, but hereafter same time I blush at the arguments advanced English ought to be; and while the wrongs by some of your contributors in the same they have suffered from Spain are still fresh direction. I spent some five consecutive in their minds, the people will naturally be years in the Indian Archipelago, in Java more generally willing to make the change and Sumatra, while in the service of the than they may be if the proposition be too Dutch Government, and in the light of my long delayed. It seems to me that the adopexperience and of personal observations I tion of such a policy will help to minify or to cannot for the life of me understand how it solve all the problems connected with the is possible for a sensible, go-ahead American acquisition of these new regions, and will to suggest that the climate in the Philip- greatly benefit their people in many ways; pines is unfit for an American to live in and to which may be added that every extension exercise his brain, intellect, and physical of the English language pushes forward the powers, or that we have not within ourselves car of progress and strengthens the bonds of the qualities needed to rule over or guide a peace.

ALBERT GRIFFIN. race or races such as inhabit these islands. I have had much to do with the Malaya races,

From Turkey and, feeling quite at home in the Malayan To the Editors of The Outlook : language, I think that I am justified in claim- This station has recently received very ing a more than superficial knowledge of their welcome reinforcements. In July the Rev. habits, character, etc.; and I say without C. D. Ussher, M.D., came to us for both qualification that if they are kindly and yet medical and evangelistic work. During the firmly treated they are really lovable people. present month Mrs. Browne and Mrs. Gates As to the climate, it need have no terrors have returned to reconstitute their homes, and for a white man possessing self-control. Ex with them have come Misses Ellsworth and cesses of any kind will probably tell sooner Huntington for college and general work, in that climate than here; but if one will take and a Miss Hall has also come from Livercare of one's self, by which I mean to leave pool, at her own charges, to help in the care drink, excessive smoking, and other over- of orphans. These ladies waited in Conindulgence alone, there is no danger. A level. stantinople nearly three weeks for permission headed American can do as well in the Phil- to travel in the interior, and as this was not ippines as a ditto Hollander can in Java, or forthcoming, our Minister, Mr. Straus, aua ditto Englishman can in British India. thorized the party to come without permis

J. J. DE KINDER. sion, while he at the same time informed the Philadelphia.

Porte that if there was any detention on

account of the lack of the ordinary permit, Teach Them English

or any other damage on that account, the To the Editors of The Outlook :

Turkish Government would be called to acAs a large number of missionaries will count for it. Mr. Straus proved a very undoubtedly soon be sent to Cuba, Porto capable Minister at the Sublime Porte ten Rico, and the Philippines, it may not be out years ago, and he is likely to confirm his of place to suggest that one of the greatest previous record. This will depend, in part, difficulties with which they will have to con- upon the support which he has from Washtend will be the “foreign language" of our ington, especially in his demand for the paynew citizens and wards. Our officials, busi- ment of the long-delayed indemnity. ness men, and travelers will also meet the There is sure to be great suffering the same obstacle, which will lead to countless coming winter among the poor. For the past three winters we have been able to the Philippines is such that possession of them dispense relief, so that actual starvation has would make this country second only to Great been very rare. Now, however, there are no

Britain from the colonial point of view. relief funds in hand, while there is still a

(2) Charles Denby, late United States large class of widows and orphans and other

Minister to China, writes in the December belpless people left without any means of

“ Forum :" support, and while the price of grain is nearly

We annexed the Hawaiian Islands because the

time had come when we were compelled to assert twice as great as before. It seems pretty

our proper, patural, and legitimate influence in certain that the ranks of this class will be

the affairs of the world. These islands are a pretty well thinned this winter by actual stepping-stone to the Far East. If there were no starvation.

Asiatic Continent 3,500 miles away, and no Aus

tralia lying to the south, we should never have The distress of the poor farmers is aug.

thought of annexing the Hawaiian Islands. We mented by a cattle disease which is sweeping must annex the Philippines for the same reason. off nearly all the cattle in the villages. At They furnish us with a foothold by means of the time of the events of three years ago which we can assert our proper influence in Eastalmost all the cattle were carried away by

ern affairs; and their possession will benefit our

trade and commerce the Koords. Through the Red Cross and I have been told that this is a sordid view to other relief agencies a few cattle were fur- take; that a government should engage itself in nished to the farmers, and they have gradu

the effort to elevate man; that not commerce,

but man, is king. With all proper respect for ally added to the number until they had a

humanitarians, I must insist that the main object fair supply, but now they are almost as badly of government is to increase the material welloff as they were three years ago. Can you being of its people. Unless it does this, it is wonder that the farmers and the poor people worse than useless. ... Any administration

which will materially increase commerce will regenerally are much disheartened ?

ceive solid popular approval. . . . I reassert that The evangelistic work is prosperous, the it is our duty to intervene in all matters occur. greatest drawback being the lack of preachers ring abroad in which it is to our interest to interand teachers, on account of the departure of ve count of the derarture of vene. I mean our material interest-the interest

of our railroads, our merchants, our manufacso many to America.

turers, our ships, our trade, and our commerce. H. N. BARNUM.

The Boston « Herald," until recently one Harpoot, Turkey.

of the most conservative New England papers, Do These Prove that Commercialism is in says, December 15, 1898: the Saddle ?

The Philippine Islands is our stepping-stone to To the Editors of The Outlook:

China. We must join with England in endeavor

ing to maintain the open-door theory, and, if In replying to Dr. van Dyke's letter in

necessary, defend this theory by allied forcible your issue of December 17, you say:

action. As an Eastern Asiatic power as well as a

Western, we acquire rights which are fully equal (1) We have yet to read any editorial, speech,

to those of any other great powers. If, for reaor platform which proposes to abandon the

sons now unforeseen, it becomes necessary to American ideal of growth for the European ideal

abandon the “open door ” policy for the purpose of colonial conquest.

of special territorial possessions—though this is a (2) We have yet to see any sign anywhere in

conclusion which has to be looked upon only as American life of a desire to take a share in the

a last resort--we must not flinch from the re. possible division of the territories of the Eastern

sponsibilities thrown upon us, but, if need be for peoples or the extension of the American frontier

the purpose of holding and expanding our trade, by the sword.

and for the further and allied purpose of develop(1) The Burlington (Ia.) “ Hawk-Eye ” ing the industries and civilizing a great section of says :

the human race, we must demand our share, if

any future division is made of the Chinese EmThe traditional policy, if not a myth or a humbug, is at least an archaism, with no place in the dawn of the twentieth century. It is obsolescent

This is what the anti-expansionist calls as the flail, the hand-loom, and the stage-coach. imperialism. This spirit, which The Outlook The Chicago “ Inter-Ocean" says:

says it will fight, the anti-expansionist believes There are now eight colonial nations, all of them

to be at the bottom of the movement for European. They are, in the order of their colo

expansion. Here is an express disclaimer of nial importance, Great Britain, France, Germany, humanitarianism, the true ground of our rePortugal, Holland, Spain, Italy, and Denmark. sponsibility regarding the Philippines, and a Under the terms of peace a ninth nation should

frank avowal that the main object of seizing be added to the list. In colonial area and popu. lation the United States would still be compara.

the islands is purely mercenary. tively small, but the commercial importance of The editorial above quoted from the Chi.

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cago - Inter-Ocean" continues to the same sulting the divine will as to the future, but in effect:

what manner can be only conjectured. 2. No. American enterprise and genius for improving 3. Yes: see Matthew xvi., 28; John xiv., 18great opportunities fit us as a Nation for entering 23; John xiv., 3—the first referring to the the foreign field. With our immense home area initial stage of his coming to be the sovereign and population we need only the advantages abroad which the Philippines would give us to

spiritual power in the world; the second to become the greatest commercial power on earth, his coming to the faithful disciple in a conGreat Britain not excepted. . . . Supplementing sciously realized spiritual communion; the our Pacific coast and our possession of Hawaii, third probably to his personal reunion at their that group of islands would be the key to the

death with the friends then addressed.

de wealth of the Orient.

These expressions are from sources suffi- 1. Is there such a mountain on the island of ciently representative to show how widespread New Guinea as Mount Hercules, 32,000 feet high?

It was so given by a cyclopædia a year or two is this opinion. Westerners say that the

ago. 2. What is the opinion with regard to the same view is well-nigh universal in that sec Jews and their return to Jerusalem, and are they tion of the country which is most largely in to accept Christ then as their king? What is the favor of expansion, and where the President

Bible teaching for the above? 3. Can you sug.

gest any magazine articles or books beating on appears to have experienced his sudden

the above ?

J. G. M. change of heart on this question. The spirit

1. No. There is a Hercules Bay in New of commercialism requires that the United

Guinea, near which is Mount Albert Edward, States assume sovereignty over the Philip

12,500 feet high. No mountain in the world pines; humanitarianism does not. In the

is 32,000 feet high. 2. Those who bold, as we proposed treaty Spain cedes the Philippines to the United States, but merely renounces

do, that the world will ultimately acknowledge

Christ as its spiritual King, look, of course, her rights over Cuba. These facts the anti-expansionist believes

for the conversion of the Jews. The Bible furnish some evidence that commercialism is

teaching on this subject is summed up in

Romans xi., 25-27. Theories of the return in the saddle. Fred. L. NORTON. Westfield, Mass.

of the Jews to Palestine have no certain basis

of a Scriptural or other kind. 3. See “ The [Another correspondent sends us two ex

Jewish Question and the Mission of the tracts, one from the “Sun" and one from

Jew” (Harpers, New York, $1.75). the Boston “ Herald.” That from the New York “Sun” has decidedly both the military 1. Kindly tell me whether there is any possible and the commercial ring in it.—THE EDI. agreement between the doctrine of “ The Fall TORS.]

of Man" and “Evolution.” 2. Briefly, what is your estimate of “ The Ascent of Man" and the

Polychrome Bible as helps in getting at the Notes and Queries


E. M. S. NOTE TO CORRESPONDENTS.- It is seldom possible 1. By “the fall of man," as a theological to answer any inquiry in the next issue after its receipt. doctrine, is meant not only the fall of an Those who find expected answers late in coming will, in ze hoge, bear in mind the impediments arising from

individual called Adam, but, as involved the constant pressure of many subjects upon our lim. therein, the fall of all mankind as his posterted space. Communications should always bear the

ity, corrupted in and by him as their ancestor. writer's name and address. 1. Please give me the history of the Urim and

There is no possible compatibility of this Thummim mentioned three or four times in the notion with the evolutionary doctrine. Pro. Bible. 2. Do you think the Jews had much idea fessor George Adam Smith, of the Free of immortality and heaven previous to the Cap Presbyterian Church College in Glasgow, tivity? 3. Did Christ, according to Biblical ac

says that the so-called fall of man in Adam count, make any positive prophecy of another coming? If so, what is the reference ?

“marks a distinct advance from tribal ethics HONEST INQUIRER. to individual ethics.” 2. They are deservedly 1. The Urim and Thummim (literally sig. regarded as of great value. nifying “ lights” and “perfections ") were objects worn in the breastplate of the high

1. I want to know the dates and circumstances

of the origin of all the various Churches we have. priest along with the twelve gems engraved Please tell me what book, and where I can get with the names of the tribes. There is no it, will give me this plain, brief information. history of them after the time of David, but

I Am"? It has, I believe, Dr. Abbott's “Why I they belong to the earlier period of the am a Congregationalist.” 3. Where is the oldest Mosaic religion. They were used in cou: New Testament Greek Ms. extant, the date of

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which is known absolutely? 4. I should also like ence to the above question, answered only a to know the same about the Old Testament few weeks ago : Hebrew. 5. Have we any MS., Greek or Hebrew, that is known to have been written in the time

Permit me also to suggest Dean Plumtre's of Christ or earlier ?

M. C. M.

scholarly work in the Cambridge Bible Series,

which is particularly interesting from its abundant 1. Sanford's “ Concise Cyclopedia of Re- and suggestive appendices touching Shakespeare, ligious Knowledge" contains it all. So does Tennyson, and the Rubaiyát of Omar Khayyam. any good general cyclopædia. 2. Published (Macmillan Company, New York.)

A. D. W. by J. S. Ogilvie, New York. 3. In the Imperial Library of St. Petersburg is the Codex Allow me to ask the exact date on which the Sinaiticus, acknowledged as dating from the

twentieth century begins, and some of the reason.

ing in a condensed form by which you reach your fourth century. 4. In the same place, dating


A. 0. H. from A.D. 1000, is a Hebrew Old Testament

At midnight of December 31, 1900.. It is entire, and a Codex of the Prophets dating

evident that the years 1 to 100, inclusive, from A.D. 916. 5. No.

made up the first century; the years 101 to 1. What books would you recommend as helps

200, inclusive, the second century; the years for interpretative reading of the poets? 2. Be 1801 to 1900, inclusive, the nineteenth censide the “Memoirs," Van Dyke, and Stopford tury. If the year 100 were regarded as the Brooke, is there any valuable help in the study of Tennyson's "Maud "? 3. How does Henry

first year of the second century, the first would Mills Alden rank among recent theological have but ninety-nine years. writers ?

0. B.

Have the goodness to explain 1 John i., 8, 9, 1. See E. C. Stedman's “ Victorian Poets" and iii., 9.

- H. E. B. and “ Poets of America.” For earlier studies The contradiction which you seem to find see Courthope's “ History of English Poetry” here is only apparent. In the first text it is and Gosse's “ From Shakespeare to Pope.”

occasional, in the second habitual, sinning 2. No; except in the “Life of Tennyson,"

that is spoken of. There is all the difference where there is considerable. 3. Mr. Alden

that exists between sin in spite of and sin would not, as we think, class himself among

because of the bent of will and character. theological but among religious writers, and

This is plain from the context, iii., 7, 8, conis highly and deservedly esteemed as such.

trasting the righteous and the sinner as opThe theology underlying his religious writ.

posite types of character. Verse 9 means, ings is of the liberal evangelical type.

therefore, that the truly regenerate man is no

longer to be classed with sinners. What they Please inform me (1) as to the best books on

are he “cannot" be. church history, also (2) on the history of religions.

J. M. E. What books other than Dr. James Orr's have 1. For a sketch, see Allen's “Outline of been published in English on the Ritschlian Christian History” (Roberts Brothers, Bos

Theology ?

A. W. ton, 75 cents). For a full work see Fisher's Nothing of any account, we think, except “ History of the Christian Church " (Scrib- in periodicals. See articles on this subject ners. New York, $3.50). 2. Rawlinson's in the “ London Quarterly," Vol. LXXXVI., - Religions of the Ancient World” and the “ Methodist Review,” Vol. LI., the “ PresLees's “Mohammedanism” (Scribners, $1 and byterian Review," Vol. X., and one in the $1.50). Rhys-Davids's “Buddhism” (Pott. “New World,” Vol. VI., exhibiting Ritschl New York, $1.25), W. R. Smith's “ Religion as a case of “Kant's Influence in Theology." of the Semites” (Appleton, New York, $4), Having seen in The Outlook of November 5, Clarke's "Ten Great Religions” (Houghton, 1898, an inquiry by “M. E. D.” for “ The JuMifflin & Co., Boston, 2 volumes, $2 each). venile Choir” (an old singing-book), containing

songs some of which were, “O come, come Kindly tell me the best single work on the away from labor now reposing," “ Come to the book of Ecclesiastes-something that corre

sunset tree," I would say we have one in good sponds to Professor Genung's book on Job. I condition, published in New York in 1846. have Professor Moulton's book.

MARY A. PENNIMAN. W. H. B. 174 Central St., Athol, Mass. There is none that we esteem better than Besides the English edition of Saadi's “Gulithe Rev. Samuel Cox's volume in the Exposi

stan," referred to in The Outlook for December

31, there is an American edition, with a preface tor's Bible Series (Armstrong, New York). by Ralph Waldo Emerson, published in 1865 by A correspondent writes as follows with refer- Ticknor & Fields, Boston.

G. L. C.

For the Little People

Her Second Thought

sipped, until Mrs. Stuart wondered how such By Sydney Dayre

a wee bit of a pig could contain so much. " You pretty apple-blossoms,

It was on the next morning that Pigwigy Why do you fly away

demonstrated that he was indeed a superior Just when the spring is sweetest?

pig. We want you all to stay.

How Farmer Stuart laughed when, bright There's not a single flower

and early, he opened the back door of the More beautiful than you.

kitchen and saw, coming across the yard as O stay, because we love you,

fast as his shaky little legs would carry him, The whole long summer through."

Pigwigy, squealing lustily, “ A-wee-e-e, a-wee

e-e;" he seemed to say, “I'm-coming-toThe apple-blossoms whispered,

eat, I'm-coming-to-eat.” He did not stop Still sending down a shower :

at the door, but scrambled across the threshold, “ You darling little maiden,

and, taking an unsteady course, made for the We've bloomed our springtime hour. place by the stove where his bowl of milk If we too long should linger,

had been the night before. Once there he Our boughs would never hold

began to root his little nose about at a great For all the little children

rate. Big apples, red and gold.”

“Well, I swan !” exclaimed Farmer Stuart,

“that is an uncommon pig, I do declare !" The little maiden pondered

And he stood and watched while his wife As, pink and pearly white,

filled a bowl with warm milk for the little Came showering the petals

fellow. Upon her ringlets bright.

How Pigwigy ever found his way all alone She laughed and shook them lightly,

around the barn and across the yard, when And then looked up to say:

he had only been carried once to the kitchen "You sweetest apple-blossoms,

and back again, and then, too, in the depths Be quick and fly away.”

of an apron, was a mystery that no one

could explain except that he was an “uncomPigwigy

mon pig." By Clarence A. Jenks

After this Pigwigy came to the kitchen Pigwigy had his home on a ranch in Cali- door, as regular as clockwork, for his three fornia. He had little brothers and sisters meals a day. He began to grow, and was that looked very much like him. They were soon as fat and jolly as any pig. not just like him, however, for when Pigwigy P igwigy was very aristocratic. He would was only a day or two old one could plainly have nothing to do with the other members see that he was not so lively and so full of of his family, and seemed to feel that all mischief as were his little brother and sister other pigs were beneath the notice of such a pigs.

fine fellow as he, Pigwigy, who dined on the Farmer Stuart, who owned the ranch where fat of the land at his master's very back door. Pigwigy lived, said that Pigwigy would sure. So at night he carefully kept himself aloof ly die. But when Mrs. Stuart, whose mother in a certain warm corner of the pen, and at heart loved all the colts and calves and lambs the first sign of the break of day he would and everything else, saw him, looking so squeeze through the bars and scamper away miserable and so forlorn, off by himself in to the back door to await breakfast. If one corner of the pen, she declared that he breakfast was a little tardy, he would sit back should live, and, gathering him up in her big on his plump haunches and squeal in his very checkered apron, she carried him around the best hog Latin, “ Please—hurry—up." barn, across the yard, and into the kitchen. Pigwigy became the pet of the household.

The quantity of warm milk that Pigwigy He would follow Farmer Stuart's little boy managed to store up in his hungry stomach John about like a dog. When Johnny stopped that night was surprising; he sipped and to play, Pigwigy stopped too; if Johnny

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